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VOL.  I. 













BY    P.  AUSTIN    NUTTALL,  LL.  D. 


VOL.    I. 


M.DCCC.XL.   . 





OF    THE 



Endeavoured  by 

Thomas    Fuller,    D.D. 


Printed  by  J.  G.  W.  L.  and  W.  G.   MDCLXII. 


THE  "  History  of  the  WORTHIES  of  ENGLAND"  is  a  Work  univer- 
sally allowed  to  be  the  most  worthy  of  all  the  productions  of  the  witty 
and  learned  Fuller.  He  wrote  in  an  age  when  quaintness  and  humour 
were  appreciated  as  the  peculiar  characteristics  of  the  scholar,  the  bio- 
grapher, and  the  historian.  None  delighted  more  in  puns,  epigram,  and 
wit,  whether  worthy  or  unworthy,  than  the  worthy  Doctor ;  and  of  all 
the  various  works  enumerated  in  the  ensuing  Memoir,  his  "  WORTHIES," 
as  being  the  last  and  most  laboured  effort  of  his  pen,  are  not  only 
fuller  in  useful  matter  and  varied  interest,  but  (as  a  punster  of  his  own 
day  would  have  said)  fuller  in  spirit  and  fuller  in  wit ;  in  fact  Fuller 

"  Strong  without  rage,  without  o'erflowing/?/#," 

The  first  edition  of  Dr.  Fuller's  "  Worthies  "  was  published  posthu- 
mously, under  the  revision  and  superintendance  of  his  son,  by  whom  it 
was  especially  dedicated  to  "the  witty  monarch"  Charles  the  Second. 
It  appeared  in  1662,  in  one  folio  volume ;  and  it  certainly  presents  a 
curious  specimen,  as  compared  with  modern  times,  of  the  unsightly  ty- 
pography of  the  day,  and  of  the  difficulties  attending  the  publication  of 
extensive  works.  The  Editor  appears  to  have  been  compelled  to  dis- 
tribute the  copy  among  different  printers,  commencing  at  every  stage 
with  a  new  series  of  folios,  and  leaving  at  intervals  most  awful 
gaps  j  the  Work  being  thus  considered  of  too  vast  a  magnitude  for 
one  establishment  alone  to  undertake  !  "  The  discounting  of  sheets,  to 
expedite  the  work  at  several  presses  (says  the  Editor)  hath  occasioned 
the  often  mistake  of  the  folios."  At  the  same  time,  there  being  neither 
a  summary  of  Contents  to  the  volume,  nor  a  general  Index,  foe  fulness 
of  worthy  Fuller's  worth  was  not  fully  developed. 

In  1811,  a  new  edition,  in  two  volumes  quarto,  made  its  appearance, 
under  the  editorial  superintendance  of  Mr.  John  Nichols,  proprietor  of 
the  Gentleman's  Magazine,  with  which  the  Editor  was  many  years 
connected.  In  this  edition  Mr.  Nichols  has  occasionally  introduced 
some  useful  notes,  contributed  by  Sir  Egerton  Brydges,  Mr.  J.  Britton,  Sir 
Henry  Ellis,  Mr.  Alexander  Chalmers,  Mr.  Malone,  Dr.  Bliss,  and 
others,  as  well  as  by  himself.  Of  these  the  Editor  has  generally  availed 
himself;  but  many  of  Mr.  Nichols's  notes  appeared  so  jejune,  and 
at  the  present  time  so  inapplicable,  that  editorial  expurgation  be- 
came absolutely  necessarv.  For  instance,  there  could  be  little  interest  in 
informing  the  reader — aldermannic  gastronomy  being  no  longer  appre- 
ciated as  a  civic  accomplishment — that  Mr.  Nichols  perfectly  coincided 


in  opinion  with  Dr.  Fuller  on  the  "  important  topic  "  that  "  Coiv-heele  weU 
dressed  is  good  meat,  that  a  cook  when  hungry  may  lick  his  fingers 
after  it !"  (i.  p.  288)  ;  or  that  "  Suffolk  is  not  the  particular  county  which 
a  modern  epicure  would  select  for  the  finest  cheese  !"  Nor  did  the 
Editor  consider  it  necessary  to  reprint  the  innumerable  and  useless  re- 
ferences to  the  History  of  Leicestershire,  the  Gentleman's  Magazine, 
and  other  works  in  which  Mr.  Nichols  had  a  proprietary  interest. 
Neither  has  the  Editor  thought  proper  to  preserve  the  antiquated 
orthography,  the  vague  punctuation,  or  the  ridiculous  system  of 
italicising,  &c.,  so  peculiar  to  the  age  in  which  Fuller  wrote,  and 
which  Mr.  Nichols,  in  mere  imitation  of  a  semi-barbarous  system 
of  typography,  has  "  considered  most  advisable  to  preserve  pure 
and  unmixed !"  as  if  the  splendid  compositions  of  Shakspeare,  of 
Milton,  and  of  Dryden,  would  be  rendered  more  acceptable  to 
modern  times  by  being  clothed  in  the  vague  and  unintelligible  or- 
thography of  the  age  in  which  they  wrote.  Alas  !  "tempora  mutantur, 
et  mutamur  in  illis."  But  Mr.  Nichols  appears  to  have  been  so  much 
devoted  to  the  very  semblance  of  hoar  antiquity  as  even  to  copy  the  ac- 
knowledged or  self- evident  errors  of  Fuller's  edition.  Thus,  although 
the  author  expressly  points  out  and  apologizes  for  the  mistake,  the  Duke 
of  Monmouth  is  again  placed  under  the  county  of  Radnor  instead  of 
Monmouth  !  the  list  of  Errata  contained  in  the  .original  edition  is 
literally  reprinted,  without  the  errors  having  been  corrected !  the 
reference  to  Hatcher's  "MS.  eight,"  instead  of  "MS.  Catalogue," 
(i.  p.  142)  is  repeated !  the  typographical  blunders  occurring  in  Latin 
inscriptions  (as  "  in  omni  gradus,"  "  conjugi  sui/V  &c.  p.  143)  are 
faithfully  copied  !  the  counties  of  Anglesea  and  Brecknock  are  headed 
as  belonging  to  England  !  &c. 

In  producing  this  edition  of  a  valuable  standard  work,  the  Editor 
has  not  only  presented  it  to  the  Public  in  a  portable  and  modernized 
form,  but  he  has  also  appended  to  each  county  an  alphabetical  list  of  all 
the  celebrated  Worthies  connected  therewith,  who  have  flourished  since 
the  time  of  Fuller,  briefly  stating  for  what  they  have  been  distin- 
guished, with  the  respective  periods  of  their  births  and  deaths  j  and  to 
enable  the  reader  to  obtain  further  information  relative  to  any  parti- 
cular individual,  a  brief  summary  of  all  the  most  important  topographical 
works  connected  with  each  county  is  uniformly  annexed,  which,  it  is 
presumed,  will  be  found  extremely  useful  in  directing  and  facilitating  the 
inquiries  of  the  reader.  In  order,  moreover,  to  present  a  synoptical 
view  of  the  various  matters,  &c.  contained  in  the  work,  the  Editor  has 
prefixed  to  each  volume  a  minute  table  of  Contents,  which,  though 
given  in  a  very  condensed  form,  exhibits  at  one  view  all  the  differ- 
ent heads  comprehended  under  each  county ;  and  the  general  Indexes, 
which  have  been  compiled  with  some  labour,  will  afford  great  facility  in 
referring  to  any  subject  or  name  contained  in  the  three  volumes. 
Sept.  1840.  P.  A.  N. 


DR.  THOMAS  FULLER,  son  of  the  Rev.  Thomas  Fuller,  rec- 
tor of  Aldwinkle  St.  Peter  *  in  the  county  of  Northampton,  was 
born  there  in  1608.  The  chief  assistance  he  had  in  the  rudi- 
ments of  learning  was  from  his  father,  under  whom  he  made  so 
extraordinary  a  progress,  that  he  was  sent  at  twelve  years  of 
age  to  Queen's  College  in  Cambridge ;  Dr.  Davenant,  who  was 
his  mother's  brother,  being  then  master  of  it,  and  soon  after 
bishop  of  Salisbury.  He  took  his  degrees  in  Arts,  and  would 
have  been  fellow  of  the  college ;  but,  there  being  no  vacancy 
for  his  county,  he  removed  to  Sidney  in  the  same  university. 
He  had  not  been  long  there,  before  he  was  chosen  minister  of 
St.  Bennet's  in  the  town  of  Cambridge.  In  1631,  he  obtained 
a  fellowship  in  Sidney  College,  and  at  the  same  time  a  prebend  t 
in  the  church  of  Salisbury.  This  year  also  he  issued  his  first 
publication,  a  work  of  the  poetical  kind,  now  but  little  known. 
It  was  a  divine  poem,  entitled,  "  David's  Hainous  Sin,  Heartie 
Repentances,  and  Heavie  Punishment,"  in  a  thin  octavo. 

He  was  soon  after  ordained  priest,  and  presented  to  the  rec- 
tory of  Broad  Windsor  in  Dorsetshire ;  where  he  married,  and 
had  one  son,  but  lost  his  wife  about  1641.  During  his  retire- 
ment at  this  rectory,  he  began  to  complete  several  works  he 
had  planned  at  Cambridge ;  but,  growing  weary  of  a  country 
parish,  and  uneasy  at  the  unsettled  state  of  public  affairs,  he 
removed  to  London;  and  distinguished  himself  so  much  in  the 
pulpits  there,  that  he  was  invited  by  the  master  and  brother- 
hood of  the  Savoy  to  be  their  lecturer. 

*  To  which  he  had  been  presented  by  William  Cecil  earl  of  Exeter. 

f  He  styles  himself  Prebendarius  Prebendarides,  in  his  "  Appeal  of  injured  In- 
nocence," addressed  to  Dr.  Heylin,  folio,  part  iii.  p.  47  ;  a  book  recommended  to 
notice  by  Mr.  Granger  for  its  spirit  and  pleasantry. 



In  1640,  he  published  his  «  History  of  the  Holy  War ; »  which 
was  printed  at  Cambridge  in  folio. 

April  13,  1640,  a  Parliament  was  called  5  and  then  also  a  Con- 
vocation began  at  Westminster,  in  Henry  the  Seventh's  chapel, 
of  which  our  author  was  a  member.  He  continued  at  the  Savoy, 
to  the  great  satisfaction  of  his  people,  and  the  neighbouring 
nobility  and  gentry,  labouring  all  the  while  in  private  and  in 
public  to  serve  the  king.  To  this  end,  on  the  anniversary  of  his 
inauguration,  March  2J9  1642,  he  preached  at  Westminster  Ab- 
bey, on  this  text,  2  Sam.  xix.  30,  "  Yea,  let  him  take  all,  so 
that  my  lord  the  king  return  in  peace :"  which  sermon  being 
printed,  gave  great  offence  to  those  who  were  engaged  in  the 
opposition,  and  brought  the  preacher  into  no  small  danger.  He 
soon  found  that  he  must  expect  to  be  silenced  and  ejected,  as 
others  had  been ;  yet  desisted  not  till  he  either  was,  or  thought 
himself,  unsettled.  This  appears  from  what  he  says  in  the  pre- 
face to  his  "  Holy  State,"  which  was  printed  in  folio  that  same 
year  at  Cambridge. 

In  April  1643,  he  conveyed  himself  to  the  king  at  Oxford, 
who  received  him  gladly.  As  his  majesty  had  heard  of  his  ex- 
traordinary abilities  in  the  pulpit,  he  was  now  desirous  of  know- 
ing them  personally ;  and  accordingly  Fuller  preached  before 
him  at  St.  Mary's  church.  His  fortune  upon  this  occasion  was 
very  singular.  He  had  before  preached  and  published  a  sermon 
in  London,  upon  "the  new  moulding  Church  reformation/' 
which  caused  him  to  be  censured  as  too  hot  a  royalist :  and  now, 
from  his  sermon  at  Oxford,  he  was  thought  to  be  too  lukewarm : 
which  can  only  be  ascribed  to  his  moderation,  which  he  would 
sincerely  have  inculcated  in  each  party,  as  the  only  means  of 
reconciling  both.  He  resolved,  however,  to  recover  the  opinion 
of  his  fidelity  to  the  royal  cause,  by  openly  trying  his  fortune 
under  the  royal  army ;  and  therefore,  being  well  recommended 
to  Sir  Ralph  Hopton,  in  1643,  he  was  admitted  by  him  in  qua- 
lity of  chaplain.  For  this  employment  he  was  quite  at  liberty, 
being  deprived  of  all  other  preferment.  And  now,  attending 
the  army  from  place  to  place,  he  constantly  exercised  his  duty 
as  chaplain  ;  yet  found  proper  intervals  for  his  beloved. studies, 
which  he  employed  chiefly  in  making  historical  collections,  and 
especially  in  gathering  materials  for  his  "Worthies  of  England." 

How  assiduous  he  was  in  his  researches,  and  extensive  in  his 


correspondence,  for  that  purpose,  may  appear  in  his  Memorial- 
ist. This  author  informs  us,  that,  "  while  he  was  in  progress 
with  the  king's  army,  his  business  and  study  then  was  a  kind  of 
errantry ;  having  proposed  to  himself  a  more  exact  collection 
of  the  Worthies  General  of  England;  in  which  others  had  waded 
before,  but  he  resolved  to  go  through.  In  what  place  soever 
therefore  he  came,  of  remark  especially,  he  spent  most  of  his 
time  in  views  and  researches  of  their  antiquities  and  church 
monuments ;  insinuating  himself  into  the  acquaintance,  which 
frequently  ended  in  a  lasting  friendship,  of  the  learnedest  and 
gravest  persons  residing  within  the  place,  thereby  to  inform 
himself  fully  of  those  things  he  thought  worthy  the  commenda- 
tion of  his  labours.  It  is  an  incredible  thing  to  think  what  a 
numerous  correspondence  the  Doctor  maintained  and  enjoyed 
by  this  means.  Nor  did  the  good  Doctor  ever  refuse  to  light 
his  candle,  in  investigating  truth,  from  the  meanest  person's 
discovery.  He  would  endure  contentedly  an  hour  or  more  im- 
pertinence from  any  aged  church  officer,  or  other  superannuated 
people,  for  the  gleaning  of  two  lines  to  his  purpose.  And  though 
his  spirit  was  quick  and  nimble,  and  all  the  faculties  of  his  mind 
ready  and  answerable  to  that  activity  of  despatch  ;  yet,  in  these 
inquests,  he  would  stay  and  attend  those  circular  rambles  till 
they  came  to  a  point ;  so  resolute  was  he  bent  to  the  sifting  out 
of  abstruse  antiquity.  Nor  did  he  ever  dismiss  such  adjutators 
or  helpers,  as  he  pleased  to  style  them,  without  giving  them 
money  and  cheerful  thanks  besides.* 

After  the  battle  at  Cheriton  Down,  March  29,  1644,  lord 
Hopton  drew  on  his  army  to  Basing  House ;  and  Fuller,  being 
left  there  by  him,  animated  the  garrison  to  so  vigorous  a  defence 
of  that  place,  that  Sir  William  Waller  was  obliged  to  raise 
the  siege  with  considerable  loss.  But  the  war  hasten- 
ing to  an  end,  and  part  of  the  king's  army  being  driven  into 
Cornwall  under  Lord  Hopton,  Fuller,  having  leave  of  that 
nobleman,  took  refuge  at  Exeter ;  where  he  resumed  his 
studies,  and  preached  constantly  to  the  citizens.  Du- 
ring his  residence  here,  he  was  appointed  chaplain  to  the 
.princess  Henrietta  Maria,  who  was  born  at  Exeter  in  June  1643  ; 
and  the  king  soon  after  gave  him  a  patent  for  his  presentation 

*  Life  of  Dr.  Fuller,  p.  27. 
b    2 

xii  MEMOIRS    OF    THE    AUTHOR. 

to  the  living  of  Dorchester  in  Dorsetshire.     He  continued  his 
attendance  on  the  princess,  till  the   surrender  of  Exeter  to  the 
parliament,  in  April  1646  ;  but  did  not  accept  the  living,  because 
he  determined   to  remove  to  London  at  the  expiration  of  the 
war.     He  relates  an  extraordinary  circumstance  which  happened 
during  the  siege  of  Exeter.*     "  When  the  city  of  Exeter/'  says 
he,  "  was  besieged  by  the  Parliamentary  forces,  so  that  only  the 
south  side  thereof  towards  the  sea  was  open  to  it,  incredible 
numbers  of  larks  were  found  in  that  open  quarter,  for  multitude 
like  quails  in  the  wilderness ;    though,  blessed  be  God,  unlike 
them  in  the  cause  and  effect ;  as  not  desired  with  man's  destruc- 
tion, nor  sent  with  God's  anger  :  as  appeared  by  their  safe  di- 
gestion into  wholesome  nourishment.     Hereof  I  was  an  eye  and 
mouth  witness.     I  will  save  my  credit  in  not  conjecturing  any 
number ;  knowing  that  herein,  though   I  should  stoop  beneath 
the  truth,  I  should  mount  above  belief.     They   were  as  fat   as 
plentiful ;  so  that  being  sold  for  two-pence  a  dozen  and  under, 
the  poor  who  could  have  no  cheaper,  and  the  rich  no  better 
meat,  used  to  make  pottage  of  them,  boiling  them  down  therein. 
Several  causes  were  assigned  hereof,  &c. ;  but  the  cause  of  causes 
was  the  Divine  Providence,  thereby  providing  a  feast  for  many 
poor  people,  who  otherwise  had  been  pinched  for  provision." 
When  he  came  to  London,  he  met  but  a  cold  reception  among 
his  former  parishioners,  and  found  his  lecturer's  place  filled  by 
another.     However,  it  was  not  long  before  he  was  chosen  lec- 
turer at  St.  Clement's  Lane,  near  Lombard  Street ;  and  shortly 
after  removed  his  lecture  to  St.  Bride's  in  Fleet  Street. 

In  1647,  he  published,  in  4to.,  "  A  Sermon  of  Assurance* 
fourteen  years  ago  preached  at  Cambridge ;  since,  in  other  places  5 
now,  by  the  importunity  of  his  friends,  exposed  to  public  view." 
He  dedicated  it  to  Sir  John  Danvers,  who  had  been  a  royalist, 
was  then  an  Oliverian,  and  next  year  one  of  the  king's  judges  ; 
and  in  the  dedication  he  says,  that  "  it  had  been  the  pleasure 
of  the  present  authority  to  make  him  mute ;  forbidding  him  till 
further  order  the  exercise  of  his  public  preaching." 

About  1648,  he  was  presented  to  the  perpetual  curacy  of 
West  Waltham,t  otherwise  called  Waltham  Abbey,  in  Essex, 
by  James  Hay  earl  of  Carlisle,  whose  chaplain  he  was  just  be- 

*  See  p.  443  of  the  present  volume. 

t  Newcourt  dates  this  preferment  in  1640 Repertory,  vol.  II.  p.  631. 

MEMOIRS    OF    THE    AUTHOR.  Xlll 

fore  made.  He  spent  that  and  the  following  year  betwixt  Lon- 
don and  Waltham,  employing  some  engravers  to  adorn  his  copi- 
ous prospect  or  view  of  the  Holy  Land,  as  from  Mount  Pisgah ; 
therefore  called  his  "  Pisgah-sight  of  Palestine  and  the  confines 
thereof;  with  the  history  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament  acted 
thereon/5  which  he  published  in  1650.  It  is  a  handsome  folio, 
embellished  with  a  frontispiece  and  many  other  copper  plates, 
and  divided  into  five  books. 

As  for  his  "  Worthies  of  England/5  on  which  he  had  been  la- 
bouring so  long,  the  death  of  the  king  for  a  time  disheartened 
him  from  the  continuance  of  that  work ;  "  For  what  shall  I  write/5 
says  he,  "  of  the  Worthies  of  England,  when  this  horrid  act  will 
bring  such  an  infamy  upon  the  whole  nation,  as  will  ever  cloud 
and  darken  all  its  former,  and  suppress  its  future,  rising  glories  ? 
He  was  therefore  busy,  till  the  year  last  mentioned,  in  prepar- 
ing that  book  and  others  ;  and  the  next  year  he  rather  employed 
himself  in  publishing  some  particular  lives  of  religious  reformers, 
martyrs,  confessors,  bishops,  doctors,  and  other  learned  divines, 
foreign  and  domestic,  than  in  augmenting  his  book  of  English 
Worthies  in  general.  To  this  collection,  which  was  executed 
by  several  hands,  as  he  tells  us  in  the  preface,  he  gave  the  title 
of  "Abel  Redivivus/'  and  published  it  in  4to,  1651. 

And  now,  having  lived  above  twelve  years  a  widower,  he 
married  a  sister  of  the  viscount  Baltinglasse  about  1654;  and 
the  next  year  she  brought  him  a  son,  who,  as  well  as  the  other 
before  mentioned,  survived  his  father. 

In  1656,  he  published,  in  folio,  "The  Church  History  of  Bri- 
tain, from  the  birth  of  Jesus  Christ  to  the  year  1648;"  to 
which  work  are  subjoined,  "The  History  of  the  University  of 
Cambridge  since  the  Conquest/5  and  "  The  History  of  Waltham 
Abbey  in  Essex,  founded  by  king  Harold,"  His  Church  His- 
tory was  animadverted  upon  by  Dr.  Heylin  in  his  "  Examen 
Historicum;55  and  this  drew  from  our  author  a  reply;  after 
which  they  had  no  further  controversy,  but  were  very  well  re- 

A  short  time  before  the  Restoration,  Fuller  was  re-admitted 
to  his  lecture  in  the  Savoy,  and  on  that  event  restored  to  his 
prebend  of  Salisbury. 

He  was  chosen  chaplain  extraordinary  to  the  king ;  created 
Doctor  of  Divinity  at  Cambridge  by  a  mandamus,  dated  August 
2,1660;  and,  had  he  lived  a  twelvemonth  longer,  would  pro- 

xiv  MEMOIRS    OF    THE    AUTHOR. 

bably  have  been  raised  to  a  bishopric.  But,  on  his  return  from 
Salisbury  in  August  1661,  he  was  attacked  by  a  fever,  of  which 
he  died  the  16th  of  that  month.  His  funeral  was  attended  by 
at  least  two  hundred  of  his  brethren  ;  and  a  sermon  was  preached 
by  Dr.  Hardy,  dean  of  Rochester,  in  which  a  great  and  noble 
character  was  given  of  him. 

In  1662,  was  published  in  folio,  with  an  engraving  of  him  * 
prefixed,  his  "History  of  the  Worthies  of  England."  This 
work,  which  was  part  of  it  printed  before  the  author  died,  seems 
not,  in  the  lives  or  characters  in  some  of  the  counties,  especially 
of  Wales,  so  finished  as  it  would  probably  have  been,  if  he  had 
lived  to  see  it  completely  published.  It  is  entitled,  "  The  His- 
tory of  the  Worthies  of  England :  Endeavoured  by  Thomas 
Fuller,  D.D.  folio,  1662 :"  with  a  sculpture  of  his  effigies  pre- 
fixed, engraved  by  David  Loggan,  having  this  inscription  round 
it,  "Tomas  Fuller,  S.  T.  D.  set.  53,  1661 ;"  this  motto  at  top, 
"  Methodus  Mater  Memorise ;"  and  $iese  verses  at  bottom  : 

"  The  Graver  here  hath  well  thy  face  designed  : 
But  no  hand,  FULLER,  can  express  thy  mind ; 
For  that,  a  resurrection  gives  to  those, 
Whom  silent  monuments  did  long  enclose." 

Being  a  posthumous  publication,  it  was  dedicated  to  king 
Charles  the  Second,  by  the  author's  son,  Mr.  John  Fuller,  a 
young  divine  of  Cambridge,  in  the  following  terms  : 


"  Most  dread  Sovereign : 

" The  tender  of  these  ensuing  collections  is  made  with  as  much 
fear  and  reverence,  as  it  was  intended  with  duty  and  devotion 
by  the  author  whilst  living.  The  obligation  that  lieth  upon  me 
to  endeavour  him  all  right,  forced  me  unto  this  presumption. 
It  is  the  first  voice  I  ever  uttered  in  this  kind ;  and  I  hope  it  will 
be  neither  displeasing  to  your  Majesty,  or  blamed  by  the  world  ; 
whilst  (not  unlike  that  of  the  son  of  Croesus)  it  sounds  loyalty 
to  my  sovereign,  and  duty  to  my  father.  The  matter  of  this 
work,  for  the  most  part,  is  the  description  of  such  native  and 
peculiar  commodities  as  the  several  counties  of  your  kingdom 
afford,  with  a  revival  of  the  memories  of  such  persons  which 
have  in  each  county  been  eminent  for  parts  or  learning.  If 
this  age  abound  with  the  like,  it  is  their  glory;  if  not,  the  pe- 
riod? .is,^;  Portrait  of  him  in  a  small  quarto  size,  taken  at  an  earlier 
period  of  his  l.fe,  his  right  hand  on  a  book,  prefixed  to  his  "  Abel  Redivivus." 


rusal  may  perhaps  beget  in  them  a  noble  emulation  of  their 
ancestors.  May  your  Majesty's  reign  be  happy  and  long,  to 
see  your  country's  commodities  improved,  and  your  worthies 
multiplied  !  So  prayeth, 

Your  Majesty's  meanest  subject, 

The  Author's  orphan, 


And  in  a  preface  the  reader  is  thus  addressed  : 

<e  Reader, — thou  hast  here  presented  to  thy  viqw  a  Collection 
of  the  Worthies  of  England ;  which  might  have  appeared  larger, 
had  God  spared  (my  dear  father)  the  author  life.  At  his  death 
there  remained  unprinted,  the  bishopric  of  Durham,  the  coun- 
ties of  Derby,  Dorset,  Gloucester,  Norfolk,  Northampton,  Nor- 
thumberland, Nottingham,  Oxford,  Rutland,  with  part  of  Kent, 
Devonshire,  and  the  cities  of  London  and  Westminster;  which 
now  at  length  (according  to  the  copy  the  author  left  behind  him, 
without  the  least  addition,)  are  made  public. 

(( It  is  needless  here  to  acquaint  thee  with  the  nature  of  the 
work,  it  being  already  fully  set  down  in  the  first  sixteen  sheets 
thereof.  Yet  thou  mayest  be  pleased  to  take  notice,  that  (al- 
though the  title  promiseth  thee  only  the  History  of  the  Wor- 
thies of  England)  in  the  end  there  is  added  a  short  description 
of  the  Principality  of  Wales.  The  discounting  of  sheets  (to  ex- 
pedite the  work  at  several  presses)  hath  occasioned  the  often 
mistake  of  the  folios.*  Whatever  faults  else  occur  in  this  im- 
pression, it  is  my  request,  that  thou  wouldest  score  them  on  my 
want  of  care  or  skill  in  correcting  the  same,  that  they  may  not 
in  the  least  reflect  on  the  credit  of  my  dead  father. 


This  book,  though  never  wholly  reprinted,  has  been  partly 
revived  in  epitomes  of  the  whole  ;t  or  dividedly,  in  a  work,  geo- 
graphical, historical,  and  political,  whereof  the  second  part  is 
abstracted  from  these  lives.  J 

Besides  the  works  already  mentioned  in  the  course  of  this 
memoir,  Dr.  Fuller  was  the  author  of  several  others  of  a  smaller 
nature;  as,  1.  «  Good  thoughts  in  Bad  Times:"  2.  "Good 

*   This  apology  of  course  applies  only  to  the  original  edition. 

t  "  England's  Worthies,  in   Church  and  State,  &c.  1684,"  8vo. 

+  "  An  Historical  Dictionary  of  England  and  Wales,  &c.  1692,''  8vo. 

xvi  MEMOIRS    OF    THE    AUTHOR. 

Thoughts  in  Worse  Times."  These  two  pieces,  printed  separately, 
the  former  in  1645,  the  latter  in  1647,  were  published  together 
in  1652.  He  afterwards  published,  in  1660-3,  "  Mixed  Con- 
templations in  Better  Times."  4.  "Andronicus:  or  The  Unfor- 
tunate Politician.  Lond.  1649,"  Svo.  5.  « The  Triple  Recon- 
ciler; stating  three  controversies,  viz.  whether  ministers  have 
an  exclusive  power  of  barring  communicants  from  the  sacra- 
ment; whether  any  person  unordained  may  lawfully  preach; 
and  whether  the  Lord's  Prayer  ought  not  to  be  used  by  all 
Christians,  1654,"  8vo.  6.  "The  Speech  of  Birds;  also  of 
Flowers  ;  partly  moral,  partly  mystical,  1660,"  Svo. 

He  published  also  a  great  many  sermons,  separately  and  in 

Dr.  Fuller  was  in  his  person  tall  and  well  made,  but  no  way 
inclining  to  corpulency;  his  complexion  was  florid;  and  his 
hair  of  a  light  colour  and  curling.  He  was  a  kind  husband  to 
both  his  wives,  a  tender  father  to  both  his  children,  a  good 
friend  and  neighbour,  and  a  well-behaved  civilized  person  in 
every  respect.  He  was  a  most  agreeable  companion,  having  a 
great  deal  of  wit ;  too  much,  as  it  should  seem,  since  he  could 
not  forbear  mixing  it  in  his  most  serious  compositions. 

Of  the  powers  of  his  memory,  such  wonders  are  related  as 
are  not  quite  credible.  He  could  repeat  five  hundred  strange 
words  after  twice  hearing ;  and  could  make  use  of  a  sermon 
verbatim,  if  he  once  heard  it.  He  undertook,  in  passing  from 
Temple  Bar  to  the  furthest  part  of  Cheapside,  to  tell  at  his  re- 
turn every  sign  as  it  stood  in  order  on  both  sides  of  the  way, 
repeating  them  either  backwards  or  forwards  ;  and  he  did  it  ex- 
actly. His  manner  of  writing  is  also  reported  to  have  been 
strange.  He  wrote,  it  is  said,  near  the  margin  the  first  words 
of  every  line  down  to  the  foot  of  the  paper ;  then,  by  beginning 
at  the  head  again,  would  so  perfectly  fill  up  every  one  of  these 
lines,  and  without  spaces,  interlineations,  or  contractions,  would 
so  connect  the  ends  and  beginnings,  that  the  sense  would  appear 
as  complete,  as  if  he  had  written  it  in  a  continued  series  after 
the  ordinary  manner. 

It  was  sufficiently  known,  how  steady  he  was  in  the  Pro- 
testant religion,  against  the  innovations  of  the  Presbyterians 
and  Independents  ;  but  his  zeal  against  these  was  allayed  with 
greater  compassion  than  it  was  towards  the  Papists  ;  and  this 
raised  him  up  many  adversaries,  who  charged  him  with  puritan- 


ism.  He  used  to  call  the  controversies  concerning  Episcopacy, 
and  the  new-fangled  arguments  against  the  Church  of  England, 
"insects  of  a  day;"  and  carefully  avoided  polemical  disputes, 
being  altogether  of  Sir  Henry  Wotton's  opinion,  "  disputandi 
pruritus,  ecclesise  scabies."  To  conclude,  whatever  exceptions 
may  be  made  to  him  as  a  writer,  he  was  a  man  of  great  good- 
ness, and  an  ornament  to  the  times  in  which  he  lived. 

These  memoirs  shall  be  closed  by  an  extract  from  his  Life  in 
the  ee  Biographia  Britannica ; "  comprehending  an  analysis  of 
"The  Worthies,"  and  a  vindication  of  the  author. 

"  The  subject  matter  of  the  book  is  distributed  under  the  se- 
veral counties  of  England  and  Wales  ;  each  division  beginning, 
first,  with  the  commodities,  products,  and  other  particulars  most 
eminent  and  remarkable  in  each  county  ;  whether  waters,  mine- 
rals, plants,  animals,  manufactures,  buildings,  battles,  proverbs, 
&c. ;  — then  the  Worthies  born  or  residing  therein,  marshalled 
under  their  respective  ranks  or  professions ; — the  whole  contents  of 
each  county  ending  with  tables  of  the  Gentry  that  were  therein 
in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Sixth ;  and  a  list  of  the  Sheriffs, 
for  several  kings'  reigns,  down  to  king  James  or  king  Charles 
the  First,  with  their  arms  described,  and  places  of  abode.  Pre- 
fixed to  the  whole,  is  a  copious  Introduction,  in  near  twenty 
sheets,*  divided  into  many  chapters ;  distinctly  treating  of  this 
grand  and  comprehensive  plan,  the  matter,  order,  and  style, 
&c.,  shewing  how  methodical  and  uniform  he  has  been  through- 
out;  also  apologizing  for  any  defects  that  may  have  escaped  his 
pen,  and  answering  many  objections  which  might  be  made  to 
any  part  thereof,.  But,  as  the  heads  of  those  preliminary  dis- 
courses will  best  explain  the  contents  of  the  book,  and  display 
as  well  the  variety  as  the  grandeur  of  the  undertaking ;  and  as  a 
recital  of  them  will  give  the  most  ready  command  of  the  whole 
scheme,  to  those  who  would  only  be  informed  or  reminded 
thereof ;  or  such  as  may  be  inclined  to  revive  the  author  in  a 
more  correct  edition,  or  give  us  a  continuation  or  any  other  im- 
provement of  his  model;  the  said  heads  are  therefore  here 
offered  to  their  consideration,  as  follow : 

CHAP.  I.    Contains  the   general   design;  wherein,    as   learned 
Camden  and  painful  Speed,   with  others,  have  described  the 

*  In  the  present  edition  making  109  pages. 

xviii  MEMOIRS    OF    THE    AUTHOR. 

rooms  in  that  convenient  structure,  to  which  he  compares 
this  nation  ;  so  he  intends  to  describe  the  furniture  of  them, 
in  the  most  signal  products  and  persons  of  distinction,  adorn- 
ing the  same :  to  these  five  ends  :  1.  To  gain  some  glory  to 
God  :  2.  To  preserve  the  memory  of  the  dead :  3.  To  pre- 
sent examples  to  the  living  :  4.  To  entertain  the  reader  with 
delight :  5.  And  lastly,  to  procure  some  honest  profit  to 

CHAP.  II.  Of  the  National  Commodities ;  as  the  manufactures, 
wonders,  buildings,  local  proverbs,  medicinal  herbs,  waters, 

III.  The  first  Quaternion  of  Persons ;  Princes,    Saints, 

Martyrs,  and  Confessors. 

IV.  Of  Popes,  Cardinals,  and  Prelates,  before  the  Refor- 

V.  Of  Popes,  &c.  since  the    Reformation. 

*VI.  Of  our  Statesmen ;  as  Chancellors,  Treasurers,  Se- 
cretaries of  State,  Admirals,  and  Deputies  of  Ireland. 

VII.  Capital  Judges,  and  Writers  of  the  Common  Law. 

VIII.  Soldiers  and  Seamen ;  with  the  Necessity  of  en- 
couraging our  Fishery. 

IX.  Of  Writers   on   the  Canon  and  Civil  Law ;  Physic, 

Chemistry,  and  Surgery,  &c. 

X.  Other  Writers ;  in  Divinity,  Philology,  and  Philo- 
sophy, History,  Music,  and  Poetry ;  also  on  Popery,  £c. ;  with 
a  complaint  of  the  number  of  needless  Books. 

XI.  Of  Benefactors  to  the  Public,  with  a  recommen- 
dation of  choice  charities;  under  the  heads  of  Churches, 
Free-schools,  Colleges,  and  Alms-houses ;  with  a  distinction 
of  Benefactors  since,  from  those  before,  the  Reformation. 

XII.  Of  Memorable  Persons ;  or  such  as  were  extraor- 
dinary for  stature,  strength,  age,  fertility,  &c. 

XIII.  Lord  Mayors  of  London. 

— -  XIV.  Catalogues  of  the  Gentry  under  Henry  the  Sixth ; 
why  inserted. 

XV.  Of  the  Sheriffs. 

XVI.  Of  the  Sheriffs'  Arms. 

XVII.  Observations  on  Surnames  being  often    altered, 

and  variously  written. 

XVIII.  Of  Modern  Battles. 


CHAP.  XIX.  Of  the  Shires,  and  why  the  Worthies  are  digested 
under  them. 

XX.  Of  the  Surnames  of  Clergymen,  and  that  their  sons 

have  been  as  successful  as  others  ;  with  his  expedient,  where 
several  places  claim  the  birth  of  one  person. 

XXI.  Other  general  rules  and  distinctions  for  the  author 

and  reader's  ease ;  as  his  use  of  the  word  Ampliendum,  ex- 
pressing a  want  of  fuller  intelligence ;  and  his  use  of  S.  N. 
signifying  second  nativity :  that  is,  when  a  Worthy  whose  na- 
tive country  is  not  known,  he  is  historized  under  that  which 
was  his  place  of  residence ;  and  by  the  abbreviation  REM. 
which  implies  removeable,  upon  better  information  :  also  his 
rule  for  ranking,  under  some  one  head,  persons  who  have  a 
claim  to  several. 

XXII.  The  Precedency  of  several  Professions  adjusted. 

XXIII.  Of  the  Authorities  from  whence  the  work  is  de- 

XXIV.  Concerning   his  double  division   of  the  English, 

according  to  their  nation  and  profession. 

XXV.  General   exceptions  against  the  style  and  matter 

of  the   author  prevented ;  by  his  propositions  of  and  answers 

to  them,  being  twenty-four  in  number. 
XXVI.  An  apology    for    the    involuntary    omissions  in 

this  book. 

The  whole  volume,  in  the  original  edition,  contains  more 
than  a  thousand  pages;  and  seems  to  have  been  not  quite  finished 
at  the  end. 

Though  our  author  was  very  diligent  (as  hath  been  attested 
in  p.  xi.)  in  collecting  his  materials  for  this  work ;  yet,  when 
several  parts  of  it  were  written,  he  had  the  disadvantage  of  being 
unsettled,  remote  from  proper  libraries,  and  intelligent  conver- 
sation, being  as  it  were  a  travelling  writer,  and  forced  to  leave 
blank  spaces,  especially  for  dates ;  wherein  he  has  sometimes 
modestly  left  his  reader  rather  uninformed  than  misinformed ; 
and  sometimes  again  filled  them  up  conjecturally,  and  without 
any  supposed  need  of  nice  recollection,  as  he  designed  to  be 
more  exact  upon  better  opportunities  of  examination ;  in  several 
whereof  he  was  prevented  by  death.  But  though  he  looked 
upon  dates  as  so  many  little  sparkling  gems  in  history,  that 
would  reflect  the  clearest  and  most  sudden  light  a  great  way  off, 


he  still  found  or  thought  them  very  slippery  ware,  liable,  by  the 
smallest  and  most  imperceptible  variations,  to  lead  us  greatly 
astray  from  truth ;  and  speaks  of  Chronology,  in  one  of  his  books, 
as  of  a  little  surly  animal,  that  was  apt  to  bite  the  ringers  of 
those  who  handled  it  with  greater  familiarity  than  was  absolutely 
necessary;  yet  he  knew  there  was  no  giving  any  satisfac- 
tory intelligence  without  it,  especially  in  the  writing  of  lives. 
But,  indeed,  an  accurate  regard  to  the  directions  thereof  was 
little  in  use  with  any  writers  in  this  particular  branch  of  history 
at  those  times ;  as,  among  many  others,  may  be  observed,  to  go 
no  further,  in  the  author  of  his  own  life,  whose  deficiencies 
we  have  here  been  at  much  trouble  to  supply ;  one  instance 
only  whereof  is,  that  though  he  gives  us  the  titles  of  almost  all 
Fuller's  books,  and  their  sizes,  he  has  not  given  us  the  date  of 
one.  But  it  was  a  general  or  fashionable  neglect,  especially  in 
the  more  polite  and  ornate  writers,  as  if  they  thought  that  arith- 
metical figures  would  look  like  so  many  scars  in  the  sleek  face 
of  their  rhetorical  phrase.  But  what  our  author,  in  apology 
for  himself,  has  ingeniously  observed  further  on  this  topic,  we 
refer  to  his  own  words,  in  one  or  two  of  the  chapters,  whereof 
we  have  before  given  the  heads.  As  to  the  historical  particu- 
lars of  these  lives,  no  man  could  pretend  to  be  very  circumstan- 
tial, in  a  work  that  proposed  to  revive  the  famous  men  in  a 
whole  nation ;  such  an  undertaking  can  or  should  give  but  a 
general  and  compendious  view  of  them.  Suppose  here  are 
eighteen  or  twenty  hundred  eminent  persons  characterized,  much 
after  the  manner  of  those  in  his  te  Church  History ;  "  to  have 
given  a  general  satisfaction  in  all  parts  of  the  lives,  actions,  and 
works,  of  one  or  two  only  in  every  hundred,  might  have  required 
more  eyes,  hands,  and  years,  than  nature  allowed  this  author ;  and 
perhaps  more  abilities,  knowledge,  or  information,  than  could 
be  justly  pretended  to,  by  any  of  his  ungrateful  cavillers.  Then 
for  the  errors  that  must  unavoidably  occur  in  the  revival  of  such 
multitudes  in  all  ages,  our  author's  own  apology,  as  it  will  be 
equally  needful  to  any  other  compiler  of  a  numerous  collection 
of  lives,  is  here  produced  from  his  own  words,  upon  some  ob- 
ec  tions  made  to  Mr.  Fox  the  Martyrologist,  as  follow :  "  It  is 
impossible  for  an  author  of  a  voluminous  book,  consisting  of 
jseveral  persons  and  circumstances,  (reader,  in  pleading  for  Mas- 
ter Fox  I  plead  for  myself,)  to  have  such  ubiquitary  intelligence, 


as  to  apply  the  same  infallibly  to  every  particular."*  But  there 
is  no  winning  the  favour  of  those  who  think  they  have  a  licence 
for  detraction,  and  may  spoil  an  author  with  impunity,"  when 
he  is  incapable  of  self-defence,  both  of  his  reputation  and  his 
labours.  Thus  we  may  see  some  very  rash  censurers  superfi- 
cially read,  who  have  often  pronounced  their  anathemas  upon 
many  other  historians,  from  the  titles  only  of  their  writings,  and 
sometimes  without  having  ever  seen  so  much  as  them,  treating 
him  also  like  those  who  cannot  be  content  with  shearing  the 
inoffensive  prey  that  is  free-yielding  of  his  wool,  but  they  must 
butcher  him  too  :  for  surely  few  have  been  so  much  pillaged 
who  have  been  so  much  disparaged ;  he  has  been  reproached 
for  his  ingenuity  by  those  who  have  no  wit ;  and  robbed  of  his 
knowledge  by  those  who  have  no  gratitude.  Bishop  Nicolson, 
who  was  too  censorious  upon  Dr.  Fuller's  Church  History,  will 
also  run  the  hazard  of  recrimination  upon  this.  Our  author 
began  his  "  Worthies  of  England  "  when  he  was  chaplain  to 
the  Lord  Hopton  ;  and  it  was  his  chief  study,  or  mostly  under 
his  consideration  by  intervals,  for  near  seventeen  years,  as  it 
may  be  from  this  account  computed ;  but  the  bishop  says  it 
was  huddled  up  in  haste.  Our  author  mentions  (as  we  have 
quoted  in  p.  xviii.)  five  reasons  for  publishing  this  book ;  but,  as 
if  he  had  nothing  more  than  a  mercenary  motive  therein,  the 
bishop  has  sunk  four  of  them,  and,  quoting  but  the  last,  induced 
you  to  believe  it  was  only  for  the  procurement  of  some  mode- 
rate profit  to  .the  author  :  and  yet  not  quoted  this  honestly. 
The  bishop  says,  it  corrects  many  mistakes  in  his  "  Church  His- 
tory ; "  but  our  author  was  acquainted  with  few  mistakes  till  a 
little  time  before  he  died,  and  then  had  little  leisure  or  room 
to  correct  many,  when  the  greatest  part  of  his  "  Worthies  "  was 
printed  off.  The  bishop  says,  that  Fuller's  chief  author  is  Bale, 
for  the  lives  of  his  eminent  writers ;  and  he  must  have  been 
his  also,  if  he  had  wrote  in  Fuller's  time  of  the  writers  Bale 
has  given  account  of,  when  Leland  was  not  published ;  unless 
he  would  rather  have  followed  Bale's  Popish  plagiary.  But  a 
great  part  of  the  writers  in  Fuller  lived  and  wrote  since  Bale, 
therefore  he  had  many  other  authorities  for  his  writers,  as  may 
be  sufficiently  seen  in  his  work.  And  whether  our  author  has 
given  more  mis-shapen  scraps,  or  lies,  as  they  are  called,f  of  his 

*  See  the  present  volume,  in  Berkshire,  p.  127. 
t  Nicolson's  Historical  Library,  fol.  1736,  p.  6. 

xxii  MEMOIRS    OF    THE    AUTHOR. 

heroes,  than  the  bishop  of  his  historians,  those  may  best  judge 
who  have  read  the  one  and  the  other :  but  if  the  bishop  would 
have  undertaken  to  reform  or  rectify  both,  it  might  have  been 
more  acceptable,  as  well  as  more  discreet,  than  to  revile  an  au- 
thor so  extravagantly  as  to  vilify  himself.  In  short,  notwith- 
standing these  hasty  and  immoderate  aspersions,  the  characters 
or  memorials  here  assembled  of  so  many  great  men,  will  always 
make  the  book  necessary  to  be  consulted;  especially  as  there 
are  preserved  therein  abundance  of  lives  then  first  or  newly 
written,  and  nowhere  else  to  be  had ;  which  have  been  of  good 
service  to  many  grave  writers  of  substantial  credit,  even  in  his- 
tory, antiquities,  and  heraldry ;  who,  wanting  neither  the  judg- 
ment nor  justice  in  themselves  which  they  might  covet  in  their 
own  readers,  knew  how  to  make  proper  uses  of  his  work,  and 
acknowledgments  for  what  they  drew  from  it,  without  turning 
executioners  upon  every  trivial  oversight,  or  expressing  any 
grievance  at  his  humour  or  his  wit.  But,  since  his  character 
has  been  so  much  degraded  by  some,  it  will  be  but  equitable  to 
shew  that  it  has  been  no  less  exalted  by  others ;  and  as  he  has 
bestowed  a  grateful  remembrance  upon  many  poets,  we  have 
met  with  a  retribution  that  has  been  attempted  by  one,  in  a 
panegyric  upon  biography  in  general,  and  this  biography  in  par- 
ticular. It  was  freely  communicated  from  the  author's  original 
in  the  possession  of  a  late  nobleman,  who  was  a  signal  patron 
to  some  of  the  greatest  poets  and  other  ingenious  men  in  his 
time  ;  and  since  it  has  never  been  published ;  since  it  is  entirely 
suitable  in  this,  as  it  may  be  partly  serviceable  in  any  other,  col- 
lection of  illustrious  men  ;  or  may  in  some  part  be  no  less  ap- 
plicable to  any  other  compiler,  than  to  every  peruser  of  such 
collections,  we  shall  here  present  it  as  follows,  faithfully  in  its 
own  language,  without  any  apology  for  its  length. 



Here,  from  Fame's  wardrobe,  you  may  dress  to  please, 
In  suits  adorned,  and  shaped  to  all  degrees  ; 
Each  genius  hence  may  graceful  habits  take  ; 
No  mind  so  warp'd,  some  mould  won't  straighter  make. 
Patterns  that  best  become  you  still  prefer, 
Without  some  wearing,  they  to  ruin  wear ; 
Some  patterns  yet,  like  tarnish'd  lace,  are  worn, 
And  now  disguise  what  once  they  did  adorn ; 
Then  be  not  servilely  a  slave  to  those : 
Reform  their  fashions,  but  refrain  their  clothes. 

By  the  best  chemic  skill,  their  gifts  combin'd 
May  so  concocted  be,  and  so  refin'd; 
May,  through  your  works,  so  undistinguished  wreathe, 
As  incense  rich,  from  holy  altars  breathe  ; 
Till,  so  the  blended  aromatics  rise, 
In  grateful  gales,  to  greet  the  deities, 
That  we  perceive  no  frankincense  exhale, 
No  cassia  here,  or  storax  there  prevail ; 
Nor  this,  can  myrrh,  that  ambergrise  can  call ; 
But  one  strong,  curling  odour,  spires  from  all ; 
So  when  such  sweets  you  from  these  flowers  have  hiv'd, 
From  each  they  differ,  as  from  all  deriv'd. 

Choose  then  with  prudence,  in  your  choice  proceed, 
Till  those  you  follow,  you're  improv'd  to  lead. 
The  object  equal  to  the  human  mind, 
And  most  instructive,  must  be  human  kind. 
Read  manly  books  then,  books  of  men,  and  so, 
That  you  proceed  to  do  the  best  you  know. 
Peruse  such  lives,  or  parts,  as  you  can  live  ; 
It  is  the  practice  must  perfection  give. 
Souls,  in  which  samples  great,  no  semblance  breed, 
Like  cold  and  hungry  soils,  but  rot  the  seed ; 
Or,  like  weak  stomachs,  with  strong  food  oppress'd, 
By  that  ne'er  nourished,  which  they  ne'er  digest. 
For  as  your  meals  should  suit,  to  thrive  aright, 
Your  constitution  and  your  appetite ; 
So  your  examples  should  proportion' d  be, 
Both  to  your  power,  and  your  capacity. 

Some  seek  their  minds  with  marvels  to  replete, 
And  taste  no  objects  they  should  emulate  : 
Of  things  incredible,  experience  saith, 
The  feeblest  judgments  have  the  firmest  faith : 
Such,  in  admiring,  still  those  hours  destroy, 
They  in  excelling  only  should  employ. 

Some  think,  distemper' d  times  less  heal'd  may  be, 
By  wise  men's  woes,  than  fools'  felicity  : 
Think  not  that  fortitude  grows  more  unsound, 
By  vice's  balsam,  than  by  virtue's  wound  : 
That,  without  deeds,  words  hold  no  lasting  height, 
Unbodied  feathers  wanting  nerves  for  flight : 

While  airy  sounds  soon  lose  their  empty  name, 

Surviving  record  is  substantial  fame, 

To  boundless  forms,  some,  crude  collections  breed, 

And  write  a  life  would  waste  a  life  to  read  ! 

With  griping  hands,  some  shrink  up  life's   short  span, 

And  to  a  mite  epitomize  a  man ! 

Others  add  streams,  to  rivers  swolu  too  high, 

While  drowned  pastures  unrecover'd  lie  ; 

Prop  those  who  boast  superfluous  aids  to  stand, 

While  crowds  deserted  most  their  aid  demand  ! 

The  aim's  more  lofty,  th'  art  in  more  esteem, 

To  save  the  sinking,  than  sink  those  who  swim. 

Thus,  upon  others'  lives  their  own  are  lost, 

Or  least  devoted,  where  deserved  most. 

But  worse,  desert  in  others  there  is  known, 

Where  none  from  others,  or  themselves,  is  shown ; 

Whose  memory  of  the  good,  the  learn'd,  the  brave, 

Should  be  their  monument,  and  is  their  grave. 

But  victories  o'er  death  must  be  renown'd ; 
Triumphs  like  those  must  through  fame's  clarion  sound  ; 
His  victors  should  her  richest  trophies  wear, 
To  fame  who  rescue  what  the  fates  won't  spare, 
Garlands  shall  crown  their  works,  that  cannot  fade ; 
The  lights  they  rend  with  lustre  be  repaid. 
Who  noblest  do,  most  nobly  must  deserve  ; 
Great  who  perform,  but  greater  who  preserve  •. 
If  virtue  most  directs,  which  most  dilates, 
The  draught  excels,  that  most  communicates  ; 
Such  copy  spread  thus  durably  to  all, 
Begets  more  virtue  than  th'  original : 
'Tis  an  original ;  it's  own  outvied  ; 
Where  life  less  copied  is,  than  multiplied ; 
And  when  they  are  deathless  made,  who  long  since  died. 
Thus,  when  a  hero  is  compar'd  to  you, 
Th'  historian  is  the  hero  of  the  two  ; 
The  brave,  learn'd,  good,  more  efficacious  grown, 
In  your  immortal  lives,  than  in  their  own. 

Your  merit  is,  who  labour'd  hath  so  much, 
Such  to  revive,  to  be  revived  as  such : 
Our  shame  is, in  your  WORTHIES  to  be  read, 
Till  one  at  least  each  to  their  number  add : 
Till  we,  your  WORTHIES  reading,  such  shall  turn, 
As  sacred  relics  sanctify  the  urn  : 
Till  they,  through  you,  dart  influential  worth, 
As  stars,  though  fixt  in  heaven,  shine  down  on  earth. 

Phoebus,  the  sire  of  your  resplendent  wit, 
Who  blinds  all  brightness,  must  to  yours  submit : 
He,  only  in  th'  horizon,  gilds  our  day, 
You  here,  though  set,  your  glory  still  display. 



CHAP.  I.  -  Design  of  the  Work    1 

CHAP.  II.— On  the  real  topics  insisted  on  in  the  respective  Counties:  Native 
Commodities ;  Manufactures  ;  Medicinal  Waters  ;  the  Wonders  ;  Buildings  ; 

Local  Proverbs  ;  Medicinal  Herbs 3 — 8 

CHAP.  Ill Of  the  first   quaternion    of   Persons:    Princes;     Saints;    Martyrs; 

Confessors 9—14 

CHAP.  IV. — Of  Popes,  Cardinals,  and  Prelates  before  the  Reformation  . .     15—20 

CHAP.  V. — Of  Popes,  &c.  since  the  Reformation    21 

CHAP.  VI. — Of  Statesmen  :  Lord   Chancellors  ;  Lord  Treasurers  ;  Secretaries  of 

State ;  Admirals  ;  Lord  Deputies  of  Ireland 22 — 27 

CHAP.  VII — Of  Capital  Judges,  and  Writers  on  the  Common  Law    28 

CHAP.  VIII Of  Soldiers  and  Seamen,  with  the  necessity  of  encouraging  the  trade 

of  fishing    30 

CHAP.  IX. — Of  Writers  on  the  Civil  and  Canon   Law,   Physic,  Chemistry,   and 

Chirurgery 34 — 36 

CHAP.  X. — Of  Writers  on  Philology,  Divinity,  and  History ;  Musicians  ;   Romish 

exile  Writers  ;   number  of  needless  Books 37 — 42 

CHAP.  XI — Of  Benefactors  to  the  Public :  Builders  of  Churches ;  Free  Schools 
and  Colleges  ;  Bridges  ;  Alms-houses  ;  Choice  Charities  recommended ;  Bene- 
factors since  and  before  the  Reformation;  on  the  word  "  Reformation  "  43 — 54 

CHAP.  XII.— Of  Memorable  Persons    55 

CHAP.  XIII — Of  Lord  Mayors  of  London 56 

CHAP.  XIV — On  the  Catalogue  of  Gentry,  and  the  general  method  pursued . .     58 

CHAP.  XV.— Of  Shire-Reeves,  or  Sheriffs    60 

CHAP.  XVI — Of  the  Coats  of  Arms  to  those  who  have  been  Sheriffs . .     65 

CHAP.  XVII.— On  the  frequent  alterations  in  the  spelling  of  Surnames 70 

CHAP.  XVIII On  Modern  Battles 71 

CHAP.  XIX. — On  the  number  of   Shires  or  Counties  in  England,  and  why  the 

Worthies  in  this  Work  are  arranged  according  to  Counties    72 

CHAP.  XX — Why  Clergymen  formerly  carried  the  register  of  their  Birth-place  in 
their  Surnames,  &c. ;  expedient  when  several  persons  claim  the  birth  of  the  same 

person ;  success  attending  the  Children  of  Clergymen     72 — 80 

CHAP.  XXL— General  Rules  for  the  convenience  of  the  Author  and  Reader :  of 
Dates  ;  Apology  for  Qualifications  used,  and  Blanks  left  in  this  History ;  on  the 
signification  of  "  AMPLIANDUM,"  or  «*  AMP.  ;"  of  "  S.  N.  ;"  and  of  "  REM." 
or  "  REMOVE  ;"  method  of  ranking  the  respective  Personages  introduced  into 

this  Work 81 86 

CHAP.  XXII. — On  the  Precedency  of  Persons  and  Professions    86 

CHAP.  XXIII — On  the  Authorities  from  which  the  Work  has  been  derived  . .  89 
VOL.  I.  c 


CHAP.  XXIV On  the  Division  of  the  English  Gentry    92 

CHAP.  XXV On  the  Style  and  Matter  of  the  Author 99 

CHAP.  XXVI. Apology  for  involuntary  Omissions;  a  Corollary  on  the  reciproca- 
tion of  "  Alumnus  " 107—109 


Boundaries,  &c.  110.— Natural  Commodities:  Oaks,  Bark,  Trouts,  110,  ill.— 
Manufactures:  Clothing,  111. —Buildings :  Proverbs,  112.  —  Princes,  121.— 
Saints:  Margaret  and  Alice  Rich,  St.  Edmund,  123,  124.— Martyrs  :  Anth. 
Persons,  Robt.  Testwood,  Henry  Fillmer,  Julius  Palmer,  124-126 — Confessors: 
John  Marbeck,  Robt.  Benett,  126, 127. — Cardinals,  127 — Prelates  :  Wm.  of  Read- 
ing, John  de  Bradfield,  Rich.  Beauchamp,  Tho.  Godwin,  Tho.  Ramme,  Wm.  Laud, 
128,  129 — Statesmen  :  Sir  J.Mason,  Sir  Tho.  Smith,  130,  131 — Soldiers  :  Henry 
Umpton,  131.— Writers  :  Hugh  of  Reading,  Roger  of  Windsor,  Robt.  Rich,  Rich, 
of  Wallingford,  Henry  Bullock,  Wm.  Lyford,  Tho.  Hyde,  132-135.— Benefactors  : 
Alfred  the  Great,  Peter  Chapman,  John  Kendrick,  Rich,  Wightwick,  135,  136 — 
Memorable  Persons:  Tho.  Cole,  John  Winscombe,  136,  137 — Lord  Mayors, 
137— Gentry,  138 — List  of  Sheriffs;  with  notices  of  Will.  Briewere,  Philip  de 
Marton,  Fulco  de  Breantree,  Rog.  Episc.  Covent.  et  Lich.,  Phil,  de  la  Beach, 
Tho.  Chaucer,  Tho.  Wikham,  Joh.  Gowfre,  John  Howard,  Humph.  Foster, 
Rob.  Harecourt,  John  Basket,  Wm.  Essex,  Francis  Inglefield,  John  Williams, 
Henry  Norrice,  Edw.  Unton,  Besilius  Fettiplace,  Rich.  Lovelace,  and  Sir  J. 
Darell,  141-160. — Battles  :  Newbury,  161.— The  Farewell,  162.— Worthies  since 
the  time  of  Fuller,  and  topographical  Works  relative  to  the  County,  162,  163. 


Boundaries,  Soil,  &c.   164.— Natural  Commodities  :  Barley,  Malt,  Fuller's-earth, 

Larks,    164,    165 Manufactures:    Buildings  :  Wonders :     Proverbs,    166.— 

Princes:  Margaret  Beaufort,    167.— Saints:  Arnulphus,    168 Martyrs:  Thos. 

Chase,  ib — Prelates  :  Silvester  de  Everton,  #.— Capital  Judges,  and  Writers  of 

the  Law:  Sir  John  Cokeyn,  Edm.  Wingate,  169 Writers:  John  of  Dunstable, 

Geo.  Joy,  Francis  Dillingham,  Wm.  Sclater,  169-171.  —  Benefactors  to  the 
Public:  Sir  Wm.  Harper,  Henry  Grey,  Francis  Cleark,  172,  173.— Memorable 
Persons,  173 — Lord  Mayors:  Gentry,  174.— List  of  Sheriffs;  with  notices  of 
Rich.  Basset,  Henry  de  Essex,  David  Archidiaconus,  Rob.  de  Braybrook,  Hen. 
Braybrook,  Edvard.  filius  Hen.  III.,  Tho.  Hoo,  John  Wenlock,  Sir  John  St. 
John,  Wm.  Gascoigne,  John  Mordant,  Wm.  Windsor,  Francis  Russel,  Oliver 

St.  John,  Wm.  Dormer,  176-190.— The  Farewell,  190 Worthies  since  the  time 

of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the  County,  191. 


Boundaries,   &c.    192.— Natural   Commodities:    Beech,  Sheep,    Tame  Pheasants, 
192,  l93._The  Manufactures,  193.— Proverbs,  194,—Saints  :  St.  Edburg,  St.  Ru- 

ald,  194,  195 — Martyrs:  John  Scrivener,  196 Prelates  :  Rich,  de  Wendover, 

John  Buckingham,  John  Young,   John  Holyman,  John  Harley,  Robt.  Aldrich, 
M  m.  Alley,  Rich.  Cox,  Thos.  Bickley,  John  King,  Rich.  Montague,  Henry  King, 
lOl.-Writers  on  the  Law:    Sir  Geo.  Crook,  Edw.  Bulstrode,  202,  203.- 
ir  Wm.  Windsor,  Arthur  Gray,  203,  204.— Writers  :  Roger  de  Wen- 
dover, John  Amersham,  Matt.  Stokes,  Walter  Haddon,   Laur.  Humphred,   Roger 


Goad,  John  Gregory,  Sam.  Collins,  Wm.  Oughtred,  205-209.  —  Romish  Exile 
Writers :  Thos.  Dorman,  209.  —  Memorable  Persons :  John  Mathew,  Daine 

Hester  Temple,  210 Lord  Mayors:    Gentry,  211 List  of   Sheriffs;  with 

notices  of  John  Croke,  Robt.  Dormer,  Edw.  Bulstrod,  Henry  Longvile,  Benedict 
Winchcombe,  Sir  Edw.  Coke,  Francis  Cheney,  213-218 — The  Farewell,  218 — 
Worthies  since  the  time  of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the  County,  219,  220. 


Boundaries,  &c.  221. — Natural  Commodities  :  Eels,  Hares,  Saffron,  Willows,  222. 
— Manufactures  :  Paper,  Baskets,  223,  224. -Buildings  :  Ely  Minster,  224,  225. — 
Wonders,  225.— Proverbs,  226,  227 — Martyrs:  William  Flower,  228.— Prelates: 
Stephen  de  Fulborn,  Nicholas  of  Ely,  William,  John,  and  Nicholas  of  Bottlesham, 
Thomas  of  Newmarket,  Thos.  Thirtby,  Dr.  Godf.  Goldsborough,  Dr.  Robt. 
Townson,  Dr.  Thos.  Westfield,  228-232. — Statesmen :  John  Tiptoft,  Sir  John 
Cheeke,  233,  234.  — Soldiers,  234 — Writers:  Matt.  Paris,  Helias  Rubeus,  John 
Eversden,  Rich.  Wetherset,  Wm.  Caxton,  Rich.  Huloet,  John  Richardson,  Dr. 
Andrew  Willet,  Sir  Thos.  Ridley,  Arthur  Hildersham,  R.  Parker,  Mich.  Dalton 
Dr.  Thos.  Goad,  Andrew  Marvail,  235-240. — Benefactors:  Hugo  de  Balsham, 
Sir  Wm.  Horn,  Sir  Wm.  Purcase,  Sir  Thos.  Kneisworth,  John  Crane,  241,  242. — 
Memorable  Persons :  Wm.  Collet,  Edw.  Norgate,  242 — Lord  Mayors,  243 — 
Gentry,  244 — List  of  Sheriffs  ;  with  notices  of  Thos.  Cotton,  Thos.  Eliot,  Thos. 
Cromwell,  Edw.  North,  John  Huddleston,  John  Cuts,  Henry  Cromwell,  Jarvasius 
Clifton,  Simon  Steward,  247-259.— The  Farewell,  260 Worthies  since  the  time 

.  <3f  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the  County,  260,  261. 


Boundaries,  Rivers,  Gentry,  &c.  262. — Natural  Commodities :   Salt,  Cheese,  Mill- 
stones, 263,  264 Buildings,  264. — Wonders  :  Proverbs,  265,  266. — Cardinals  : 

Wm.  Makilesfield,  267 — Prelates:  Wm.  Booth,  Laurence  Booth,  John  Booth, 
Thos.  Savage,  Dr.  Wm.  Chaderton,  Dr.  Wm  James,  John  Richardson,  267-270. 

— Statesmen  :   Sir  Thos.  Egerton,  270 Capital  Judges  :   Sir  Humphrey  Stark ey, 

Sir  Henry Bradshaw,  Sir  Randal  Crew,  Sir  Humf.  Davenport,  270-274. — Soldiers: 
Sir  Hugh  Calvely,  John  Smith,  274,  275.— Physicians :  276 — Writers:  Thos. 
Eclestone,  Ralph  Radcliffe,  John  Speed,  John  Dod,  276-278. — Benefactors :  Sir 
Rich.  Sutton,  Robt.  Brassy,  Geo.  Palin,  Sir  John  Brewerton,  Dr.  John  Barnston, 

279-281 Memorable  Persons :  Wm.   Smith,  Wm.  Webb,   Randal   Crew,   281, 

282. — Lord  Mayors,  282. — List  of  Sheriffs  ;  with  notices  of  Hugh  de  Hatton 
Sir  Hugh  Cholmly,  or  Cholmondeleigh,  John  Savage,  283-289 — Battles  :  Row- 
ton-heath,  289 — The  Farewell,  ib. 


Boundaries,  &c.  :  Buildings,  290 Proverbs  :   Martyrs,  Geo.  Marsh,   291. — Pre- 
lates: Dr.  Geo.  Dounham,  291 Seamen-.   David  Middleton,  Sir  H.  Middleton, 

292. — Writers:  Roger  of  Chester,  Randal   Hygden,    Henry   Bradshaw,  Edw. 

Brierwood,  John  Downham,  293-295 Benefactors :  Wm.  Aldersey,  Sir  Thos. 

Offley,  John  Terer,  295,  296.— The  Farewell,  297- 

Worthies  since  the  time  of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the  County,  297,  298. 

xxviii  CONTENTS, 


Boundaries  Dialect,  &c.  299.— Natural  Commodities:  Diamonds,  Ambergris, 
Garlic  Pilchards,  Blue  Slate,  Tin,  300-302.— Buildings  :  Mount-Edgecombe,  303. 
—Medicinal  Waters,  304.  -  Wonders :  the'Hurlers,  Main  Amber,  304,  305 — Pro- 
verbs,  306.— Saints  :  St.  Kiby,  St.Ursula,  St.  Meliorus,  307,308.— Prelates  :  Win. 
de  Grenvil,  Michael  Tregury,  John  Arundel,  309,  310 — Capital  Judges  .and  Writers 
on  the  Law:  Wm.Noy,  310,  311.— Soldiers  :  King  Arthur,  311.— Seamen  :  John 
Arundel,  312.— Civilians  :  John  Tregonwell,  313 — Physicians:  Rawe  Hayes, 

Atwell,  ib. Writers :  Hugarius  the  Levite,  John  of  Cornwall,   Simon  Thur- 

way,  Michael  Blaunpayn,  Godfrey  of  Cornwall,  John  Trevisa,  John  Skuish, 
Bartholomew  Traheron,  Rich.  Carew,  Chas.  Herle,  314-318 — Memorable  Persons  : 
Kiltor,  John  Bray,  John  Roman,  Veal,  Edw.  Bone,  319.  —Lord  Mayors,  320 — 
List  of  Sheriffs  ;  with  notices  of  Roger  de  Priddeaux,  John  Arundel,  Thos.  Green- 
vil,  Jas.  Tirrell,  John  Basset,  Pet.  Edgcombe,  Rich,  diamond,  Wm.  Mohun, 
Ant.  Rouse,  Francis  Godolphin,  Wm.  Wrey,  Rich.  Roberts,  320-330 — Battles  : 
Liskeard,  Stratton,  331-334 — The  Farewell,  334 — Worthies  since  the  time  of 
Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the  County,  335,  336. 


Boundaries,  337 — Natural  Commodities :  Pearls,  Black-lead,   Copper,  337,  338 — 

Buildings,  338 Wonders  :  the  Moss-troopers,  339. — Proverbs,  340 — Saints :  St. 

Herebert,  St.  Alrike,  341. — Martyrs:  Eliz.  Forster,  ib — Prelates:  Roger  Whelp- 
dale,  Roger  Layburn,  Edm.  Grindall,  Dr.  Henry  Robinson,  Dr.  Rich.  Senhouse, 
342,  343.— Capital  Judges,  and  Writers  on  the  Law  :  Sir  Rich.  Hutton,  Sir  John 
Banks,  344 — Civilians :  Geo.  Porter,  345. — Writers :  John  Canon,  Wm.  Egre- 
mont,  John  Skelton,  Dr.  Rich.  Crakenthorp,  John  Salkeld,  Dr.  Gerard  Langbain, 

345-347 — Benefactors:  Robt.  Eaglesfield,  348 Memorable  Persons  :  Maud, ft. 

— Lord  Mayors:  Gentry,  349 — List  of  Sheriffs;  with  notices  of  Robertus  de 
Vaus,  Walt.  Epis.  Carliol.  et  Rob.  filius  Will,  de  Hampton,  Andreas  de  Harcla, 
Richard  duke  of  Gloucester,  Thos.  Wharton,  350-362 — The  Farewell,  362  — 
Worthies  since  the  time  of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the  County,  362-364. 


Boundaries,  Soil, &c.  365 — Natural  Commodities  :  Lead,  ib Manufactures:  Malt, 

Ale,  366,  367.  —  Buildings  :  Chatsworth,  367 Wonders:  Maim-tor,  368 

Medicinal  Waters:    Princes,  ib — Saints:    St.  Alkmund,    ib — Martyrs:    Joan 

Wast,  369 — Cardinals  :  Rog.  Curzon,  Philip  de  Repingdon,  ib Prelates  :  Wm. 

Gray,  Dr.  Geo.  Cooke,  370,  371 — Statesmen:   Sir  John  Cooke,  371 Capital 

Judges,  and  Writers  of  the  Law :  John  Stathom,  Sir  Anth.   Fitz-Herbert,  371, 

372 — Seamen:  Sir  Hugh  Wllloughby,  372 — Physicians:  Thos.  Linacer,  374 

Writers  :  Thos.  Ashburne,   376 — Benefactors  :    Eliz.  Hardwick,  ib.  —  Gentry, 

377 — List  of  Sheriffs  ;  with  notices  of  John  Vernon,  381-390 The  Farewell,  ib. 

—Worthies  since  the  time  of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the  County,  391-393. 


Boundaries,  &c.  394— Natural  Commodities  :  Silver,  Tin,  Herrings,  Strawberries, 
:bernes,   394-396.— Manufactures  :  Bone-lace,   396 Buildings:  Bediford- 


bridge,   397. — Wonders:  the  Gubbings,  397,398. — Proverbs,   399 Saints:   St. 

Wenfride  Boniface,  St.  Willibald,  400 — Martyrs:  Agnes  Pirest,  401 Confes- 
sors: John  Molle,  ib — Cardinals:  Wm.  Courtney,  402 Prelates:  Robt. 

Chichester,  Gilb.  Foliot,  Robt.  Foliot,  Wm.  Brewer,  William  de  Raleigh,  Rich. 
Courtney,  Jas.  Cary,  John  Stanbery,  Pet.  Courtney,  John  Jewel,  John  Prideaux, 

403-408 — Statesmen  :   Sir  Arthur  Chichester,  409 Capital  Judges  :  Sir  Wm. 

Herle,  Sir  John  Cary,  Sir  Wm.  Hankford,  Sir  John  Fortescue,  Sir  Lewis  Pollard, 
Sir  John  Doderidg,  410-412. — Soldiers  :  Sir  Rich.  Greenvil,  James  Lord  Audley, 
Thos.  Stuckley,  Geo.  Monck,  413-417 — Seamen:  Wm.  Wilford,  Sir  Humph. 

Gilbert,  Cock,  Sir  Francis  Drake,  Sir  Walt.  Raleigh,  417-419 Civilians:  John 

Cowel,  Arthur  Duck,  420. — Writers :  Roger  the  Cistercian,  John  de  Ford,  Rich. 
Fishaker,  John  Cut-clif,  Rich.  Chichester,  Robt.  Plympton,  Nich.  Upton,  Rich. 
Hooker,  John  Reinolds,  Nath.  Carpenter,  421-424.— Benefactors  :  Pet.  BlundeU, 
Wm.  Burgoin,  424,  425. — Memorable  Persons  :  Henry  de  la  Pomeray,  Sir  John 
de  Beigny,  Child,  Nich.  and  Andrew  Tremaine,  425-427 — Lord  Mayors  :  Gentry, 

427 List  of  Sheriffs;  with  notices  of  Richardus  Comes,  Willielmus  Brewer, 

Wm.  Yoo,  John  Damerell,  Rich.  Edgcombe,  Peter  Carew,  Robt.  Dennis,  Amias 
Bampfield,  Dennis  Rolls,  428-441.—  The  Farewell,  441. 


Boundaries  :  Manufactures,  442. — Buildings  :  Wonders.  443 — Princes  :  Prelates  : 
Bartholomeus  Iscanus,  Baldvinus  Devonius,  Walt.  Bronscombe,  444 — Writers  : 
Josephus  Iscanus,  William  of  Exeter,  Rich.  Martin,  Wm.  Martin,  Wm.  Tucker, 
John  Barkham,  445-447 — Benefactors  :  John Tuckvile,  447 — The  Farewell,  448. 

Worthies  since  the  time  of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the  County,  448-450. 


Boundaries,  &c.  451. — Natural  Commodities  :  Tenches,  Tobacco-pipe  Clay,  Hemp, 
451,  452. — Buildings:  Proverbs,  453. — Saints:  Edward,  ib. — Cardinals:  John 
Morton,  454 — Prelates  :  John  Stafford,  Robt.  Morton,  Jas.  Turbevil,  Thos.Win- 
niffe,  455,  456 — Soldiers  :  Thos.  Basket,  John  Russel,  Sir  Rich.  Bingham,  457 — 
Seamen  :  Rich.  Clark,  Geo.  Summers,  458,  459. — Civilians  :  Sir  Thos.  Ryves, 
460. — Benefactors  :  Robt.  Rogers,  461 — Memorable  Persons  :  Thomas  de  la 
Lynd,  Arthur  Gregory,  Wm.  Englebert,  ib. — Gentry,  462. — List  of  Sheriffs  ; 
with  notices  of  John  Newburgh,  Egidius  Strangways,  Thos.  More,  463-474. — 
The  Farewell,  475 — Worthies  since  the  time  of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to 
the  County,  475,  476. 


Boundaries,  &c.  477 — Princes  :  Cicely  Neville,  ib — Saints :  Bede,  478 — Confes- 
sors :  John  Wickliffe,  479.— Prelates :  Ralph,  Alexander,  Robert  and  Geo.  Nevil, 
Robt.  Horn,  Dr.  John  Cosen,  480-483. — Civilians  :  Rich.  Cosin,  484 — Writers  : 
Wm.  Shirwood,  John  of  Darlington,  Wm.  Siveyer,  Thos.  Jackson,  Sam.  Ward, 
485-487 — Memorable  Persons :  Anthony  Lord  Gray,  488 Sheriffs  :  the  Fare- 
well, 489.  — Worthies  since  the  time  of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the 
County,  490,  491. 


Boundaries,   &c.   492 Natural   Commodities:    Saffron,   Oysters,    Hops,    Puets, 

492-494. Manufactures:   Gunpowder,  494. — Buildings,  495 — Wonders,  496, — 


Proverbs,  497,  498.-Princes:  Henry  Fitzroy,  499— Saints  :  St.  Helen,  St.  Con- 
stantine,  St.  Ethelburgh,  Hildetha,  Theorithoid,  Edilburge,  Wolfhild,  St.  Osith, 

St.  Neot's,  499-501 Martyrs:  John  Laurence,  Thos.  Hawkes,  Rose  Allin, 

50*1,  502.— Confessors :  Rich.  George,  502.— Cardinals:  Thos.  Bourchier,  503 — 
Prelates:  Richard  de  Barking,  John de  Chesill,  John  of  Waltham,  Rog.  Walden, 
Rich.  Howland,  John  Jegon,  Sam.  Haresnet,  Dr.  Augustine  Linsell,  504-507 — 
Statesmen:  Sir  Thos.  Audley,  Sir  Rich.  Morisin,  Sir  Anthony  Cook,  Sir  Thos. 
Smith,  Thos.  Howard,  Rich.  Weston,  507-511.— Capital  Judges:  Sir  John 

Bramstone,  511 Soldiers:  Robt.  Fitz-Walter,    Sir  John   Hawkewood,  Thos. 

Ratcliff,  Sir  Francis  and  Sir  Horace  Vere,  512-514 — Physicians:  Wni.  Gilbert, 

515 Writers:  Gervase  of  Tilbury,  Adam  of  Barking,  Ralph  of  Cogshall,  Roger 

of  Waltham,  John  Godard,  Aubrey  de  Vere,   Thos.  Maldon,  Thos.  Waldensis, 

Thos.   Tusser,    Francis  Quarles,    Jos.  Mede,    516-519 Benefactors:    Rich. 

Bedew,  Walt.  Mildmey,  Dorothy  Petre,  Dr.  Thos.  Eden,  520-522 — Memorable 

Persons:    Matilda   Fitz-Walter,    Simon  Lynch,    523 Lord   Mayors,   524. — 

Gentry ;  with  notices  of  Henry  Bourchier,  John  Tyrrell,  John  Mountgomery, 
Maurice  Bruyn,  Win.  Goldingham,  John  Doreward,  Robt.  Darcy,  Henry  Lang. 
ley,  Thos.  Heveningham,  Johannes  Leventhorp,  Thos.  Barington,  Thos.  Ben- 
dysh,  Egidius  Lucas,  Thos.  Barrett,  526-528 — List  of  Sheriffs;  with  notices 
of  Will,  de  Longo  Campo,  Cancellarius  Dom.  Regis,  Hugo  de  Nevil,  et  Johan. 
de  Nevil,  Walter  de  Baud,  Philip  Bottiller,  Henry  Marny,  Wm.  Fitz  Williams, 
John  Christmas,  Sir  Brian  Tuke,  Sir  John  Gates,  Sir  Ralph  Rowlet,  Jas.  Al- 
tham,  Sir  Henry  Maynard,  Sir  Paul  Bayning,  John  Lucas,  529-544. — Battles, 
544. — The  Farewell,  ib. — Worthies  since  the  time  of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative 
to  the  County,  545. 


Boundaries,  &c.    546 — Natural  Commodities  :  Tobacco,  Oak,  Steel,    546,  547 

Manufactures  :  Clothing,   Mustard,  Wine,   Cider,  547,  548 Buildings,  549 

Wonders  :  the  Higre,  550. — Proverbs,  551,  552 — Princes,  553 — Saints  :  St.  Ke- 
nelme,  ib — Martyrs  :  Jas.  Baynam,  ib. — Prelates  :  Ti.deman  de  Winchcombe, 
JohnChedworth,  John  Carpenter,  Thos.  Ruthall,  Edw.  Fox,  554-556. — Statesmen  : 
Sir  Ralph  Butler,  557 — Capital  Judges,  and  Writers  on  the  Law :  Anthony 
Fitz-Herbert,  Edw.  Trotman,  557-558 Soldiers  .  Sir  Wm.  Tracy,  558.— Sea- 
men :  Sir  Wm.  Winter,  ib — Writers :  Osbernus  Claudianus,  Robert  of  Glouces- 
ter, Alan  of  Tewkesbury,  Alexander  of  Hales,  Thomas  de  la  More,  Thos.  of  Hales, 
Thos.  Neale,  Rich.  Tracy,  Sir  Thos.  Overbury,  Rich.  Capel,  John  Sprint,  John 
Workman,  559-564. —Benefactors  :  Kath.  Clyvedon,  Sir  Wm.  Hampton,  Thos. 

Bell,  Edw.  Palmer,  Hugh  Pirry,  565-567 Lord  Mayors  :   Gentry,  567 List  of 

Sheriffs ;  with  notices  of  Walt,  de  Stuchesly,  Thos.  Berkeley  de  Cobberley,  John 
Points,  Wm.  Kingston,  Anth.  Kingston,  568-581 The  Farewell,  581 Wor- 
thies since  the  time  of  Fuller,  and  Works  relative  to  the  County,  581,  582. 





ENGLAND  may  not  unfitly  be  compared  to  a  house,  not  very 
great,,  but  convenient ;  and  the  several  Shires  may  properly  be 
resembled  to  the  rooms  thereof.  Now,  as  learned  Master  Cam- 
den  and  painful  Master  Speed,  with  others,  have  described  the 
rooms  themselves,  so  it  is  our  intention,  God  willing,  to 
describe  the  furniture  of  these  rooms;  such  eminent  commo- 
dities which  every  county  doth  produce,  with  the  persons  of 
quality  bred  therein,  and  some  other  observables  coincident 
with  the  same  subject. 

Cato,  that  great  and  grave  philosopher,  did  commonly 
demand,  when  any  new  project  was  propounded  unto  him, 
"  Cui  bono  1"  what  good  would  ensue,  in  case  the  same  was 
effected  ?  A  question  more  fit  to  be  asked  than  facile  to  be 
answered  in  all  undertakings,  especially  in  the  setting  forth  of 
new  books,  insomuch  that  they  themselves,  who  complain  that 
they  are  too  many  already,  help  daily  to  make  them  more. 

Know  then,  I  propound  five  ends  to  myself  in  this  Book : 
first,  to  gain  some  glory  to  God  :  secondly,  to  preserve  the 
memories  of  the  dead:  thirdly,  to  present  examples  to  the 
living :  fourthly,  to  entertain  the  reader  with  delight :  and 
lastly  (which  I  am  not  ashamed  publicly  to  profess),  to  procure 
some  honest  profit  to  myself.  If  not  so  happy  to  obtain  all,  I 
will  be  joyful  to  attain  some ;  yea,  contented  and  thankful  too, 
if  gaining  any  (especially  the  first)  of  these  ends,  the  motives  of 
my  endeavours. 

First,  glory  to  God,  which  ought  to  be  the  aim  of  all  our 
actions ;  though  too  often  our  bow  starts,  our  hand  shakes,  and 
so  our  arrow  misseth  the  mark.  Yet  I  hope  that  our  describing 
so  good  a  land,  with  the  various  fruits  and  fruitful  varieties 
therein,  will  engage  both  writer  and  reader  in  gratitude  to  that 
God  who  hath  been  so  bountiful  to  our  nation.  In  order 
whereunto,  I  have  not  only  always  taken,  but  often  sought 

VOL.    I.  B 


occasions  to  exhort  to  thankfulness,  hoping  the  same  will  be 
interpreted  no  straggling  from  my  subject,  but  a  closing  with 
my  calling. 

Secondly,  to  preserve  the  memories  of  the  dead.  A  good 
name  is  an  ointment  poured  out,  smelt  where  it  is  not  seen. 
It  hath  been  the  lawful  desire  of  men  in  all  ages  to  perpetuate 
their  memories,  thereby  in  some  sort  revenging  themselves  of 
mortality,  though  few  have  found  out  effectual  means  to  per- 
form it.  For  monuments  made  of  wood  are  subject  to  be 
burnt ;  of  glass,  to  be  broken ;  of  soft  stone,  to  moulder ;  of 
marble  and  metal,  (if  escaping  the  teeth  of  time)  to  be  demo- 
lished by  the  hand  of  covetousness ;  so  that,  in  my  apprehen- 
sion, the  safest  way  to  secure  a  memory  from  oblivion  is  (next 
his  own  virtues)  by  committing  the  same  in  writing  to  posterity. 

Thirdly,  to  present  examples  to  the  living,  having  here 
precedents  of  all  sorts  and  sizes ;  of  men  famous  for  valour, 
wealth,  wisdom,  learning,  religion,  and  bounty  to  the  public, 
on  which  last  we  most  largely  insist.  The  scholar,  being  taxed 
by  his  writing  master  for  idleness  in  his  absence,  made  a  fair 
defence,  when  pleading  that  his  master  had  neither  left  him 
paper  whereon  or  copy  whereby  to  write.  But  rich  men  will 
be  without  excuse,  if  not  expressing  their  bounty  in  some 
proportion,  God  having  provided  them  paper  enough  ["the 
poor  you  have  always  with  you  "*]  and  set  them  signal  exam- 
ples, as  in  our  ensuing  work  will  plainly  appear. 

Fourthly,  to  entertain  the  reader  with  delight.  I  confess,  the 
subject  is  but  dull  in  itself,  to  tell  the  time  and  place  of  men's 
birth,  and  deaths,  their  names,  with  the  names  and  number  of 
their  books ;  and  therefore  this  bare  skeleton  of  time,  place, 
and  person,  must  be  fleshed  with  some  pleasant  passages.  To 
this  intent  I  have  purposely  interlaced  (not  as  meat,  but  as 
condiment)  many  delightful  stories,  that  so  the  reader,  if  he  do 
not  arise  (which  I  hope  and  desire)  religiosior  or  doctior,  with 
more  piety  or  learning,  at  least  he  may  depart  jucundior,  with 
more  pleasure  and  lawful  delight, 

Lastly,  to  procure  moderate  profit  to  myself  in  compensation 
of  my  pains.  It  was  a  proper  question  which  plain-dealing 
Jacob  pertinently  propounded  to  Laban  his  father-in-law : 
"  and  now  when  shall  I  provide  for  mine  house  also  ?"  t 
Hitherto  no  stationer  hath  lost  by  me ;  hereafter  it  will  be  high 
time  for  me  (all  things  considered)  to  save  fer  myself. 

The  matter  following  may  be  divided  into  real  and  personal, 
though  not  according  to  the  legal  acception  of  the  words.  By 
real,  I  understand  the  commodities  and  observables  of  every 
county :  by  personal,  the  characters  of  those  worthy  men  who 
were  natives  thereof.  We  begin  with  a  catalogue  of  the  parti- 
cular heads  whereof  this  Book  doth  consist,  intending  to  shew 

*  John  xii.  8.  f  Gen.  xxx.  30. 


how  they  are  severally  useful ;  and  then  I  hope,  if  good  as 
single  instruments,  they  will  be  the  better  as  tuned  in  a 



No  County  hath  cause  to  complain  with  the  Grecian  widows, 
that  they  are  neglected  in  the  daily  ministration,*  God  hath 
not  given  all  commodities  to  one,  to  elate  it  with  pride,  and 
none  to  others  to  deject  them  with  pensiveness ;  but  there  is 
some  kind  of  equality  betwixt  the  profits  of  counties,  to  con- 
tinue commerce,  and  balance  trading  in  some  proportion. 

We  have  therefore  in  this  Work  taken  especial  notice  of  the 
several  commodities  which  every  Shire  doth  produce.  And 
indeed  God  himself  enjoineth  us  to  observe  the  variety  of  the 
earth's  productions  in  this  kind.  For  speaking  of  the  land  of 
Havilah,  where,  saith  he,  "there  is  gold,  and  the  gold  of  that 
land  is  good ;  there  is  bdellium,  and  the  onyx-stone  :"t  see 
here  how  the  Holy  Spirit  points  at  those  places  where  God  hath 
scattered  such  treasure,  and  the  best  thereof  in  all  kinds,  that 
man,  if  so  disposed,  may  know  whereto  gather  them  up. 

I  confess,  England  cannot  boast  of  gold,  and  precious  stones, 
with  the  land  of  Havilah  ;  yet  affordeth  it  other  things,  both 
above  and  beneath  ground,  more  needful  for  man's  being. 
Indeed  some  Shires,  Joseph-like,  have  a  better  coloured  coat 
than  others ;  and  some,  with  Benjamin,  have  a  more  boxintiful 
mess  of  meat  belonging  unto  them.  Yet  every  County  hath  a 
child's  proportion,  as  if  God  in  some  sort  observed  gavel-kind 
in  the  distribution  of  his  favours.  "  Oh  that  men  would  there- 
fore praise  the  Lord  for  his  goodness,  and  declare  the  wondrous 
works  which  he  doeth  for  the  children  of  men.J" 

Know,  reader,  when  a  commodity  is  general  to  all  England, 
then,  to  avoid  repetition,  it  is  entered  in  that  county  where 
there  was  the  first,  or  else  the  most  and  best  of  that  kind. 
And  we  have  so  contrived  it,  that,  generally,  three  commodities 
are  treated  of  in  every  county. 


Some  Heathen  have  causelessly  complained  of  Nature  as  a 
step-mother  to  mankind,  because  other  creatures  come  into  the 
world  clothed  with  feathers,  furs,  or  fleeces,  &c.,  or  armed  with 
paws,  claws,  beaks,  tusks,  horns,  hoofs;  whilst  man  is  exposed 
naked  into  the  world:  I  say  a  causeless  charge,  because  Provi- 

*  Acts  vi   1.  f  Gen.  ii.  12.  J  Psalms  cvii.  8. 

B    2 


dence  having  given  men  hands,  and  reason  to  use  them  (two 
blessings  denied  to  other  creatures),  all  clothing  and  fencing  is 
eminently  and  transcendantly  bestowed  upon  him. 

It  is  very  remarkable  to  see  the  manufactures  in  England,  not 
knowing  whether  more  to  admire  the  rarity  or  variety  thereof. 
Undoubtedly  the  wealth  of  a  nation  consisteth  in  driving  a  na- 
tive commodity  through  the  most  hands  to  the  highest  artificial 
perfection,  whereof  we  have  taken  especial  cognizance  in- the 
respective  counties,  yet  so  as  (though  briefly  naming)  not 
largely  handling  that  manufacture  whereon  we  have  formerly 

It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  there  be  some  things  which 
cannot  properly  be  termed  natural  commodities,  because  of 
their  quality  altered  and  disguised  by  men's  industry;  and  yet 
they  attain  not  the  reputation  of  manufactures.  As  salt,  being 
water  boiled;  malt,  barley  dried;  cider,  apples  pressed.  See- 
ing therefore  they  have  a  mixed  nature,  they  are  promiscuously 
placed  as  suiteth  best  with  my  own  conveniency. 


The  God  of  Nature  hath  not  discovered  himself  so  variously 
wonderful  in  any  thing,  as  in  the  waters  of  fountains,  rivers,  &c. 
England  hath  as  large  a  share  herein  as  any  country,  and  her 
springs  wonderful  on  several  accounts. 

1.  Colour;  black,  red,  yellow,  &c. — 2.  Taste;  sweet,  bitter, 
salt,  acid,  corroding,  astringing,  &c. — 3.  Odour ;  stinking  of 
sulphur,  like  the  scouring  of  a  gun  very  foul. — 4.  Sound  ;  beat- 
ing sometimes  like  a  march,  sometimes  like  a  retreat  on  several 
occasions. — 5.  Heat;  lukewarm,  and  gradually  hot  even  to 
scalding. — 6.  Weight;  considerably  heavier  or  lighter  in  pro- 
portion to  other  waters. — 7.  Motion;  though  many  miles  from 
the  sea,  sympathizing  therewith,  ebbing  and  flowing  accord- 
ingly.— 8.  Effects;  some  being  surgeons  to  heal  sores,  others 
physicians  to  cure  diseases. 

The  last  is  proper  for  our  pen,  being  the  largess  of  Heaven 
to  poor  people,  who  cannot  go  to  the  price  of  a  costly  cure. 
Of  these  more  have  been  discovered  by  casualty  than  industry, 
to  evidence  that  therein  we  are  not  so  much  beholden  to  man's 
pains  as  God's  providence.  Many  springs  formerly  sovereign, 
have  since  lost  their  virtue,  yet  so  that  other  springs  have  found 
it ;  so  that  their  sanative  qualities  may  seem  not  taken  away, 
but  removed.  And  as  there  are  many  mean  men  of  great  ability 
yet  depressed  in  obscurity;  so  no  doubt  there  are  in  our  land  aquae 
incognita*  of  concealed  worth  and  virtue ;  in  effect  no  whit  infe- 
rior to  those  which  in  fame  are  far  above  them.  However,  the 
gift  which  Nature  holdeth  forth  may  be  doubled  in  the  goodness 
thereof,  if  the  hand  of  Art  do  but  help  to  receive  it.  and  the 
patients  be  prepared  with  physic,  in  the  using  of  such  water ; 


otherwise  fons  vita  may  be  fons  mortis,  if  diet,  due  time-,  and 
quantity  be  not  observed. 

Some  will  say  that  our  English  waters  must  needs  be  raw, 
because  so  far  from  the  fire ;  whilst  those  are  better  boiled, 
which,  lying  more  south,  are  nearer  the  sun.  But  experience 
avows  the  contrary,  that  England  affordeth  most  sanative 
waters  for  English  bodies,  if  men  were  as  judicious  in  taking, 
as  Nature  is  bountiful  in  tendering  them. 

As  for  the  proprietaries  of  such  (or  rather  of  the  ground  sur- 
rounding such)  medicinal  waters,  as  I  would  not  have  them  de- 
trimented  in  the  least  degree  by  the  conflux  of  people  unto 
them;  so  it  is  injurious  in  my  judgment  for  them  to  set  them 
to  sale,  and  make  gain  of  God's  -free  gift  therein.  I  confess, 
water  was  commonly  sold  in  the  land  of  Canaan,  proved  by 
that  passage  in  the  Prophet,  "Oh,  every  one  that  thirsteth, 
come  ye  to  the  waters;  and  he  that  hath  no  money/'*  &c. 
Yea,  so  churlish  were  the  Edomites  to  the  Israelites,  that  "  they 
would  not  give/'  that  is,  "afford  them  water  for  money ."t 
But  it  is  considerable  :  well-water  in  those  hot  countries  was 
acquired  with  vast  pains  and  expence,  it  being  dearer  to  sink  a 
well  than  build  an  house,  besides  many  frustrations  in  that  kind, 
before  their  endeavours  found  full  effect;  which  made  it  the 
more  equal  for  the  owners,  by  such  sales,  to  make  profit,  or 
rather  to  make  up  their  reparations.  But  no  such  cost  being 
expended  in  the  case  in  hand,  it  may  be  accounted  a  kind  of 
simony,  in  such  as  sell  ease  and  help  to  poor  people,  though 
they  may  lawfully  buy  it,  as  passive  and  necessitated  thereunto. 


Of  these  England  affordeth  many,  which  by  several  authors 
are  variously  reckoned  up.  One  reckoneth  four  as  most  re- 
markable;{  another  accounted  six;§  a  third  bringeth  them  up 
to  thirteen,  1 1  which  since  some  have  increased.  Indeed  if  so 
many  men  had  all  agreed  in  one  number,  that  had  been  a 
wonder  indeed. 

But  under  this  title  we  comprehend  all  rarities,  whish  are  out 
of  the  ordinary  road  of  nature,  the  illustration  whereof  may 
minister  unto  us  matter  of  profitable  discourse.  Of  these 
wonders,  some  were  transient,  lasting  only  for  a  time  (like  ex- 
traordinary ambassadors  employed  on  some  great  affair) ;  others 
liegers  and  permanent,  the  most  proper  for  our  pen  to  observe. 
And  to  prevent  vacuity  in  some  counties  (that  this  topic  of 
wonders  might  be  invested  with  some  matter),  some  artificial 
rarities  are  (but  very  sparingly)  inserted,  such  as  transcend  the 
standard  of  ordinary  performance :  but  these  are  cast  in  as  over- 
weight, the  former  being  only  our  proper  siibject. 

*  Isaiah,  Iv.  1.         f  Deut.  ii.  28.         I  H.  Huntington.         §  Sir  John  Sidney. 
SI   Samuel  Beaulaud  on  Nennius. 


Our  great  design  herein  is,  that  men  may  pay  the  tribute  of 
their  admiration,  where  the  same  is  due,  to  God  himself,  who, 
as  David  observeth,  "only  doth  great  wonders/5*  Only,  ex- 
clusively of  men  and  angels;  doth,  that  is,  really,  solidly,  and 
substantially.  Jugglers  do  shew,  not  do,  whose  pretty  works  are 
not  pr&stationes,  but  prastigice.  Great  wonders,  called  in 
Scripture  MAGNALIA;  and,  if  the  Latin  alloweth  the  word,  we 
could  grant  the  devil  his  Parvalia,  doing,  of  petty  feats,  great- 
ened  into  wonders  by  his  cunning  and  our  credulity. 

Well,  let  our  admiration  be  given  to  God,  seeing  deliberate 
wondering  (when  the  soul:  is  not  suddenly  surprised)  being 
raised  up  to  an  height  is  part  of  adoration,  and  cannot  be  given 
to  any  creature  without  some  sacrilege.  Such  wondering  con- 
sists of  reverence  and  ignorance,  which  best  becometh  even  the 
wisest  of  men,  in  their  searches  after  God  his  ways.  As  for 
that  unkind  wondering,  which  melts  not  man's  heart  like  wax 
into  the  praising  of  God,  but  clay-like  hardeneth  it  unto  stupe- 
faction, "Behold,  ye  despisers,  and  wonder,  and  perish."  t 
God  keep  all  good  men  from  being  guilty  thereof ! 

A  secondary  end  I  have  herein,  to  shew  that  England  falls 
not  short  of  foreign  countries  in  wonderful  sights,  the  same  in 
kind,  though  not  in  degree.  Italy  hath  her  Grotta  della  Sibilla  ; 
we  in  Somersetshire  our  Wockley  Hole.  Spain  her  Anas;  we 
our  Mole,  &c.  But  wonders,  like  prophets,  are  not  without 
honour  save  in  their  own  country,  where  constancy  (or  at  least 
commonness  of  converse)  with  them  abateth  their  respect  and 


[Reader,  in  our  following  book  we  have  inverted  the  method, 
and  more  properly  placed  buildings  next  to  manufactures.] 

Next  we  take  notice  of  the  signal  structures  which  each 
County  doth  afford.  Indeed  the  Italians  do  account  all  English 
to  be  Gothic  buildings,  only  vast  *  (and  greatness  must  have 
something  of  coarseness  therein).  However,  abating  for  their 
advantage  above  us  in  materials,  marble,  porphyry,  &c.  their 
palaces  may  admire  the  art  in  some  English  fabrics,  and  in  our 
Churches  especially. 

Elisha,  beholding  Hasael,  wept  by  way  of  prophecy,  foresee- 
ing that,  amongst  other  many  mischiefs,  he  would  set  fire  on  the 
strong  cities,  J  and,  by  consequence,  on  the  fair  houses  in  Israel. 
But  well  may  we  weep,  when  looking  back  on  our  late  civil  wrar, 
remembering  how  many  beautiful  buildings  were  ruined  thereby, 
though  indeed  we  have  cause  to  be  thankful  to  God  that  so 
many  are  left  standing  in  the  land. 

But  what  said  our  Saviour  to  his  disciples,  when  transported 
with  wonder  at  the  goodly  stones  in  the  Temple  ?  "  Are  these 

*  Psalm  cxxxvi.  4.  f  Acts  xiii.  41.  %  2  Kings  viii.  12. 


the  things  you  look  upon  ?  "*  Such  transitory  buildings  are 
unworthy  of  a  Christian's  admiration.  And  let  it  be  our 
care,  that  when  the  fairest  and  firmest  fabrics  fall  to  the  ground, 
yea,  when  (C  our  earthly  house  be  dissolved,  we  may  have  an 
house  not  made  with  hands,  but  eternal  in  the  heaven  s."f 


A  Proverb  is  much  matter  decocted  into  few  words.  Hear 
what  a  learned  critic  saith  of  them  :{  "Argutae  hse  brevesque 
loquendi  formulae,  quamvis  e  trivio  petitatee  et  plebi  frequentatee, 
suas  habent  veneres,  et  genium  cujusque  gentis  penes  quam  ce- 
lebrantur,  atque  acumen  ostendunt." 

Some  will  have  a  proverb  so  called  from  verbum  a  word, 
and  pro  (as  in  proavus  )  signifying  before ;  being  a  speech  which 
time  out  of  mind  hath  had  peaceable  possession  in  the  mouths 
of  many  people.  Others  deduce  it  from  verbum  a  word,  and 
pro  for  vice  (as  in  proprases)  in  stead  of,  because  it  is  not  to 
be  taken  in  the  literal  sense;  one  thing  being  put  for  another. 

Six  essentials  are  required  to  the  completing  of  a  perfect 
proverb;  namely,  that  it  be 

1.  Short.  -\  /-I.  Oration. 

2.  Plain.  j  ^2.  Riddle. 

3.  Common.        (^  Otherwise  it  is  no  j  3.  Secret. 

4.  Figurative.      (      proverb,  but  a      ^4.  Sentence. 

5.  Ancient.  \  /  5.  Upstart. 

6.  True.  ^6.  Libel. 

I  have  only  insisted  on  such  local  Proverbs  in  their  respec- 
tive counties,  wherein  some  proper  place  or  person  is  men- 
tioned ;  such  as  suggest  unto  us  some  historical  hint,  and  the 
interpretation  thereof  afford  some  considerable  information,  and 
conduce  to  the  illustration  of  those  counties  wherein  they  are 

Herein  I  have  neglected  such  narrow  and  restrictive  Pro- 
verbs as  never  travelled  beyond  the  smoke  of  the  chimneys  of 
that  town  wherein  they  were  made,  and,  though  perchance  sig- 
nificant in  themselves,  are  unknown  to  the  neighbouring  coun- 
ties, so  far  they  are  from  acquiring  a  national  reception.  Be- 
sides, I  have  declined  all  such  which  are  frivolous,  scurrilous, 
scandalous,  confining  ourselves  only  to  such  whose  expounding 
may  contribute  to  the  understanding  of  those  shires  wherein 
they  are  in  fashion. 

Objection. —  It  is  more  proper  for  a  person  of  your  profession 
to  employ  himself  in  reading  of  and  commenting  on  the  Pro- 
verbs of  Solomon,§  to  "know  wisdom  and  instruction,  to  per- 
ceive the  words  of  understanding/5  Whereas  you  now  are 
busied  in  what  may  be  pleasant,  not  profitable  ;  yea,  what  may 
inform  the  fleshly,  not  edify  the  inward  man. 

*  Lukexxi.  6.  f  2  Cor.  v.  1.  \  Salmasius  e  Levino  Warnero. 

Prov.  i.  2. 


Answer. Let  not  our  fellow-servants  be  more  harsh  unto 

us  than  our  Master  himself :  we  serve  not  so  severe  a  Lord, 
but  that  he  alloweth  us  sauce  with  our  meat,  and  recreation 
with  our  vocation. 

Secondly,  God  himself,  besides  such  as  I  call  supernatural 
Proverbs  (as  Divinely  inspired),  taketh  notice,  and  maketh  use  of, 
the  natural  or  native  proverbs  of  the  country,  praising,  approv- 
ing, and  applying  some;  "Physician,  cure  thyself  ;"*  f  The 
dog  is  returned  to  his  vomit,  and  the  swine  which  was  washed 
to  her  wallowing  in  the  mire/'  t  Disliking  and  condemning 
others,  and  commanding  them  to  be  abolished:  "  The  fathers 
have  eaten  sour  grapes,  and  the  children's  teeth  are  set  on 
edge.":f  Now  seeing  antiquity  without  verity  is  no  just  plea 
that  any  thing  should  be  continued,  on  this  warrant  I  have,  in 
these  our  country  proverbs,  alleged  more  than  I  allow;  branding 
some  with  a  note  of  infamy,  as  fit  to  be  banished  out  of  our  dis- 

Lastly,  besides  information  much  good  may  redound  to  the 
reader  hereby.  It  was  the  counsel  which  a  wise  gave  to  a  great 
man;  fe  Read  histories,  that  thou  dost  not  become  a  history." 
So  may  we  say,  "Read  Proverbs,  that  thou  beest  not  made  a 
proverb/'  as  God  threatened  the  sinful  people  of  Israel. §  Sure 
I  am  that  David,  by  minding  of  a  country  (no  canonical)  pro- 
verb— viz.  "  Wickeiness  proceedeth  from  the  wicked," ||  was 
thereby  dissuaded  from  offering  any  violence  to  the  person  of 
Saul,  then  placed  in  his  power,  whereby  he  procured  much 
tranquillity  to  his  own  conscience. 

We  have  not  confined  ourselves  to  Proverbs  in  the  strict 
acception  thereof;  but  sometimes  insist  on  such  which  have 
only  a  proverbial  tendency,  or  lie,  as  one  may  say,  in  the 
marches  betwixt  proverb  and  prophecy  ;  where  they  afford  us  a 
fit  occasion  to  sally  forth  into  such  discourse  as  may  conduce  to 
the  history  of  our  nation. 


Some  maintain  this  position,  "  that  every  country  cures  the 
diseases  which  it  causes,  and  bringeth  remedies  for  all  the  ma- 
ladies bred  therein."  An  opinion  which,  grant  not  true,  yet 
may  have  much  truth  therein,  seeing  every  country,  and  Eng- 
land especially,  affordeth  excellent  plants  :  were  it  not  partly 
for  men's  laziness,  that  they  will  not  seek  them;  partly  for  their 
ignorance,  that  they  know  not  when  they  have  found  them  ;  and 
partly  for  their  pride  and  peevishness,  because,  when  found,  they 
disdain  to  use  and  apply  them.  Indeed,  quod  charum,  charum  ; 
what  is  fetched  far,  and  bought  dear,  that  only  is  esteemed  ; 
otherwise,  were  many  English  plants  as  rare  as  they  are  useful, 
we  would  hug  in  our  hands  what  we  now  trample  under  our  feet. 

*  Luke  iv.  23.  f  2  Peter  ii.  22.  J  Ezek.  xviii.  2. 

§  1  Kin^s  ix.  7.  ||    l  Sam.  xxiv.  1?. 


For  proof  hereof,  let  not  the  reader  grudge  to  peruse  these 
words  of  a  grand  herbalist,*  speaking  of  virga  aurea,  or  golden 
rod,  growing  plentifully,  but  discovered  lately  in  Middlesex  : 
(f  It  is  extolled  above  all  other  herbs  for  the  stopping  of  blood  in 
sanguinolent  ulcers  and  bleeding  wounds ;  and  hath  in  time  past 
been  had  in  greater  estimation  and  regard  than  in  these  days. 
For,  in  my  remembrance,  I  have  known  the  dry  herb,  which 
came  from  beyond  the  seas,  sold  in  Bucklersbury,  in  London, 
for  two  shillings  and  sixpence  the  ounce  ;  but  since  it  is  found 
in  Hampstead  Wood,  even  as  it  were  at  the  town's  end,  no  man 
will  give  two  shillings  and  sixpence  for  an  hundred  weight  of 
it  ;  which  plainly  sets  forth  our  inconstancy  and  sudden  muta- 
bility, esteeming  no  longer  of  any  thing,  how  precious  soever  it 
be,  than  while  it  is  strange  and  rare." 

We  may  also  observe,  that  many  base  and  barren  heaths  and 
hills,  which  afford  the  least  food  for  beasts,  yield  the  best  phy- 
sic for  man.  One  may  also  take  notice  that  such  places  that  are 
nearest  to  London,  Cambridge,  Oxford,  Bath,  or  where  some  emi- 
nent herbalist  hath  his  habitation,  afford  us  the  greater  variety 
of  medicinal  herbs.  Not  that  more  have  grown,  but  more  are 
known  thereabouts,  where  the  native  plants  are  not  better,  but 
more  happy  in  their  vicinity  to  such  discoverers.  And  now,  to 
be  always  within  the  reach  if  not  the  touch  of  mine  own  calling, 
we  may  observe  in  Scripture  that  God's  Spirit  directs  men  to 
the  gathering  of  such  simples  of  his  own  planting :  e(  Is  there 
no  balm  in  Gilead  ?"f  True  in  a  literal  sense,  as  well  as  mys- 
tically of  our  Saviour. 

Now  the  reason  why  I  have  been  so  sparing  on  this  topic, 
and  so  seldom  insist  thereon,  is  because  these  herbs  grow 
equally  for  goodness  and  plenty  in  all  countries ;  so  that  no 
one  shire  can,  without  manifest  usurpation,  entitle  itself 
thereunto.  Besides,  they  are  so  common  and  numerous,  they 
would  jostle  out  matter  of  more  concernment.  However,  we 
have  noted  it  where  the  herb  is  rare  and  very  useful :  and  in  our 
following  Book  (though  here  the  method  be  transposed)  have 
placed  medicinal  herbs  next  medicinal  waters,  conceiving  that 
order  most  natural. 





WE  take  the  word,  as  it  is  of  the  common  gender,  inclusive 
of  both  sexes,  and  extend  it  only  to  kings  with  their  wives  and 

*  Gerard,  in  his  Herbal,  p.  430.  f  Jcr.  viii.  22. 


children.  Of  the  second  sort  we  have  but  few,,  and  those  only 
from  the  time  of  king  Edward  the  Fourth,  who  first  married 
his  subject,  or  native  of  his  dominions. 

We  confine  ourselves  to  such  as  were  born  since  the  Con- 
quest ;  otherwise  we  should  be  swallowed  up,  should  we  launch 
out  beyond  that  date  into  the  Saxon  government,  especially  into 
the  gulf  of  their  Heptarchy,  where  a  prince  could  not  be  seen  for 
princes.  But,  if  a  British  or  Saxon  king  comes  under  our  pen, 
we  prefer  to  take  cognizance  of  him  in  some  other  notion  (as 
of  saint,  martyr,  soldier,  &c.)  so  to  preserve  the  topic  of  prince- 
ship  entire  according  to  our  design. 

We  have  stinted  ourselves  only  to  the  legitimate  issue  of 
kings ;  and  after  such  who  are  properly  princes,  we  have,  as 
occasion  is  offered,  inserted  some  who  in  courtesy  and  equity 
may  be  so  accepted,  as  the  heirs  to  the  crown  (in  the  Lancas- 
trian difference)  though  not  possessed  thereof ;  or  else  so  near 
a  kin  thereunto,  that  much  of  history  doth  necessarily  depend 
upon  them. 

We  have  observed  these  nativities  of  princes,  because 
such  signal  persons  are  not  only  oaks  amongst  under- woods,  but 
land-marks  amongst  oaks,  and  the  directory  for  the  methodical 
regulation  of  history.  Besides,  in  themselves  they  are  of  spe- 
cial remark,  as  more  or  less  remote  from  the  crown  ;  not  only 
their  own  honour,  but  the  happiness  of  thousands  being  con- 
cerned in  their  extraction,  and  Divine  providence  most  visible 
in  marshalling  the  order  thereof.  For,  although  "  Nasci  a  prin- 
cipibus  fortuitum  est  "  may  pass  for  a  true  instance  in  gram- 
mar, it  is  no  right  rule  in  divinity,  which,  though  acknowledging 
"rich  and  poor  the  work  of  God's  hands,"*  pronounceth 
princes  to  be  men  "  of  his  right  hand,  made  strong  for  him- 
self,"f  that  is,  purposely  advanced  to  employ  their  own  great- 
ness to  his  glory. 

Let  none  object  that  the  wives  of  kings  need  not  to  have 
been  inserted,  as  persons  of  no  such  consequence  in  govern- 
ment, seeing  it  is  the  constant  practice  of  the  Spirit  of  God, 
after  the  mention  of  a  new  king  in  Judah,  to  record  the  name 
of  his  mother  and  her  parentage:  "His  mother's  name  also 
was  Micaiah,  the  daughter  of  Uriel  of  Gibeah  :"J  "His 
mother's  name  was  Althaliah,  the  daughter  of  Omri  :"§  "His 
mother's  name  was  Hamutal,  the  daughter  of  Jeremiah  of  Lib- 
nah  :"||  and  divines  generally  render  this  reason  thereof,  that  if 
such  kings  proved  godly  and  gracious,  then  the  memory  of  their 
mothers  should  receive  just  praise  for  their  good  education ;  if 
otherwise,  that  they  might  be  blamed  for  no  better  principling 
them  in  their  infancy. 

*  Jobxxxiv.  19.  f  Psalm  Ixxx.  17.  ±  Chron.  xiii.  2. 

§  2  Chron.  xxii.  2.         ||  2  Kings  xxiii.  31. 



This  word  accepts  of  several  interpretations,  or  rather  they 
are  injuriously  obtruded  upon  it.  1.  Saints  of  fiction,  who 
never  were  in  rerum  naturd,  as  St.  Christopher,  &c.  2.  Saints 
of  faction,  wherewith  our  age  doth  swarm,  alleging  two  argu- 
ments for  their  saintship :  first,  that  they  so  call  themselves ; 
secondly,  that  those  of  their  own  party  call  them  so.  Neither 
of  these  belong  to  our  cognizance.  3.  Saints  of  superstition, 
reputed  so  by  the  court  of  Rome.  4.  Saints  indeed,  parallel  to 
St.  Paul's  "  Widows  indeed,"*  and  both  deserve  to  be  honoured. 

It  is  confessed,  in  this  our  book,  we  drive  a  great  trade  in  the 
third  sort ;  and  I  cannot  therefore  but  sadly  bemoan  that  the 
lives  of  these  saints  are  so  darkened  with  popish  illustrations, 
and  farced  with  faussetts  to  their  dishonour,  and  the  detriment 
of  church  history ;  for,  as  honest  men,  casually  cast  into  the 
company  of  cozeners,  are  themselves  suspected  to  be  cheats,  by 
those  who  are  strangers  unto  them ;  so  the  very  true  actions 
of  these  saints,  found  in  mixture  with  so  many  forgeries,  have  a 
suspicion  of  falsehood  cast  upon  them. 

Inquiring  into  the  causes  of  this  grand  abuse,  I  find  them 
reducible  to  five  heads. 

1.  Want  of  honest  hearts  in  the  biographists  of  these  saints, 
which  betrayed  their  pens  to  such  abominable  untruths. 

2.  Want  of  able  heads,  to  distinguish  rumours  from  reports, 
reports  from  records;  not  choosing,  but  gathering;  or  rather 
not  gathering,  but  scraping  what  could  come  to  their  hands. 

3.  Want  of  true  matter,  to  furnish  out  those  lives  in  any  pro- 
portion.    As  cooks  are  sometimes  fain  to  lard  lean  meat,  not 
for  .fashion,  but  necessity,  as  which  otherwise  would  hardly  be 
eatable  for  the  dryness  thereof ;    so  these,  having  little  of  these 
saints  more  than  their  names,  and  dates  of  their  deaths,  and  those 
sometimes  not  certain,  do  plump  up  their  emptiness  with  such , 
fictious  additions.     4.  Hope  of  gain ;  so  bringing  in  more  cus- 
tom of  pilgrims  to  the  shrines  of  their  saints.     5.  Lastly,  for 
the  same  reason  for  which   Herod  persecuted  St.  Peter  (for  I 
count  such  lies  a  persecuting  of  the  saints'  memories)  merely 
because  they  saw  it  pleased  the  people.f 

By  these  and  other  causes  it  is  come  to  pass,  that  the  obser- 
vation of  Vives  is  most  true :  ((  Quee  de  sanctis  scripta  sunt, 
preeter  pauca  qusedam,  multis  foe  data  sunt  commentis,  dum  qui 
scribit  affectui  suo  indulget,  et  non  quee  egit  divus,  sed  quae 
ilium  egisse  vellet,  exponit.^J  ("  What  are  written  of  the  saints, 
some  few  things  excepted,  are  defiled  with  many  fictions,  whilst 
the  writer  indulgeth  his  own  affection,  and  declareth  not  what  the 
saint  did  do,  but  what  he  desired  that  he  should  have  done/') 
To  this  let  me  couple  the  just  complaint  of  that  honest  Domi- 
nican Melchior  Canus :  "  Dolenter  hoc  dico,  multo  severius  & 

*  l  Tim.  v.  3.  f  Acts  xii.  3.  J  De  Trad.  Discrip.  1.  v. 


Laertio  vitas  Philosophorum  scriptas,  quam  a  Christianis  vitas 
Sanctorum,  longeque  incorruptius  et  integrius  Suetonium  res 
Ceesarum  exposuisse,  quam  exposuerint  Catholici,  non  res  dico 
imperatorum,  sed  martyrum,  virginum,  et  confessorum."*  ("  I 
speak  it  to  my  grief,"  saith  he,  "  that  the  lives  of  the  Philoso- 
phers are  more  gravely  written  by  Laertius,  than  Saints  are  by 
Christians  ;  and  that  Suetonius  hath  recorded  the  actions  of  the 
Csesars  with  more  truth  and  integrity,  than  Catholics  have  the 
lives,  I  say  not  of  princes,  but  even  of  martyrs,  virgins,  and  con- 

To  return  to  our  English  saints.  As  our  catalogue  beginneth 
with  Alban,  it  endeth  with  Thomas  bishop  of  Hereford,  who 
died  anno  Domini  1282,  the  last  Englishman  canonized  by  the 
Pope :  for  though  Anselm  was  canonized  after  him  (in  the 
reign  of  king  Henry  the  Seventh)  he  was  no  English  but  a 
Frenchman,  who  died  more  than  an  hundred  years  before  him. 
Since  which  time,  no  English,  and  few  foreigners,  have  attained 
that  honour;  which  the  Pope  is  very  sparing  to  confer  :  First, 
because  sensible  that  multitude  of  saints  abateth  veneration. 
Secondly,  the  calendar  is  filled,  not  to  say  pestered,  with  them, 
jostling  one  another  for  room,  many  holding  the  same  day  in 
co-partnership  of  festivity.  Thirdly,  the  charge  of  canonization 
is  great ;  few  so  charitable  as  to  buy  it,  the  Pope  too  covetous 
to  give  it  to  the  memories  of  the  deceased.  Lastly,  Protestants 
daily  grow  more  prying  into  the  Pope's  proceedings,  and  the 
[suspected]  perfections  of  such  persons,  who  are  to  be  sainted  ; 
which  hath  made  his  Holiness  the  more  cautious,  to  canonize 
none  whilst  their  memories  are  on  the  must,  immediately  after 
their  deaths,  before  the  same  is  fined  in  the  cask,  with  some 
competent  continuance  of  time  after  their  decease. 


St.  Ambrose,  in  his  Te  Deum,  doth  justify  the  epithet ;  and 
by  Martyrs,  all  know  such  only  are  imported  who  have  lost 
their  lives  for  the  testimony  of  a  fundamental  truth.  However, 
we  find  the  word  by  one  of  the  purest  writers  in  the  primitive 
times  attributed  to  such  who  were  then  alive :  ee  Cyprianus 
Nemisiano  Felici,  Lucio,  alteri  Felici,  Litteo,  Coliano,  Victori, 
Faderi,  Dativo,  Coepiscopis ;  item,  Compresbyteris  et  Diacon- 
ibus,  et  ceeteris  fratribus  in  metallo  constitutis,  Martyribus  Dei 
Patris  Omnipotentis  et  Jesu  Christi  Domini,  et  Dei  Conser- 
vatoris  nostri,  seternam  salutem."f 

See  here  how  he  bemartyreth  such  who  as  yet  did  survive ; 
but  in  so  servile  a  condition  (condemned  to  the  mines)  that 
they  were  almost  hopeless,  without  miracle,  to  be  released. 
Yet  dare  we  not  presume  on  this  precedent  of  St.  Cyprian 
(children  must  not  do  what  their  fathers  may)  to  use  the  word 

Lib.  xi.  c.  6.  |  Cyprianus,  Epist.  77.  as  marshalled  by  Pamelian. 


so  extensively ;  but  by  martyrs  understand  persons  (not  in  the 
deepest  durance  and  distress)  but  actually  slain  for  the  testi- 
mony of  Jesus  Christ,  which  by  an  ingenious  pen  is  thus  not  ill 
expressed : 

"  What  desperate  challenger  is  he,    >  For  all  the  way  he  goes  he's  none 

Before  he  perish  in  the  flame,  Till  he  be  gone. 

What  e'er  his  pain  or  patience  be,  It  is  not  dying,  but  'tis  death 

Who  dares  assume  a  MARTYR'S  name  ?  Only  gains  a  MARTYR'S  wreath." 

Now  such  martyrs  as  our  land  hath  produced  are  reducible  to 
three  different  ranks  : 

1.  Britons,  suffering  under  Dioclesian,  the  persecuting 
Roman  emperor ;  as  Alban,  Amphibalus,  &c.  2.  Saxons,  mas- 
sacred by  the  Pagan  Danes ;  as  king  Edmund,  Ebba,  &c. 
3.  English,  murdered  by  the  cruelty  of  papists,  since  the  year 
1400;  as  William  Sawtree,  John  Badby,  &c. 

In  the  two  former  of  these  we  are  prevented,  and  they  antici- 
pated from  us,  by  the  Pope's  canonizing  them  under  the  title 
of  Saints.  The  third  and  last  only  remain  proper  for  our 
pen,  martyred  by  the  Romish  prelates  for  above  an  hundred  and 
fifty  years  together. 

I  confess  I  have  formerly  met  with  some  men,  who  would  not 
allow  them  for  martyrs  who  suffered  in  the  reign  of  queen 
Mary,  making  them  little  better  than  felons  de  se,  wilfully  draw- 
ing their  blood  on  themselves.  Most  of  these,  I  hope,  are 
since  convinced  in  their  judgment,  and  have  learned  more  cha- 
rity in  the  school  of  affliction,  who  by  their  own  losses  have 
learned  better  to  value  the  lives  of  others,  and  now  will  willingly 
allow  martyrship  to  those  from  whom  they  wholly  withheld  or 
grudgingly  gave  it  before. 

We  have  reckoned  up  these  martyrs  according  to  the  places 
of  their  nativity,  where  we  could  find  them,  which  is  my  first 
choice,  in  conformity  to  the  rest  of  this  work.  But  in  case  this 
cannot  be  done,  my  second  choice  is  (for  know,  reader,  -'tis  no 
refuge)  to  rank  them  according  to  the  place  of  their  death, 
which  is  their  true  birth-place  in  the  language  of  antiquity.* 
Hear  how  a  right  ancient  author  expresseth  himself  to  this  pur- 
pose :  ££  Apte  consuetudinem  tenet  Ecclesia,  ut  solennes  bea- 
torum  Martyrum  vel  Confessorum  Christi  dies,  quibus  ex  hoc 
mundo  ad  regionem  migraverunt  vivorum,  nuncupentur  Natales, 
et  eorum  sollennia  non  funebria,  tanquam  morientium,  sed 
(utpote  in  ver£  vita  nascentium)  Natalitia  vocitentur/"t  Now 
if  the  day  of  their  death  be  justly  entitled  their  birth-day,  the 
place  of  their  death  may  be  called  their  birth-place  by  the  same 
analogy  of  reason  and  language. 

We  have  given  in  a  list  of  martyrs'  names  in  their  respective 
counties,  but  not  their  total  number,  only  insisting  on  such 

*  Origen,  lib.  iii.     Comment,  in  Job.     Albinus  Flac.  de  Divin.   Offic   cap.  de 

xta  Feria,  p.  60. 

f  Nichol.  Papa  in  Epist.  ad  Consulta  Bulgarorum,  cap.  5.  in  fine. 


who  were  most  remarkable  ;  remitting  the  reader  for  the  rest 
to  the  voluminous  pains  of  Mr.  Fox,  who  hath  written  all,  and 
if  malicious  papists  be  believed,  more  than  all,  of  this  subject. 


All  good  Christians  are  concluded  within  the  compass  of 
Confessors  in  the  large  acception  thereof.  "With  the  mouth 
confession  is  made  unto  salvation."*  But  here  we  restrain  this 
title  to  such  who  have  adventured  fair  and  far  for  martyrdom, 
and  at  last  not  declined  it  by  their  own  cowardice,  but  escaped 
it  by  Divine  Providence.  Confessor  is  a  name  none  can  wear 
whom  it  cost  nothing.  It  must  be  purchased  for  the  mainte- 
nance of  the  faith,  with  the  loss  of  their  native  land,  liberty, 
livelihood,  limbs,  any  thing  under  life  itself. 

Yet  in  this  confined  sense  of  confessors,  we  may  say  with 
Leah,  at  the  birth  of  Gad,  " Behold  a  troop  cometh,"t  too 
many  to  be  known,  written,  read,  remembered ;  we  are  forced 
therefore  to  reconfine  the  word  to  such  who  were  canditates 
and  probationers  for  martyrdom  in  proximo,  potentia.  There 
was  not  a  stride,  "but  (to  use  David's  expression)  a  step 
betwixt  them  and  death  ;"J  their  wedding  clothes  were  made, 
but  not  put  on,  for  their  marriage  to  the  fire.  In  a  word,  they 
were  soft  wax,  ready  chafed  and  prepared,  but  the  signature  of 
a  violent  death  was  not  stamped  upon  them. 

Manifold  is  the  use  of  our  observing  these  confessors  :  First, 
to  show  that  God  alone  hath  paramount  power  of  life  and 
death  ;  preserving  those  who  by  men  are  "  appointed  to  die."§ 
One  whose  son  lay  very  sick,  was  told  by  the  physician,  "  Your 
son,  sir,  is  a  dead  man."  To  whom  the  father  (not  disheartened 
thereat)  returned,  "I  had  rather  a  physician  should  call  him  so  an 
hundred  times,  than  a  judge  on  the  bench  should  do  it  once, 
whose  pronouncing  him  for  a  dead  man  makes  him  to  be  one." 
But  though  both  a  physician  in  nature,  and  a  judge  in  law, 
give  men  for  gone,  the  one  passing  the  censure,  the  other  sen- 
tence of  death  upon  them;  God,  "to  whom  belongeth  the 
issues  from  death/' ||  may  preserve  them  Idng  in  the  land  of  the 
living.  Hereof  these  confessors  are  eminent  instances ;  and 
may  God  therefore  have  the  glory  of  their  so  strange  deli- 
verances ! 

Secondly,  it  serveth  to  comfort  God's  servants  in  their  great- 
est distress.  Let  hand  join  in  hand  ;  let  tyrants  piece  the  lion's 
cruelty  with  the  fox's  craft;  let  them  face  their  plots  with 
power,  and  line  them  with  policy;  all  shall  take  no  effect. 
God's  servants,  if  he  seeth  it  for  his  glory  and  their  good,  shall 
either  be  mercifully  preserved  from  or  mightily  protected  in 
dangers,  whereof  these  confessors  are  "  a  cloud  of  witnesses." 
We  have  an  English  proverb,  "  Threatened  folks  live  long ;" 

*  Rom.  x.  10.  f  Gen.  xxx.  11.  J   i  Sam.  xx.  3. 

§        ||  Psalm  Ixviii.  20. 


but  let  me  add,  I  know  a  threatened  man  who  did  never  die  at 
all;  namely,  the  prophet  Elijah,  threatened  by  cruel  and  crafty 
Jezebel,  " The  gods  do  so  to  me,  and  more  also,  if  I  make  not 
thy  life  like  one  of  their  lives  by  to-morrow  at  this  time."* 
Yet  did  he  never  taste  of  mortality,  being  conveyed  by  a  fiery 
chariot  into  heaven.  Now,  although  our  ensuing  history  pre- 
senteth  not  any  miraculously  preserved  from  death,  yet  affordeth 
it  plenty  of  strange  preservations  of  persons  to  extreme  old  age, 
though  they  wear  the  marks  of  many  and  mighty  men's  menaces, 
who  plotted  and  practised  their  destruction. 

We  have  pursued  the  same  course  in  confessors,  which  we 
embraced  in -martyrs;  viz.  we  have  ranked  them  according 
to  their  nativities,  where  we  could  certainly  observe  them,  to 
make  them  herein  uniform  with  the  rest  of  our  book.  But 
where  this  could  not  be  attained,  we  have  entered  them  in 
those  counties  where  they  had  the  longest  or  sharpest  sufferings. 
And  this  we  humbly  conceive  proper  enough,  seeing  their  con- 
fessorship  in  a  strict  sense  did  bear  true  date  from  the  place  of 
their  greatest  persecution. 




I  MEET  with  a  mass  of  English  natives  advanced  to  that 
honour.  Pope  John  Joan  is  wholly  omitted ;  partly  because 
we  need  not  charge  that  see  with  suspicious  and  doubtful  crimes, 
whose  notorious  faults  are  too  apparent,  partly  because  this 
He- she,  though  allowed  of  English  extraction,  is  generally  be- 
lieved born  at  Mentz  in  Germany.f 

Wonder  not  that  so  few  of  our  countrymen  gained  the  triple 
crown.  For,  first,  great  our  distance  from  Rome,  who,  being 
an  island  or  little  world  by  ourselves,  had  our  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury,  which  formerly  was  accounted  alterius  orbis  Papa. 
Secondly,  the  Italians  of  late  have  engrossed  the  papacy  to  them- 
selves :  and  much  good  may  their  monopoly  do  them  ;  seeing 
our  English  may  more  safely  repose  themselves  in  some  other 
seat  than  the  Papal  chair,  more  fatal,  it  is  to  be  feared,  to  such 
as  sit  therein,  than  ever  Eli's  proved  unto  him-t 

Yea,  I  assure  you,  four  Popes  was  a  very  fair  proportion  for 
England.  For  having  perused  the  voluminous  book  of  Panta- 
leon,  "De  Viris  illustribus  Germanise,"  I  find  but  six  Popes, 

*  1  Kings  xix.  2.  f  Godwin,  in  Catal.  Cardinal,  p.  159. 

:  1  Sam.  iv.  18. 


Dutchmen  by  their  nativity,  viz.  Stephen  the  Eighth,  Gregory 
the  Fifth,  Silvester  the  Second,  Leo  the  Ninth,  Victor  the 
Second,  and  Adrian  the  Sixth.  Seeing  therefore  Germany,  in 
the  latitude  thereof,  a  continent  five  times  bigger  than  England, 
measured  by  the  aforesaid  Pantaleon  with  advantage ;  I  say, 
seeing  Germany,  the  Emperor  whereof  is,  or  ought  to  be,  Pa- 
tron to  the  Pope,  produced  by  but  six  of  that  order,  England  s 
four  acquit  themselves  in  a  very  good  appearance. 

I  need  not  observe  that  our  English  word  Pope  came  from 
the  Latin  Papa,  signifying  a  father,  a  title  anciently  given  to 
other  bishops,  but  afterwards  fixed  on  the  see  of  Rome.  One 
would  have  him  called  Papa  by  abbreviation,  quasi  PAter 
PAtriarcharum,  flitting  only  the  two  first  syllables  ; — a  pretty 
conceit,  which  I  dare  no  more  avouch  than  his  fancy  who 
affirmed  the  former  syllable  in  Papa  to  be  short  in  verse,  for 
the  Popes  personal,  who  indeed  are  short-lived  ;  whilst  the  same 
syllable  is  long,  the  word  being  taken  for  the  succession  of 
Popes,  who  have  lasted  above  a  thousand  years. 


A  word  of  their  names,  numbers,  degrees,  dignities,  titles,  and 
habit.  Cardinals  are  not  so  called,  because  the  hinges  on  which 
the  church  of  Rome  doth  move,  but  from  cardo,  which  signi- 
fieth  the  end  of  a  tenon  put  into  a  mortise,*  being  accordingly 
fixed  and  fastened  to  their  respective  churches.  Anciently, 
cardinalis  imported  no  more  than  an  ecclesiastical  person,  bene- 
ficed  and  inducted  into  a  cure  of  souls;  and  all  bishops  gene- 
rally made  cardinals  as  well  as  the  Pope  of  Rome. 

In  proof  whereof,  there  were  anciently  founded,  in  the  church 
of  Saint  Paul's,  two  cardinals  chosen  by  the  dean  and  chapter 
out  of  the  twelve  petty  canons ;  whose  office  it  was  to  take 
notice  of  the  absence  and  neglect  of  all  in  the  choir,  to  give  the 
eucharist  to  the  minister  of  that  church  and  their  servants,  as 
well  in  health  as  in  sickness ;  to  hear  confessions,  appoint 
penance,  and  to  commit  the  dead  to  convenient  sepulture.  And 
two  of  them  lie  buried  in  the  church  of  Saint  Faith,  with  these 
epitaphs  : 

"  Hie  homo  Catholicus  "Willielmus  West  tumulatur, 
Pauli  Canonicus  Minor  Ecclesise  vocitatur, 
Qui  fuerat  Cardinalis  bonus  atque  sodalis,"  &c. 

"  Perpetuis  annis  memores  estote  Johannis 
Good,  Succentoris,  Cardinalisque  minoris,"  &c. 

Many  other  churches  besides  Saint  Paul's  retained  this 
custom  of  cardinal-making  ;  viz.  Ravenna,  Aquileia,  Milan, 
Piso,  Beneventana  in  Italy,  and  Compostella  in  Spain. 

But  in  process  of  time  cardinal  became  appropriated  to  such 
as  officiated  in  Rome;  and  they  are  reckoned  up  variously  by 

*  Vitruvius,  lib.  10,  c.    20. 


authors,,  fifty-one,,  fifty-three,  fifty-eight,  sixty;  I  believe  their 
number  arbitrary,  to  be  increased  or  diminished  ad  libitum 
Domini  Papae.  They  are  divided  into  three  ranks:  Cardinal 
Bishops,  assessors  with  the  Pope ;  Cardinal  Priests,  assistants 
to  the  Pope;  and  Cardinal  Deacons,  attendants  on  the  Pope. 

The  former  of  these  have  chairs  allowed  them,  and  may  sit 
down  in  presence  of  his  Holiness;  and  these  are  seven  in 
number,  whose  sees  are  in  the  vicinage  of  Rome;  and  some 
Englishmen  have  had  the  honour  to  be  dignified  by  them. 
1.  Bishop  of  Hostia.  2.  Bishop  of  Rorto,  R.  Kilwardby. 
3.  Bishop  of  Sabine.  4.  Bishop  of  Alba,  Nic.  Breakspeare. 

5.  Bishop  of  Preneste,  Bernar.  Anglicus  and   Simon  Langham. 

6.  Bishop  of  Rufine.     ?•  Bishop  of  Tusculane. 

Cardinal  Priests  succeed,  generally  accounted  twenty-eight, 
divided  into  four  septenaries,  whose  titles  are  here  presented, 
with  such  Englishmen*  who  attained  to  be  honoured  with  such 
churches  in  Rome. 

1.  St.  Mary's  beyond  Tiber.  2.  St.  Chrysogon ;  Stephen 
Laughton,  A.  D.  1212.  3.  St.  Cecily  beyond  Tiber;  Thomas 
Wolsey,  A.  D.  1515.  4.  St.  Anastasia;  John  Morton,  A.  D. 
1493.  5.  St.  Laurence  in  Damaso.  6.  St.  Mark.  J.  St.  Mar- 
tin in  the  Mount;  William  Alan,  A.  D.  1587-  8.  St.  Sabine; 
John  Stafford,  A.  D.  1434.  9.  "St.  Prisca;  Reginald  Pole,  A.  D. 
1540.  10.  St.  Balbine.  11.  St.  Nereus  and  Achileus ;  Phil. 
Repington,  A.  D.  1408.  12.  St.  Sixtus.  13.  St.  Marcellus.  14. 
St.  Susan.  15.  St.  Praxis;  Ancherus,  A.  D.  1261.  16.  St.  Pe- 
ter ad  vincula;  Christopher  Bambridge,  A.  D.  1511.  17.  St. 
Laurence  in  Lucina.  18.  St.  Crosses  Jerusalem;  Boso,  A.  D. 
1156.  19.  St.  Stephen  in  Mount  Celius  ;  Robert  Curson,  A.  D. 
1211.  20.  St.  John  and  St.  Paul;  Robert  Summercote,  A.  D. 
1234.  21.  The  four  Crowned  Saints.  22.  The  holy  Apostles. 

23.  St.  Cyriacus  in  the  Baths  ;  Thomas  Bourchier,    A.  D.  1464. 

24.  St.    Eusebius;    Robert    Pullen,    A.  D.I  144.    25.   St.   Pun- 
tiana;  Boso,  A.  D.  1160.     26.  St.  Vitalis— St.' ;  John  Fish- 
er, A.D.    1535.    27.  St.   Marceline   and   Peter.    28.  St.    Cle- 

Observe,  I  pray  you,  this  catalogue  of  titles  (taken  out  of  Sir 
Henry  Spelman  his  glossary)  is  imperfect,  St.  Pastor  being 
omitted  therein,  whereof  Boso  was  at  last  made  cardinal.f 
For  these  cardinals  were  not  so  mortised  to  their  churches,  but 
that  they  might  be  removed,  especially  if  advanced  a  story  higher 
(from  cardinal  deacons  to  priests,  from  priests  to  bishops); 
and  sometimes,  though  remaining  on  the  same  floor,  they  were 
removed  (to  make  room  for  others)  to  some  other  title.  Many 
more  Englishmen  we  had  created  cardinals,  whose  certain  titles 
are  unknown, 

*  Sometimes  there  were  several  English  Cardinals  successively  of  the  same  title, 
whose  names  and  numbers  will  be  exhibited  in  their  respective  counties. 
t  Bishop  Godwin,  in  his  Catalogue  of  Cardinals,  p.  165. 
VOL.    I.  C 


But  let  us  proceed  to  the  Cardinal  Deacons,  sixteen  in  num- 

>ei."  St.  Mary  in  Dompusinica.  2.  St.  Lucy.  3.  St.  Mary 
the  New  4.  St.  Comus  and  St.  Damian.  5.  fc  (jregory.  6. 
St  Mary  in  the  Greek  School.  7-  St.  Mary  in  the  Porch.  8. 
St.  Nicholas  by  the  Prison.  9.  St.  Angelus.  10.  St.  kusta- 
chius.  11.  St.  Mary  in  the  Water.  12.  St.  Mary  in  the  broad 
Way.  13.  St.  Agathe.  14.  St.  Lucia  on  the  top  of  Sabme. 
15.  St.  Quintin.  16.  St.  [The  last  lost  by  the  Scribe  in 


I  only  find  one  Englishman,  Boso  by  name,  made  cardinal 
deacon  of  St.  Cosmus  and  St.  Damian  5  but  it  was  not  long 
before  he  was  advanced  to  be  a  cardinal  bishop. 

The  habit  of  cardinals  is  all  scarlet;  whereof  Theodore  Beza 
tartly  enough  thus  expresseth  himself : 

Crede  mees  nullo  saturantur  murice  vestes, 

Divite  nee  cocco  pallia  tincta  mihi. 
Sed  qua  rubra  vides  Sanctorum  ccede  virorum, 

Et  mersa  insonti  sanguine  cuncta  incident, 
Aut  memor  istorum  qua  celat  crimina  veslis, 

Pro  Domino  justo  tincta  pudore  rubet. 

"  My  clothes  in  purple  liquor  ne'er  were  stew'd, 

Nor  garments  (trust  me)  richly  dyed  in  grain. 
These  robes  you  see  so  red  I  have  imbru'd 

In  gore  of  guiltless  saints,  whom  I  have  slain. 
Or,  mindful  of  the  faults  they  hide,  with  shame 

The  bashful  clothes  do  blush  their  wearer's  blame." 

They  wore  also  a  red  hat  of  a  peculiar  fashion  to  themselves, 
and  rode  abroad  on  horseback  on  scarlet  foot-clothes  !  and 
Pope  Paul  the  Second  made  it  penal  for  any  beneath  their  order 
in  Rome  to  use  the  same  ;*  yea,  to  such  a  height  of  pride  did 
they  aspire,  that  we  read  this  note  in  the  Roman  Pontifical : 
"Notandum,  quod  Caesar  antequam  coronetur  simplici  diade- 
mate  sedet  post  primum  episcopum  cardirialem  :  et  si  quis  rex 
adest,  sedet  tune  post  primum  omnium  presbyterum  cardina- 
lem."  Indeed,  making  their  own  canons,  and  being  their  own 
heralds  to  marshal  their  own  precedency,  they  had  been  much 
to  blame  if  not  carving  a  good  portion,  of  honour  to  themselves, 
whilst  devout  princes,  abused  by  bad  instructors  and  their  own 
erroneous  consciences,  gave  to  the  clergy  what  they  were  pleased 
to  demand. 

None  might  elect  the  Pope  save  such  as  were  cardinals  ;  yea, 
none  out  of  that  order  were  eligible  into  the  Papacy ;  as  in 
England  one  must  first  be  a  serjeant  before  he  be  a  judge. 
Cardinal  deacons  were  in  equal  capacity  of  being  popes  with  car- 
dinal priests,  and  oftentimes  were  preferred  before  them,  as  they 
could  strengthen  their  faction,  which  carried  all  in  these,  and  I 
could  wish  in  no  other,  elections. 

*  Platina  in  ejus  vita. 


William  Allen,  who  died  anno  1594,  was  the  last  Englishman 
advanced  to  this  honour ;  so  that  our  country  hath  not  had  a 
cardinal  these  sixty  years,  which  from  the  former  six  '^hundred 
years  was  never  without  one  or  two  of  that  order.  This  may 
seem  a  wonder ;  our  nation  being  as  meriting  as  any  for  the 
Romish  cause,  and  having  as  good  heads  as  any,  why  should 
they  not  wear  as  gay  hats  as  others  ?  Nor  will  the  reasons 
assigned  for  the  contrary  give  satisfaction :  viz. 

1.  That  the  Pope  commonly  makes  Cardinals  to  gratify  foreign 
kings,  whilst  our  English  sovereigns  have  ever  since  been  of  a 
different  religion  from  his  holiness.  2.  That  our  English  Ca- 
tholics living  beyond  seas  in  the  nature  of  exiles,  and  under 
persecution,  as  they  call  it,  so  high  an  honour  is  inconsistent 
with  their  suffering  condition.  3.  That  our  Englishmen  want 
preferment  and  estates  to  maintain  the  distance  of  so  great  a 

There  are  at  the  present  two  English  natives  in  France  of  noble 
extraction  and  Romish  persuasion,  much  voiced  in  common 
discourse  for  their  probability  to  such  preferment ;  but  on  what 
grounds  I  do  not  know,  and  list  not  to  inquire. 

Surely  the  matter  is  not  great,  seeing  that  dignity  hath  been 
observed  to  be  rather  fatal  than  fortunate  to  the  English,  and 
attended  with  some  sad  and  sudden  casualties.  1.  Cardinal 
Mackelsfield  was  four  months  buried  before  his  cap  was  brought 
him.  2.  Cardinal  Sertor  died  in  Italy  in  the  juncture  of  time 
inter  pileum  datum  et  susceptum.  3.  Cardinal  Fisher,  when  his 
cap  was  come  to  Calais,  had  his  head  struck  off  at  Tower  Hill. 
4.  Cardinal  Somercot  was  poisoned  in  the  very  conclave,  to 
prevent  his  selection  to  the  popedom.  5.  Cardinal  Evosham 
was  sent  the  same  way  on  the  same  occasion.  6.  Cardinal 
Bambridge  was  poisoned  at  Rome  by  one  of  his  servants,  being 
an  Italian. 

If  such  their  success,  I  suppose  it  far  easier  for  Englishmen 
to  have  their  caps  (though  coarser  and  cheaper)  made  of  our 
own  country  wool,  which  will  be  more  warm,  and  may  prove 
more  healthful  for  the  wearers  thereof.  I  have  done  with  this 
subject  when  I  have  observed  that  there  is  a  cardinal  bishop  of 
Sabine,  a  place  near  Rome ;  and  a  cardinal  priest  of  St.  Sabine, 
a  church  dedicated  to  her  memory  in  the  same  city;  the  not 
heeding  whereof,  I  suspect,  hath  bred  much  confusion  in  our 
English  writers.  The  best  is,  our  Englishmen,  when  they  write 
of  places  in  Italy,  cannot  commit  greater  and  grosser  mistakes 
than  what  Italians  have  done,  when  they  have  written  of  towns 
and  places  in  England ;  though  perchance,  such  is  their  pride, 
that  they  will  say  it  is  our  duty  to  be  exact  in  Italy,  and  their 
courtesy  to  take  any  notice  of  England. 

Let  not  the  reader  wonder  if  cardinals  inserted  in  others  are 
omitted  in  our  catalogue ;  viz.  Ulricus,  Ancherus,  Theobaldus, 
Bernadus  de  Anguiscello,  &c.  ;  seeing  I  am  unsatisfied  in  some 

c  2 


of  them  whether  they  were  cardinals ;  in  others  whether  they 
were  Englishmen  ;  foreign  countries  laying  more  probable 
claim  unto  them.  Nor  will  it  quit  the  cost  of  a  contest,,  nothing 
more  than  their  names  being  left  in  history,  without  any  other 


Next  succeed  such  eminent  clergymen  who  attained  to  the 
honour  of  being  archbishops  and  bishops  in  England,  and 
were  famous  in  their  generations. 

Objection.— These  popes,  cardinals,  and  prelates,  were  su- 
perstitious persons,  and  limbs  of  Antichrist,  whose  names  are 
better  lost  than  kept.  Yea,  it  mattered  not  much  if  some  good 
Josiah  served  their  bones  as  those  of  the  idolatrous  priests  of 
Jeroboam ;  even  burn  them  to  ashes,  that  so  their  bodies  and 
memories  might  perish  together.* 

Answer. — I  am  afraid  our  age  affords  those  who,  if  they  were 
to  manage  that  act,  would,  together  with  their  bones,  sans  differ- 
ence) notwithstanding  the  distinguishing  epithet,  burn  the  bodies 
of  the  young  and  old  prophet ;  I  mean,  utterly  extirpate  the 
ministerial  function.  But  I  answer,  it  must  be  confessed  they 
were  deeply  dyed  with  the  errors  and  vices  of  the  age  they  lived 
in,  yet  so  that  some  of  them  were  for  their  devotion  exemplary 
to  posterity  ;  and  the  very  worst  of  them,  though  yielding  no- 
thing fit  for  our  imitation,  may  afford  what  is  well  worth  our 

And  here  be  it  remembered,  that  the  same  epithet  in  several 
places  accepts  sundry  interpretations.  He  is  called  a  Good 
Man,  in  common  discourse,  who  is  not  dignified  with  gentility  : 
a  Good  Man  upon  the  exchange,  who  hath  a  responsible  es- 
tate ;  a  Good  Man  in  a  camp,  who  is  a  tall  man  of  his  arms  ; 
a  Good  Man  in  the  church,  who  is  pious  and  devout  in  his  con- 
versation. Thus,  whatsoever  is  fixed  therein  in  other  relations, 
that  person  is  a  Good  Man  in  history,  whose  character  affords 
such  matter  as  may  please  the  palate  of  an  ingenuous  reader  ; 
and  I  humbly  crave  the  honour  to  be  his  taster  in  this  behalf. 

Now  of  bishops  before  the  Conquest,  the  most  were  merely 
nuda  nomina,  naked  names.  As  for  such  appearing  clothed  with 
remarkable  history,  most  of  them  move  in  an  higher  sphere  of 
saints,  and  so  are  anticipated.  Since  the  Conquest,  for  the  first 
seven  kings,  many  prelates  were  foreigners,  generally  French, 
and  so  aliens  from  our  subject.  It  will  therefore  be  seasonable 
to  begin  their  catalogue  about  the  time  of  king  Henry  the  Third, 
deducing  it  unto  the  popish  bishops  who  were  deprived  in  the 
first  of  queen  Elizabeth. 

*  2  Kings  xxiii.  10. 




NEXT  those  prelates  before,  follow  such  as  were  since  the 
Reformation ;  much  different,  not  in  title  but  tenure,  from  the 
former  holding  their  places,  not  from  the  Pope  but  their  prince, 
and  practising  the  principles  of  the  Protestant  religion,  for  the 
term  of  a  hundred  and  twenty  years,  since  the  latter  end  of  the 
reign  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth.  Amongst  these,  malice  itself 
meets  with  many,  which  it  must  allow,  for  their  living,  preach- 
ing, and  writing,  to  have  been  the  main  champions  of  truth 
against  error,  learning  against  ignorance,  piety  against  profane- 
ness,  religion  against  superstition,  unity  and  order  against  faction 
and  confusion ;  verifying  the  judicious  observation  of  foreigners, 
"  Clerus  Britannise,  gloria  mundi." 

These  prelates  may  be  digested  into  five  successive  sets,  or 
companies,  under  their  respective  archbishops ;  allowing  each  of 
them  somewhat  more  than  twenty  years,  as  large  a  proportion 
for  the  life  of  a  bishop  as  seventy  years  for  the  age  of  a  man. 

1.  Archbishop  Cranmer's;  whereof  four,  besides  himself, 
were  burnt  at  the  stake,  and  the  rest  exiled  in  Germany.  2. 
Archbishop  Parker's ;  in  the  beginning  of  queen  Elizabeth 
leading  halcyon-days,  without  any  considerable  opposition 
against  the  hierarchy.  3.  Archbishop  Whitgift's ;  much  pen- 
persecuted,  and  pelted  at  with  libellous  pamphlets ;  but  sup- 
ported by  queen  Elizabeth^  zeal  to  maintain  the  discipline 
established.  4..  Archbishop  Abbot's ;  fortunate  all  the  peace- 
able reign  of  king  James,  and  beginning  of  king  Charles, 
though  the  sky  was  red  and  lowering,  foretelling  foul  weather  to 
follow,  a  little  before  their  death.  5.  Archbishop  Juxton's ; 
whose  episcopal  chairs  were  not  only  shrewdly  shaken,  but  (as 
to  outward  appearance)  overturned  in  our  late  mutinous  disr, 

I  know  the  man  full  well,  to  whom  Mr.  Charles  Herle,  pre- 
sident of  the  assembly,  said  somewhat  insultingly,  ee  He  tel 
you  news  :  last  night  I  buryed  a  bishop,  dashing  more  at  his 
profession  then  person,  in  Westminster  Abbey."  To  whom 
the  other  returned,  with  like  latitude  to  both,  "  Sure  you  buried 
him  in  hope  of  resurrection."  This  our  eyes  at  this  day  see 
performed ;  and,  it  being  "  tlie  work  of  the  Lord,  may  justly 
seem  marvellous  in  our  sight." 

It  is  also  very  remarkable,  that  of  this  fifth  and  last  company 
[all  bishops  in  1642]  nine  are  alive  at  this  present; — viz.  par- 
don me  if  not  enumerating  them  exactly  according  to  their 
consecration — London,  Bath,  Wells,  Ely,  Salisbury,  Bangor, 
Coventry  and  Lichfield,  Oxford,  Rochester,  and  Chichester ;  a 
vivacity  hardly  to  be  paralleled  of  so  many  bishops  in  any 
other  age,  Providence  purposely  prolonging  their  lives,  that  as 


they  had  seen  the  violent  ruining,  they  might  also  behold  the 
legal  restitution  of  their  order. 

Now  although  not  the  quick  but  (the)  dead  worthies  properly 
pertain  to  my  pen,  yet  I  crave  leave  of  the  reader  in  my  follow- 
ing work,  to  enter  a  brief  memorial  of  the  place  of  their  nativi- 
ties :  partly  because  lately  they  were  dead,  though  not  in  law, 
in  the  list  of  a  prevalent  party ;  partly  because  they  are  dead  to 
the  world,  having  most  attained,  if  not  exceeded,  the  age  of 
man,  three  score  and  ten  years. 

To  conclude :  though  the  Apostle's  words  be  most  true,  "  that 
the  lesser  are  blessed  of  the  greater,"  and  that  imperative  and 
indicative  blessings  always  descend  from  the  superior ;  yet  an 
optative  blessing,  no  more  than  a  plain  prayer,  may  properly 
proceed  from  an  inferior ;  so  that  a  plain  priest  and  submissive 
son  of  the  Church  of  England  may  bless  the  bishops  and 
fathers  thereof.  God  sanctify  their  former  afflictions  unto 
them,  that  as  the  "  fire  in  the  furnace"*  only  burnt  the  bonds, 
setting  them  free  who  went  in  fettered,  not  the  clothes,  much 
less  the  bodies,  of  the  children  of  the  captivity ;  so  their  suffer- 
ings, without  doing  them  any  other  prejudice,  may  only  dis- 
engage their  souls  from  all  servitude  to  this  world. 

And  that,  for  the  future,  they  may  put  together,  not  only  the 
parcels  of  their  scattered  revenues,  but  compose  the  minds  of 
the  divided  people  in  England,  to  the  confusion  of  the  factious, 
and  confirmation  of  the  faithful  in  Israel. 



THE  word  Statesmen  is  of  great  latitude,  sometimes  signify- 
ing such  who  are  able  to  manage  offices  of  state,  though  never 
actually  called  thereunto.  Many  of  these  men,  concealing 
themselves  in  a  private  condition,  have  never  arrived  at  public 
notice.  But  we  confine  the  term  to  such  who,  by  their  prince's 
favour,  have  been  preferred  to  the  prime  places : 

1.  Of  Lord  Chancellors.  2.  Of  Lord  Treasurers  of  England. 
3.  Of  Secretaries  of  State.  To  whom  we  have  added  some 
Lord  Admirals  of  England,  and  some  Lord  Deputies  of  Ireland. 


The  name  is  taken  from  cancelli,  which  signifies  a  kind  of 
wooden  network,  which  admitteth  the  eyes  of  people  to  behold, 
but  forbids  their  feet  to  press  on  persons  of  quality,  sequestered 
to  sit  quietly  by  themselves  for  public  employment.  Hence 
chancels  have  their  denomination,  which  by  such  a  fence  were 

*  Dan.  iii.  25. 


formerly  divided  from  the  body  of  the  church  ;  and  so  the  lord 
chancellor  had  a  seat  several  to  himself,  free  from  popular  in- 

I  find  another  notation  of  this  office,  some  deducing  his  name 
a  cancellandOy  from  cancelling  things  amiss,  and  rectifying  them 
by  the  rules  of  equity  and  a  good  conscience ;  and  this  relateth 
to  no  meaner  author  then  Johannes  Sarisburiensis.* 

Hie  est  qui  leges  Regni  cancellat  iniquas, 

Et  mnndata  pii  principis  tequa  facit* 
Siquid  obest  populis,  uut  legibus  est  inimicum, 

Quicquid  obest,  per  eum  desinit  esse  nocens. 

"  'Tis  he,  who  cancelleth  all  cruel  laws, 

And  in  kings'  mandates  equity  doth  cause. 
If  aught  to  land  or  laws  doth  hurtful  prove, 
His  care  that  hurt  doth  speedily  remove." 

He  is  the  highest  officer  of  the  land,  whose  principal  employ- 
ment is  to  mitigate  the  rigour  of  the  common  law  with  consci- 
entious qualifications.  For  as  the  prophet  complaineth  that  the 
magistrates  in  Israel  had  "  turned  judgment  into  wormwood,"  f 
the  like  would  daily  come  to  pass  in  England,  where  high  jus- 
tice would  be  high  injustice,  if  the  bitterness  thereof  were  not 
sometimes  seasonably  sweetened  with  a  mixture  of  equity. 

He  also  keepeth  the  great  seal  of  the  land,  the  affixing 
whereof  preferreth  what  formerly  was  but  a  piece  of  written 
parchment  to  be  a  patent  or  charter.  For  though  it  be  true 
what  Solomon  says,  <e  Where  the  word  of  a  king  is,  there  is 
power  ;J  yet  that  word  doth  not  act  effectually,  until  it  be  pro- 
duced under  the  public  seal. 

Some  difference  there  is  between  learned  authors  about  the 
antiquity  of  this  office,  when  it  first  began  in  England.  Polydore 
Vergil,  who,  though  an  Italian,  could  (when  he  would)  see  well 
into  English  antiquities,  makes  the  office  to  begin  at  the  Con- 
queror. And  bishop  Godwin  accounteth  them  sufficiently  ridi- 
culous, who  make  Swithin  bishop  of  Winchester,  chancellor  of 
England,  under  king  Athelwolfe.  Several  persons  are  alleged 
chancellors  to  our  English  kings  before  the  Conquest, §  and  king 
Ethelred  appointed  the  abbot  of  Ely,  "  ut  in  regis  curia  can- 
cellarii  ageret  dignitatem/'  |j  The  controversy  may  easily  be 
compromised  by  this  distinction.  Chancellor  before  the  Conquest 
imported  an  office  of  credit  in  the  king's  court  (not  of  judicature, 
but)  of  residence,  much  in  the  nature  of  a  secretary.  Thus 
lately  he  was  called  the  chancellor  (understand,  not  of  the  diocese, 
b'ut)  of  the  cathedral-church,  whose  place  was  to  pen  the  letters 
belonging  thereunto;  whereas  the  notion  of  the  king's  chan- 
cellor, since  the  Conquest,  is  enlarged  and  advanced  to  signify 
the  supreme  judge  of  the  land. 

*  In  his  book  called  "  Nugse  Curialium,"  or  Polycraticon.  f  Amos,  v.  7. 

J  Eccles.  viii.  4. 

§  See  Master  Philpott's  Catalogue  of  English  Chancellors,  pp.  l,  2,  3. 

J|  History  of  Ely. 


The  lord  keeper  of  the  great  seal  is  in  effect  the  same  with 
the  lord  chancellor  of  England :  save  that  some  will  have  the 
lord  chancellor's  place  ad  terminum  vita,  and  the  lord  keeper's 
adplacitum  Regis.  Sure  it  is,  that  because  Nicholas  Heath,,  late 
archbishop  of  York  and  chancellor  of  England,  was  still  alive, 
though  ousted  of  his  office,  Sir  Nicholas  Bacon  was  made  lord 
keeper;  and  in  his  time  the  power  of  the  keeper  was  made 
equal  with  the  authority  of  the  chancellor  by  act  of  parliament. 

We  have  begun  our  catalogue  of  chancellors  at  Sir  Thomas 
More,  before  whose  time  that  place  was  generally  discharged  by 
clergymen,  entered  in  our  book  under  the  title  of  eminent  pre- 
lates. If  any  demand,  why  such  clergymen,  who  have  been  lord 
chancellors,  are  not  rather  ranked  under  tjie  title  of  statesmen, 
than  under  the  topic  of  prelates;  let  such  know,  that  seeing 
episcopacy  is  challenged  to  be  jure  divino,  and  the  chancellor's 
place  confessed  to  be  of  human  institution,  I  conceive  them 
most  properly  placed,  and  to  their  best  advantage. 

If  any  ask,  why  the  lord  chancellors,  who  meddle  so  much  in 
matters  of  law,  are  not  rather  digested  under  the  title  of  lawyers 
than  under  that  of  statesmen:  let  such  know,  it  is  done  because 
some  chancellors  were  never  lawyers  ex  professo5  studying  the 
laws  of  the  land  for  their  intended  function,  taking  them  only  in 
order  to  their  own  private  accomplishment;  whereof  Sir  Chris- 
topher Hatton  was  an  eminent  instance.  As  we  begin  our 
catalogue  with  Sir  Thomas  More,  we  close  it  with  Sir  Thomas 
Coventry;  it  being  hard  to  say,  whether  the  former  were  more 
witty  and  facetious,  or  the  latter  more  wise  and  judicious. 


Kings  without  treasure  will  not  be  suitably  obeyed :  and 
treasure  without  a  treasurer  will  not  be  safely  preserved. 
Hence  it  wras  that  the  crowns  and  sceptres  of  kings  were  made 
of  gold,  not  only  because  it  is  the  most  pure  and  precious  of 
metals,  but  to  shew  that  wealth  doth  effectually  evidence  and 
maintain  the  strength  and  state  of  majesty.  We  may  therefore 
observe,  not  only  in  profane  but  holy  writ;  not  only  in  old  but 
new  testament,  signal  notice  taken  of  those  who  were  over  the 
treasury,*  in  which  great  place  of  trust  the  eunuch  served  Can- 
dace  queen  of  Ethiopia.f 

The  office  of  Lord  Treasurer  was  ever  beheld  as  a  place  of 
great  charge  and  profit.  One  well  skilled  in  the  perquisites 
thereof,  being  demanded,  what  he  conceived  the  yearly  value  of 
the  place  was  worth,  made  this  return,  (( That  it  might  be  worth 
some  thousands  of  pounds  to  him  who,  after  death,  would  go 
instantly  to  Heaven ;  twice  as  much  to  him  who  would  go  to 
Purgatory ;  and  a  nemo  scit  to  him  who  would  adventure  to  go 
tQ  a  worse  place."  But  the  plain  truth  is,  he  that  is  a 

*  Ezrai.  e.     Neh.  xiii.  13.  -f  Apts  viii.  27. 


bad  husband  for  himself  will  never  be  a  good  one  for 
his  sovereign ;  and  therefore  no  wonder  if  they  have  advanced 
fair  estates  to  themselves,,  whose  office  was  so  advantageous,  and 
they  so  judicious  and  prudent  persons,  without  any  preju- 
dice to  their  master-,  and,  for  aught  I  know,  injury  to 
his  subjects. 

We  have  begun  our  catalogue  at  William  Lord  Powlett 
Marquess  of  Winchester.  For  although  before  him  here  and 
there  lay  lords  were  entrusted  with  that  office ;  yet  generally 
they  were  bishops,  and  so  anticipated  under  our  topic  of 
eminent  prelates.  And  blame  me  not  if,  in  this  particular, 
I  have  made  the  lustre  of  the  lords  spiritual  to  eclipse  the 
lords  temporal,  drowning  their  civil  office  in  their  ecclesiastical 
employment.  We  close  our  catalogue  of  lord  treasurers 
with  Francis  Lord  Cottington. 


There  were  but  two  of  these  at  once  in  the  king's  time, 
whereof  the  one  was  styled  the  Principal  Secretary,  the  other 
the  Secretary  of  Estate.  Some  have  said  that  the  first  in  the 
seniority  of  admission  was  accounted  the  principal ;  but  the  ex- 
ceptions in  this  kind  being  as  many  as  the  regularities,  the 
younger  being  often  brought  over  the  head  of  the  elder  to 
be  principal,  their  chiefness  was  penes  Regis  arbitrium.  Nor 
was  the  one  confined  to  foreign  negociations,  the  other  to 
domestic  business,  as  some  have  believed ;  but  promiscuously 
ordered  all  affairs,  though  the  genius  of  some  secretaries  did 
incline  them  most  to  foreign  transactions.  Their  power  was  on 
the  matter  alike ;  and  petitioners  might  make  their  applications 
indifferently  to  either,  though  most  addressed  themselves  to  him 
in  whom  they  had  the  greatest  interest.  Their  salaries  were 
some  two  hundred  pounds  a-piece ;  and  five  hundred  pounds 
a-piece  more  for  intelligence  and  secret  service. 

Before  the  reformation,  clergymen,  who  almost  were  all 
things,  were  generally  secretaries  of  estate ;  as  Oliver  King,  se- 
cretary to  Edward  IV.,  Edward  V.,  and  Henry  VII. ;  and  those 
come  under  our  pen  in  the  notion  of  eminent  prelates.  We 
therefore  begin  our  catalogue  of  secretaries  from  Sir  Thomas 
Cromwell,  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  because  from 
him  until  our  time  a  continued  series  of  laymen  have  discharged 
that  office. 

We  conclude  our  secretaries  of  state  with  Sir  John  Cook, 
who,  perceiving  his  aged  body  not  so  fit  for  such  active  times, 
resigned  his  place  about  the  beginning  of  the  Long  Parliament, 
though  surviving  some  years  after  in  a  private  condition.  We 
will,  for  the  more  safety,  follow  the  pattern  of  so  wise  a  states- 
man ;  and  where  he  gave  over  his  office,  we  will  give  over 
writing  of  those  officers,  for  fear  we  tread  too  near  on  the 
toes  of  the  times,  and  touch  too  much  on  our  modern  dis- 



Much  difference  there  is  about  the  original  of  this  word, 
whilst  most  probable  is  their  opinion  who  make  it  of  eastern  ex- 
traction, borrowed  by  the  Christians  from  the  Saracens.  These 
derive  it  from  Amir,  in  arabic  a  Prince,  and  AXtog  belonging 
to  the  sea,  in  the  Greek  language ;  such  mixture  being  prece- 
dented  in  other  words.  Besides,  seeing  the  Sultan's  dominions, 
in  the  time  of  the  holy  war,  extended  from  Sinus  Arabius  to  the 
north-eastern  part  of  the  midland-sea,  where  a  barbarous  kind 
of  Greek  was  spoken  by  many,  Amiral,  thus  compounded,  was 
significatively  comprehensive  of  his  jurisdiction.  Admiral  is  but 
a  depraving  of  Amiral  in  vulgar  mouths.  However,  it  will  never 
be  beaten  out  of  the  heads  of  common  sort,  that,  seeing  the 
sea  is  scene  of  wonders,  something  of  wonderment  hath  incor- 
porated itself  in  this  word,  and  that  it  hath  a  glimpse,  cast,  or 
eye  of  admiration  therein. 

Our  English  kings  (following  the  precedent  of  the  politic 
Romans,  who  very  seldom  entrusted  places  of  great  importance, 
especially  during  life,  in  a  single  person,  as  also  that  they  might 
gratify  more  and  trust  less,)  divided  the  over-sight  of  sea-matters 
betwixt  a  triumvirate  of  amirals,  and,  like  wary  merchants, 
ventured  the  charge  in  several  bottoms  for  the  more  safety. 

1.  The   North  Amiral. — His  jurisdiction  reached  from  the 
mouth  of  Thames  to  the  outmost  Orcades  (though  often  opposed 
by  the  Scots)  and  had  Yarmouth  for  his  prime  residence. 

2.  The  South   Amiral. — His   bounds     stretched    from    the 
Thames'  mouth  to  the  Lands-end,  having  his  station  generally 
at  Portsmouth. 

3.  Tne  West  Amiral. — His  power   extended  from  the  Land's 
end  to  the  Hebrides,  having  Ireland  under  his  inspection,  Mil- 
ford  Haven  the  chief  stable  for  his  wooden  horses. 

I  find  that  Richard  Fitz-alen,  earl  of  Arundel,  was  by  king 
Richard  the  Second  made  the  first  "  Amirall  of  all  England  ;" 
yet  so,  that  if  three  co-admirals  were  restored  as  formerly,  his 
charter  expired.  John  Vere,  earl  of  Oxford,  was,  in  1  Henry 
VII.  "  Amirall  of  England,"  and  kept  it  until  the  day  of  his 
death.  Afterwards,  men  were  checquered,  at  the  pleasure  of  our 
princes,  and  took  their  turns  in  that  office.  For  this  cause  I 
can  make  no  certain  catalogue  of  them,  who  can  take  with  my 
most  fixed  eye  no  steady  aim  at  them,  the  same  persons  being 
often  alternately  in  and  out  of  the  place,  whilst  officers  pro  ter- 
mino  vita  may  be  with  some  certainty  recounted. 

Yet  have  we  sometime  inserted  some  memorable  amirals 
under  the  title  of  statesmen ;  and  vice-amirals  under  the  topic 
of  seamen,  because  the  former  had  110  great  knowledge  in  navi- 
gation (I  say  great,  it  being  improper  they  should  be  sea-mas- 
ters who  in  no  degree  were  seamen) ;  and  were  employed,  rather 
for  their  trust  than  skill,  to  see  others  do  their  duty,  whilst  the 
latter  were  always  persons  well  experienced  in  maritime  affairs. 



Ever  since  king  Henry  the  Second  conquered  Ireland,  few  of 
our  English  princes  went  thither  in  person,  and  none  continued 
any  long  time  there,  save  king  John  and  king  Richard  the 
Second,  neither  of  them  over-fortunate.  But  that  land  was 
governed  by  a  substitute,  commissioned  from  our  kings,  with  the 
same  power,  though  sometimes  under  several  names. 

Lord  Lieutenants. — These  were  also  of  a  double  nature  ;  for 
some  staid  in  England,  and  appointed  deputies  under  them,  to 
act  all  Irish  affairs.  Others  went  over  into  Ireland,  transacting 
all  things  by  presence,  not  proxy. 

Lord  Deputies. — Immediately  deputed  by  the  king  to  reside 
there.  We  insist  on  this  title,  as  which  is  most  constant  and 
current  amongst  them. 

Lord  Chief  Justices. — Not  of  the  King's  Bench  or  Common- 
Pleas,  but  of  all  Ireland.  This  power  was  sometimes  sole  in  a 
single  person,  and  sometimes  equally  in  two  together. 

Thus  these  three  titles  are  in  sense  synonyma.,  to  signify  the 
same  power  and  place.  Some  erroneously  term  them  presi- 
dents of  Ireland,  a  title  belonging  to  the  particular  governors  of 
Munster  and  Connaught. 

It  is  true  of  Ireland  what  was  once  said  of  Edom,  "their 
deputies  were  kings/5*  No  viceroy  in  Christendom  (Naples 
itself  not  excepted)  is  observed  in  more  state.  He  chooseth 
sheriffs,  and  generally  all  officers,  save  bishops  and  judges  ;  and 
these  also,  though  not  made  by  his  commanding,  are  usually  by 
his  commending  to  the  king.  He  conferreth  knighthood  ;  hath 
power  of  life  and  death,  signified  by  the  sword  carried  commonly 
before  him  by  a  person  of  honour.  His  attendance  and  house- 
keeping is  magnificent,  partly  to  set  a  copy  of  state  to  the  bar- 
barous Irish,  by  seeing  the  difference  betwixt  the  rude  rabble 
routs  running  after  their  native  lords,  and  the  solemnity  of  a 
regulated  retinue ;  partly  to  make  in  that  rebellious  nation  a 
reverential  impression  of  majesty,  that  by  the  shadow  they  may 
admire  the  substance,  and  proportionably  collect  the  state  of 
the  king  himself,  who  therein  is  represented.  Our  English 
kings  were  content  with  the  title  of  "  Lords  of  Ireland,"  until 
king  Henry  the  Eighth,  who,  partly  to  shew  his  own  power  to 
assume  what  style  he  pleased,  without  leave  or  liberty  from  the 
Pope,  whose  supremacy  he  had  suppressed  in  his  dominions, 
partly  the  more  to  awe  the  Irish,  wrote  himself  king  thereof, 
anno  Dom.  1541,  from  which  year  we  date  our  catalogue  of 
lord  deputies,  as  then,  and  not  before,  viceroys  indeed. 

Indeed  it  was  no  more  than  needs  for  king  Henry  the  Eighth 
to  assume  that  title  ;  seeing,  "  quod  efficit  tale  magis  est  tale ;" 
and  the  commission  whereby  king  Henry  the  Second  made 
William  Fitz-Adelme  his  lieutenant  of  Ireland  hath  this  direc- 

*   1  Kings,  xxii.  47. 


tion ;  "  Archiepiscopis,  episcopis,  regibus ;  comitibus,  baronibus, 
et  omnibus  fidelibus  suis  in  Hibernia,  salutem." 

Now,,  though  by  the  postponing  of  these  kings  to  archbishops 
and  bishops,  it  plainly  appears  that  they  were  no  canonical 
kings,  as  I  may  say,,  I  mean  solemnly  invested  with  the 
emblems  of  sovereignty  [the  king  of  Connaught,*  the  king  of 
Thomond]  ;  yet  were  they  more  than  kings,  even  tyrants  in 
the  exercise  of  their  dominions,!  so  that  king  Henry  was  in 
some  sort  necessitated  to  set  himself  king  paramount  above 
them  all. 



BY  Capital  Judges  we  undertand  not  those  who  have  power 
to  condemn  offenders  for  capital  faults,  as  all  the  twelve  judges 
have,  or  any  serjeant  commissioned  to  ride  the  circuit ;  but  the 
chief  judges,  who,  as  capital  letters,  stand  in  power  and  place 
above  the  rest ;  viz.  1.  the  Chief  Justice  of  the  King's  Bench  ; 
2.  of  the  Common  Pleas  ;  3.  the  Chief  Baron  of  the  Exchequer. 
And  the  learned  antiquary!  Sir  Henry  Spelman  avoweth  the 
title  of  ei  Capital  Justices  properly  applicable  to  these  alone. 

1.  The  Chief  Justice  of  the  King's  or  upper  bench  is  commonly 
called  "  the  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  England,"  a  title  which  the 
lord  chancellor  (accounting  himself  chief  in  that  kind)  looks  on 
as   an  injurious  usurpation.     And  many  alive  may  remember 
how  Sir  Edward  Coke  was  accused  to  king  James,  for  so  styling 
himself  in  the  frontispiece  of  his  Reports,  (parts  the  tenth  and 
eleventh) ;  insomuch  that  the  judge  was  fain  to  plead  for  himself, 
"  Erravimus  cum  patribus,"  as  who  could  have  produced  plenty 
of  precedents  therein. 

2.  The  Chief  Justice  of  the  Common  Pleas,  in  place  beneath, 
is  in  profit  above  the  former;  so  that  some  have,  out  of  design, 
quitted  that,  to  accept  of  this.     Amongst  these  was  Sir  Edward 
Montague,  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the   Eighth,  who  being 
demanded  of  his  friends  the  reason  of  his  self  degradation, — "  I 
am  now,"  said  he,  "  an  old  man ;  and  love  the  kitchen  above 
the  hall,  the  warmest  place  best  suiting  my  age." 

3.  The  Chief  Baron  is  chiefly  employed  in  the  Exchequer,  to 
decide  causes  which  relate  to  the  king's  revenue.     Their  brevia, 
or  writs,  did  commonly  run  with  this  clause,  that  the  judge 
should  "have  and  hold  his  place  quamdiH  se  bent  gesserit  (so 
long  as  he  well  behaved  himself ") ;  on  this  token,  that  Sir  John 
Walter,  lord  chief  baron  of  the  exchequer,  being  to  be  outed 
of    his  place,  for  adjudging  the  loan-money  illegal,  pleaded  for 
himself  "  that  he  was  guilty   of  no  misdemeanour,    who   had 
only   delivered   his  judgment    according    to   his    conscience." 

*  6  Johannis  Claus.  raembrana  18.  f  6  Hen.  III.  Chart,  m.  2. 

+  Glossary,  v.  Justiciarius. 

JUDGES,    AND    WRITERS    OX    COMMON    LAW.  29 

Others  are  granted  from  the  king,  durante  nostro  beneplacito  ; 
to  continue  in  their  office  "  during  his  will  and  pleasure." 

We  begin  the  army  of  our  judges,  forborne  few,  like  the  for- 
lorn hope,  advance  higher,  about  the  time  of  king  Edward  the 
First.  It  is  impossible  exactly  to  observe  that  inn  of  court 
wherein  each  of  them  had  his  education,  especially  some  of 
them  being  so  ancient,  that,  in  their  times,  Lincolns  Inn  and 
Greys  Inn  were  Lincoln's  Inn  and  Grey's  Inn ;  I  mean,  belonged 
to  those  their  owners,  from  whom  they  had  their  names,  as 
being,  before  they  were  appropriated  to  the  students  of  our 
municipal  laws. 

Here  I  will  condemn  myself,  to  prevent  the  condemning  of 
others,  and  confess  our  characters  of  these  judges  to  be  very 
brief  and  defective.  Indeed,  were  the  subject  we  treat  of  over- 
strewed  with  ashes,  like  the  floor  of  BelPs  temple,  it  were  easy 
to  find  out  and  follow  the  footsteps  therein.  But  here  is  no 
such  help  to  trace  the  footings  of  truth,  time  having  almost  out- 
worn all  impressions  thereof.  I  perceive,  though  judges  leave 
more  land  than  bishops,  they  leave  less  memorials  behind  them, 
of  the  time,  place,  and  manner,  when  and  where  born  and  died, 
and  how  they  demeaned  themselves. 

In  the  same  topic  with  judges,  we  have  also  placed  such  as 
have  been  writers  of  our  common  law :  and  such  conjunction, 
we  hope,  is  no  disparagement,  considering  many  of  them  were 
capital  judges,  as  Broke,  Dyer,  Coke,  &c. ;  and  the  rest  learned 
men,  of  great  repute  in  their  profession,  insomuch  that  the 
judges  themselves,  in  several  cases,  have  submitted  to  their 

And  here  I  can  but  admire  at  the  comparative  paucity  of 
the  books  of  our  common  law,  in  proportion  to  those  written 
of  the  civil  and  canon  law.  Oh  how  corpulent  are  the  cor- 
puses  of  both  those  laws !  besides,  their  shadows  are  far 
bigger  than  their  bodies ;  their  glosses  larger  than  their  text. 
Insomuch,  that  one  may  bury  two  thousand  pounds  and  up- 
wards in  the  purchase,  and  yet  hardly  compass  a  moiety  of 
them :  whereas  all  the  writers  of  the  common  law,  except  they 
be  much  multiplied  very  lately,  with  all  the  year-books  belong- 
ing thereunto,  may  be  bought  for  threescore  pounds,  or  there- 
abouts ;  which  with  some  men  is  an  argument,  that  the  common 
law  embraceth  the  most  compendious  course  to  decide  causes, 
and,  by  the  fewness  of  the  books,  is  not  guilty  of  so  much 
difficulty  and  tedious  prolixity  as  the  canon  and  civil  laws. 

Yet  it  is  most  true,  that  the  common  law  books  are  dearer 
than  any  of  the  same  proportion.  Quot  libri,  tot  libra,  holdeth 
true  in  many,  and  is  exceeded  in  some  of  them.  Yea,  should 
now  an  old  common  law  book  be  new  printed,  it  would  not  quit 
cost  to  the  printer,  nor  turn  to  any  considerable  account.  For 
the  profession  of  the  law  is  narrow  in  itself,  as  confined  to  few 
persons ;  and  those  are  already  sufficiently  furnished  with  all 


authors  on  that  subject,  which,  with  careful  keeping  and  good 
using,  will  serve  them  and  their  sons'  sons,  unto  the  third  gene- 
ration :  so  that  a  whole  age  would  not  carry  off  a  new  impres- 
sion of  an  ancient  law  book,  and,  quick  return  being  the  life  of 
trading,  the  tediousness  of  the  sale  would  eat  up  the  profit 

All  I  will  add  is  this,  that  that  tailor,  who,  being  cunning  in 
his  trade,  and  taking  exact  measure  of  a  person,  maketh  a  suit 
purposely  for  him,  may  be  presumed  to  fit  him  better  than 
those  who,  by  a  general  aim,  at  random  make  clothes  for  him : 
in  like  manner,  seeing  our  municipal  law  was  purposely  com- 
posed by  the  sages  of  this  land,  who  best  knew  the  genius  of 
our  nation,  it  may  be  concluded  more  proper  for  our  people, 
and  more  applicable  to  all  the  emergencies  in  this  half-island, 
than  the  civil  law,  made  for  the  general  concernment  of  the 
whole  empire,  by  such  who  were  unacquainted  with  the  particu- 
larities of  our  land  and  nation. 




SOLDIERS  succeed,  though  it  almost  affrighteth  my  pen  to 
meddle  with  such  martial  persons.  It  is  reported  of  the  God 
of  the  Jews,  that  he  would  have  no  share  of  the  Pantheon  at 
Rome,  except  he  might  have,  and  that  justly  too,  the  whole 
temple  to  himself.  So  lately  we  have  been  so  sadly  sensible  of 
the  boisterousness  of  soldiers,  one  may  suspect  they  will, 
though  unjustly,  jostle  all  others  out  of  the  book,  to  make  room 
for  themselves. 

But  since  their  violence  hath,  blessed  be  God,  been  season- 
ably retrenched,  we  have  adventured  to  select  some  signal  per- 
sons of  that  profession,  whose  prowess  made  eminent  impression 
on  foreign  parts,  so  purposely  to  decline  all  meddling  with  the 
doleful  and  dangerous  distractions  of  our  times,  beginning  our 
list  in  the  reign  of  king  Edward  the  Third,  and  concluding  in 
the  beginning  of  king  Charles. 


Surely  Divine  Providence  did  not  make  the  vast  body  of  the 
sea  for  no  other  use  than  for  fishes  to  disport  themselves  therein, 
or,  as  some  do  conceit,  only  for  to  quench  and  qualify  the 
drought  and  heat  of  the  sun  with  the  moisture  thereof :  but  it 
was  for  higher  intendments.  Chiefly,  that  by  sailing  thereon, 
there  may  be  the  continuing  of  commerce,  the  communicating 
of  learning  and  religion,  the  last  from  Palestine,  the  staple 


thereof,  and  the  more  speedy  and  convenient  portage  of  bur- 
thens ;  seeing  a  laden  ship  doth  fly,  in  comparison  of  the  creep- 
ing of  an  empty  waggon. 

Now  to  speak  what  envy  cannot  deny,  our  Englishmen,  either 
for  fights  for  discoveries,  whether  for  tame  ships,  merchantmen, 
or  wild  ships,  men-of-war,  carry  away  the  garland  from  all  na- 
tions in  the  Christian  world. 

Learned  Keckerman,  who,  being  a  German  by  birth,  was  un- 
biassed in  his  judgment,  and  living  in  Dantz,  a  port  of  great 
trading,  whither  seamen  repaired  from  all  parts,  and  writing  a 
book,  6(  De  Re  Nautica,"  may  be  presumed  skilful  therein, 
alloweth  the  English  the  best  seamen,  and  next  to  them  the 
Hollanders.*  And  if  the  latter  dare  deny  the  truth  hereof,  let 
them  remember  the  late  peace  they  purchased  of  the  English, 
and  thank  God  that  they  met  with  so  conscientious  chapmen, 
who  set  no  higher  price  thereof. 

Yea,  let  the  Dutch  know,  that  they  are  the  scholars  to  the 
English  in  some  of  their  discoveries  :  for  I  find  the  four  first 
circumnavigators  of  the  world  thus  qualified  for  their  nativities  : 
1.  Magellanus,  a  Spaniard:  2.  Sir  Francis  Drake,  an  English- 
man: 3.  Sir  Thomas  Candish,  an  Englishman  :  4.  Oliver  Noort, 
an  Hollander.  But  be  it  known,  that  the  last  of  these  had  an 
Englishman,  Captain  Mellis  by  name,  pilot,  to  conduct  him. 

Yet  let  not  my  commending  of  our  English  seamen  be  mis- 
interpreted, as  if  I  did  not  refer  all  success  to  the  goodness  of 
God,  the  grand  admiral  of  the  world.  The  praising  of  instru- 
ments, by  way  of  subordination,  is  no  more  detrimental  to  the 
honour  of  the  principal,  than  the  praising  of  the  edge  of  the 
axe  is  a  disparagement  to  the  strength  of  the  arm  which  useth 
it.  God,  I  confess,  by  his  providence,  ordereth  all  by  land  and 
by  sea ;  yea,  he  may  be  said  to  be  the  first  shipwright ;  for  I 
behold  the  ark  as  a  bird,  wholly  hatched,  but  utterly  unfledged  ; 
without  any  feathers  of  masts  and  tackling,  it  could  only  float, 
and  not  sail ;  yet  so,  that  therein  was  left  pattern  enough  for 
human  ingenuity  to  improve  it  to  naval  perfection. 

Yea,  God  himself  hath  in  Scripture  taken  signal  notice  of 
the  dexterous  in  this  nature ;  on  which  account  we  find  the 
Tyrians,  or  men  of  Hiram,  praised,  for  that  they  "  had  know- 
ledge of  the  sea,"  when  sent  with  the  servants  of  Solomon  to 

We  begin  our  catalogue  of  seamen  in  the  reign  of  king 
Edward  the  Third,  before  which  time  there  were  many  good 
seamen  in  England,  but  few  good  English  seamen,  our  king 
using  mariners  of  the  Hanse  towns.  But  it  is  no  good  house- 
wifery to  hire  char-women  to  do  that  which  may  as  well  and 
better  be  done  by  her  own  servants.  In  the  time  of  Edward 

*  "  Hoc   certum  est,  omnibus  hodie  gentibus   navigandi  industria,  et   peritia, 
superiores  esse  Anglos,  et  post  Anglos  Hollandos." 
t  1  Kings  ix.  27. 


the  Third,  England  grew  famous  for  sea-fights  with  the  French, 
and  increased  in  credit,,  especially  since  the  Navy  Royal  was 
erected  by  queen  Elizabeth. 

Some  conceive  it  would  be  a  great  advancement  to  the  per- 
fecting of  English  navigation,,  if  allowance  were  given  to  read  a 
lecture  in  London  concerning  that  subject,  in  imitation  of  the 
late  emperor  Charles  the  Fifth ;  who,  wisely  considering  the 
rawness  of  his  seamen,  and  the  manifold  shipwrecks  which  they 
sustained  in  passing  and  repassing  between  Spain  and  the  West 
Indies,  established  not  only  a  Pilot  Major,  for  the  examination 
of  such  as  were  to  take  charge  of  ships  in  that  voyage,  but  also 
founded  a  lecture  for  the  art  of  Navigation,  which  tto  this  day 
is  read  in  the  Contraction  House  at  Seville  ;  the  readers  of  which 
lecture  have  not  only  carefully  taught  and  instructed  the 
Spanish  mariners  by  word  of  mouth,  but  have  also  published 
sundry  exact  and  worthy  treatises  concerning  marine  causes, 
for  the  direction  and  encouragement  of  posterity. 

Here  it  were  to  be  wished  that  more  care  were  taken  for,  and 
encouragement  given  to,  the  breeding  of  fishermen ;  whom  I 
may  call  the  spawn,  or  young  fry,  of  seamen  ;  yea,  such  as  hope 
that  mariners  will  hold  up  if  fishermen  be  destroyed,  may  as 
rationally  expect  plenty  of  honey  and  wax  though  only  old 
stocks  of  bees  were  kept,  without  either  casts  or  swarms. 

Nor  can  fishermen  be  kept  up,  except  the  public  eating  of 
fish  at  set  times  be  countenanced,  yea,  enjoined  by  the  state. 
Some  suspect  as  if  there  were  a  pope  in  the  belly  of  every 
fish,  and  some  bones  of  superstition  in  them  which  would  choke 
a  conscientious  person,  especially  if  fasting  days  be  observed. 
But  know,  that  such  customs  grew  from  a  treble  root  of  popery, 
piety,  and  policy ;  and  though  the  first  of  these  be  plucked  up, 
the  other  must  be  watered  and  maintained;  and  statesmen  may 
be  mortified  and  wise  without  being  superstitious.  Otherwise 
the  not  keeping  of  fasting  days  will  make  us  keep  fasting  days ; 
I  mean,  the  not  forbearing  of  flesh  for  the  feeding  on  fish,  for 
the  good  of  the  state  will  in  process  of  time  prove  the  ruin  of 
fishermen,  they  of  seamen,  and  both  of  Englishmen. 

We  are  sadly  sensible  of  the  truth  hereof  in  part,  God  forbid 
in  whole,  by  the  decay  of  so  many  towns  on  our  north-east  sea ; 
Hartlepool,  Whitebay,  Bridlington,  Scarborough,  Wells,  Cromer, 
Lowstoft,  Alborough,*  Orford,  and  generally  all  from  Newcastle 
to  Harwich,  which  formerly  set  out  yearly  (as  I  am  informed) 
two  hundred  ships  and  upwards  employed  in  the  fishery,  but 
chiefly  for  the  taking  of  ling ;  that  noble  fish,  co-rival  in  his 
joule  with  the  surloin  of  beef  at  the  tables  of  gentlemen. 

These  fishermen  set  forth  formerly  with  all  their  male  family ; 

*  In  Fuller's  time  Aldborough  consisted  of  three  streets.-most  of  which  have  since 
been  swallowed  up  by  the  sea.  At  the  neighbouring  town  of  Dunwich,  once  so 
flourishing,  the  destruction  has  been  almost  entire. 


sea-men,  sea-youths,  I  had  almost  said  sea-children  too  (seeing 
some  learned  the  language  of  larboard  and  starboard,  with  bread 
and  butter),  graduates  in  navigation ,-  and  indeed  the  fishery  did 
breed  the  natural  and  best  elemented  seamen. 

But  since  our  late  civil  wars,  not  three  ships  are  employed 
yearly  for  that  purpose ;  fishermen  preferring  rather  to  let  their 
vessels  lie  and  rot  in  their  haven,  than  to  undergo  much  pain 
and  peril  for  that  which  would  not  at  their  return  quit  cost  in 
any  proportion. 

So  that  it  is  suspicious,  that  in  process  of  time  we  shall  lose 
(the  masters  being  few  and  aged)  the  mystery  of  ling- catching, 
and  perchance  the  art  of  taking  and  handling  some  other  kind 
of  sound  and  good  fish  ;  no  nation,  without  flattery  to  ourselves 
be  it  spoken,  using  more  care  and  skill  in  ordering  of  that  com- 

Yea,  which  is  a  greater  mischief,  it  is  to  be  feared  that  the 
seminary  of  seamen  will  decay :  for,  under  correction  be  it 
spoken,  it  is  not  the  long  voyages  to  the  East  Indies,  &c.  which 
do  make,  but  mar,  seamen ;  they  are  not  the  womb,  but  rather 
the  grave  of  good  mariners.  It  is  the  fishery  which  hath  been 
the  nursery  of  them,  though  now  much  disheartened,  because 
their  fish  turn  to  no  account ;  they  are  brought  to  so  bad  mar- 
kets. Nor  is  there  any  hope  of  redressing  this,  but  by  keeping 
up  fasting  days,  which  our  ancestors  so  solemnly  observed.  I 
say  our  ancestors,  who  were  not  so  weak  in  making,  as  we  are 
wilful  in  breaking  them :  and  who,  consulting  the  situation  of 
this  island,  with  the  conveniences  appendant  thereunto,  suited 
their  laws  and  accommodated  their  customs  to  the  best  benefit 

Nor  was  it  without  good  cause  why  Wednesdays  and  Fridays 
were  by  them  appointed  for  fish  days  :  I  confess  some  foreigners 
render  this  reason,  and  father  it  upon  Clemens  Alexandrinus, 
that  because  those  days  were  dedicated  by  the  heathen,  the  one 
to  Mercury  the  god  of  cheating,  the  other  to  Venus  the  goddess 
of  lust,  therefore  the  Christians  should  macerate  themselves  on 
that  day  with  fasting,  in  sorrowful  remembrance  of  their  pronity 
to  the  vices  aforenamed.  But  waiving  such  fancies,  our  English 
fish  or  fasting  days  are  founded  on  a  more  serious  considera- 
tion ;  for  our  English  fishermen  in  Kent,  Sussex,  Hampshire,  &c. 
set  forth  on  Monday  and  catch  their  fish,  which  on  Tuesday 
they  send  up  to  London,  where  on  Wednesday  it  is  sold  and 
eaten.  Such,  therefore,  who  lately  have  propounded  to  ante- 
date fish  eating,  and  to  remove  it  from  Wednesday  to  Tuesday, 
must  thereby  occasion  the  encroaching  on  the  Lord's-day,  to 
furnish  the  markets  with  that  commodity.  Again :  such  fish- 
ermen as  returned  on  Tuesday  set  forth  afresh  on  Wednesday 
to  take  fish,  which  on  Thursday  they  send  up  to  London  to 
supply  the  remainder  of  the  week  ;  it  being  observable  that  so 
great  is  the  goodness  of  God  to  our  nation,  that  there  is  not 

VOL.  I.  D 


one  week  in  the  year  wherein  some  wholesome  fish.,   caught  on 
our  own  coast,  is  not  in  the  prime  season  thereof. 

As  for  staple  or  salt  fish,  there  are  those  that  are  acquainted 
in  the  criticisms  thereof,  and  have  exactly  stated  and  cast  up 
the  proportions,  who  will  maintain  that  it  will  do  the  deed,  and 
set  up  the  fishery  as  high  as  ever  it  was,  if  every  one  in  England 
able  to  dispend  a  hundred  pounds  per  annum  were  enjoined  to 
lay  out  twenty  shillings  a  year  in  staple  fish  ;  a  sum  so  inconsi- 
derable in  the  particulars,  that  it  will  hurt  none,  and  so  con- 
siderable in  the  total,  it  will  help  all  of  our  nation.  If  any  cen- 
sure this  for  a  tedious  digression,  let  it  be  imputed  to  my  zeal 
for  the  good  of  the  commonwealth. 




I  SOMETIMES  wondered  in  myself  at  two  things  in  the  primi- 
tive church  during  the  time  of  the  Apostles  :  First,  that  seeing 
they  "  enjoined  all  things  in  common/'*  what  use  they  had  of 
lawyers ;  seeing  no  propriety  on  pleading,  and  such  a  commu- 
nion of  all  things  gave  a  writ  of  ease  to  that  profession.  And 
yet  I  find  mention  made  of  Zenas  the  lawyer  ;t  no  scribe  of  the 
law,  as  among  the  Jews,  but  Nop/co?,  an  advocate  or  barrister 

Secondly,  I  wondered  what  use  there  was  of  physicians  in  the 
church,  seeing  the  Apostles  miraculously  cured  all  maladies,  and 
so,  in  my  apprehension,  gave  a  supersedeas  to  the  practitioners 
in  that  faculty ;  and  yet  I  find  honourable  mention  made  of 
"  Luke,  the  beloved  physician  ."t 

But  since  I  have  wondered  at  my  wondering  thereat ;  for  that 
communion  of  goods  was  but  temporal,  for  a  short  continuance, 
and  topical,  of  a  narrow  compass  practised  only  in  Judea,  or 
thereabouts,  whilst  the  churches  amongst  the  Gentiles  continued 
their  propriety,  and  particularly  at  Rome,  where  Zenas  had  his 
habitation,  and  had  work  enough,  no  doubt,  to  exercise  his  pro- 
fession, even  amongst  Christians  themselves. 

As  for  the  Apostles,  they  had  not  always  power  at  their  own 
pleasure  to  work  miracles  and  cure  diseases  in  all  persons,  no, 
nor  always  in  themselves,  (witness  sick  St.  Paul,  receiving  in 
himself  the  sentence  of  death, §)  but  as  they  were  directed,  for 
the  glory  of  God,  and  other  occasions ;  and  therefore,  notwith- 

*  Acts  iv.  32.  f  Titus  iii.  13.  t  Coloss  iv.  14. 

§  2  Cor.  i.  8,  9. 


standing  their  miraculous  power,  St.  Luke  might  have  plenty  of 
practice  in  his  profession.  Nor  was  it  probable  that  God,  the 
author  of  all  ingenuity,,  would,  by  the  giving  of  the  Gospel, 
utterly  extinguish  any  literal  calling,  which  formerly  had  been 
publicly,  lawfully,  and  needfully  professed. 

We  have,  in  our  following  book,  given  in  the  list  of  some 
eminent  lawyers,  civilians,  and  canonists,  who  have  written  on 
that  subject ;  though  we  confess  them  very  few  in  number,  their 
profession  being  lately  undeservedly  disgraced,  though  now  we 
congratulate  the  probability  of  the  restitution  thereof  to  its 
former  dignity.  Sure  I  am,  in  the  days  of  queen  Elizabeth, 
when  an  ambassador  was  sent  to  foreign  princes,  if  it  were  an 
affair  of  grand  importance,  and  more  than  a  mere  matter  of 
magnificent  compliment,  some  able  civilian,  as  doctor  Haddon, 
Dale,  Fletcher,  &c.  was  joined  in  commission  with  the  noble- 
man employed  on  that  embassy.  And  as  the  iron  dogs  bear 
the  burthen  of  the  fuel,  while  the  brazen-andirons  stand  only 
for  state,  to  entertain  the  eyes ;  so  the  negociating  part  was 
loaded  on  the  civil  lawyers,  whilst  the  pomp-pageantry  was  dis- 
charged at  the  cost  of  the  nobleman. 


The  precept  in  the  Apocrypha  hath  a  canonical  truth  therein, 
"  Honour  the  physician  for  necessity  sake  ;"  and  although  king 
Asa  justly  received  little  benefit  by  them,  because  of  his  pre- 
posterous addressing  himself  to  them  before  he  went  to  God,* 
and  the  woman  in  the  Gospel,  troubled  with  the  issue,  f  reaped 
less  ease  by  their  endeavours,  because  God  reserved  her  a  sub- 
ject for  his  own  miraculous  cure ;  yet  in  all  ages  millions  have 
been  cured  by  their  practice. 

The  ancient  Britons,  who  went  without  clothes,  may  well  be 
presumed  to  live  without  physic.  Yet,  seeing  very  beasts  know 
what  is  good  for  themselves,  the  deer,  (the  Cretan  dictamum ; 
and  toad,  his  antidote  of  plantain ;)  sure  they  had  some  experi- 
mental receipts  used  amongst  them,  and  left  the  rest  to  nature 
and  temperance  to  cure.  The  Saxons  had  those  they  termed 
leeches,  or  blood-letters,  but  were  little  skilled  in  methodical 
practice.  Under  the  Normans,  they  began  in  England ;  and 
would  we  had  fetched  physicians  only,  and  not  diseases  from 
France !  Yet  three  hundred  years  since  it  was  no  distinct  pro- 
fession by  itself,  but  practised  by  men  in  orders  ;J  witness 
Nicholas  de  Fernham,  the  chief  English  physician  and  bishop 
of  Durham ;  Hugh  of  Evesham,  a  physician  and  cardinal ;  Gri- 
sant,  a  physician  and  pope.  Yea,  the  word  physician  appears 
not  in  our  statutes  till  the  days  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  who 
incorporated  their  college  at  London ;  since  which  time  they 

*  2  Chron.  xvi.   12.  f  Luke  viii.  43. 

J  See  their  several  characters  under  their  names  in  the  ensuing  book. 

D    2 


have  multiplied  and  flourished  in  our  nation,  but  never  more, 
and  more  learned,  than  in  our  age,  wherein  that  art,  and  espe- 
cially the  anatomical  part  thereof,  is  much  improved,  our  civil 
wars  perchance  occasioning  the  latter. 

We  begin  our  catalogue  at  Richardus  Anglicus,  our  first  phy- 
sician, flourishing  anno  1230;  and  continue  to  doctor  Harvey, 
whom  I  may  term  Gulielmus  Anglicus, — such  honour  he  hath 
done  England  by  his  worthy  writings.  Thus  wishing  them  all 
happy  success  in  their  practice,  I  desire  a  custom  in  France,  and 
other  foreign  parts,  naturalized  in  England,  where  a  physician  is 
liable  to  excommunication,  if  visiting  a  patient  thrice  before  he 
acquainteth  a  priest  of  his  sickness,  that  so  the  medicine  for 
soul  and  body  may  go  hand  in  hand  together. 


Chemistry  is  an  ingenious  profession,  as  which  by  art  will 
force  somewhat  of  worth  and  eminence  from  the  dullest  sub- 
stance, yea,  the  most  obdurate  and  hardest-hearted  body  can- 
not but  shed  forth  a  tear  of  precious  liquor,  when  urged  there- 
unto with  its  intreaties. 

They  may  be  termed  parcel-physicians,  every  day  producing 
rare  experiments,  for  the  curing  of  many  diseases. 

I  must  confess  there  occurs  but  few,  (and  of  those  few,  fewer 
modern  ones,)  through  the  whole  series  of  our  books.  Yet  may 
we  be  said  to  have  extracted  the  spirits,  (I  mean  such  as  were 
eminent  therein,)  of  this  profession ;  being  confident  the  judi- 
cious reader  will  value  one  gem  before  many  barley-corns,  and 
one  drop  of  a  true  extract  before  many  bottles  of  worthless 


Necessary  and  ancient  their  profession,  ever  since  man's  body 
was  subject  to  enmity  and  casualty.  For  that  promise,  "  A 
bone  of  him  shall  not  be  broken,"*  is  peculiar  to  Christ.  As 
for  the  other,  "  To  keep  them  in  all  their  ways,  that  they  dash 
toot  their  foot  against  a  stone,"  t  though  it  be  extended  to  all 
Christians,  yet  it  admitteth,  as  other  temporal  promises,  of 
many  exceptions,  according  to  God's  will  and  pleasure. 

It  seemeth  by  the  parable  of  the  good  Samaritan,  who 
"bound  up"  the  passenger's  "wounds,  pouring  in  oil  and 
wine/'J  that,  in  that  age,  ordinary  persons  had  a  general  in- 
sight in  chirurgery,  for  their  own  and  others'  use.  And  it  is 
reported,  to  the  just  praise  of  the  Scotch  nobility,  that  anciently 
they  all  were  very  dexterous  thereat ;  particularly  it  is  written 
of  James,  the  fourth  king  of  Scotland,  quod  vulnera  scientissimZ 
tractaret,  «  he  was  most  skilful  at  the  handling  of  wounds."  § 
But  we  speak  of  chirurgery,  as  it  is  a  particular  mystery,  pro- 

*  Johnxix.  36.  f  Psalm  xci.   12.  J  Luke  x.  34. 

§  Buchanan,  Rerum  Fcoticarum,  lib.  xiii.  fol.  138,  p.  1. 


fessed  by  such  as  make  a  vocation  thereof.  Of  whom  we  have 
inserted  some  (eminent  for  their  writings  or  otherwise),  amongst 
physicians,  and  that,  as  we  hope,  without  any  offence,  seeing 
the  healing  of  diseases  and  wounds  were  anciently  one  calling, 
as  still  great  the  sympathy  betwixt  them ;  many  diseases  caus- 
ing wounds,  as  ulcers ;  as  wounds  occasioning  diseases,  as 
fevers ;  till  in  process  of  time  they  were  separated,  and  chirur- 
geons  only  consigned  to  the  manual  operation.  Thus,  wishing 
unto  them  the  three  requisites  for  their  practice,  an  eagle's  eye, 
a  lady's  hand,  and  a  lion's  heart,  I  leave  them,  and  proceed. 



BEING  to  handle  this  subject,  let  not  the  reader  expect  that 
I  will  begin  their  catalogue  from  fabulous  antiquity,  or  rather 
fanciful  fables.  For  if  the  first  century  of  J.  Bale  and  J.  Pits 
their  British  writers  were  garbled,  four  parts  of  five  would  be 
found  to  be  trash  ;  such  as — 1 .  Samothes  Gigas  :  2.  Magus  Sa- 
motheus:  3.  Sarron  Magius :  4,  Druys  Sarronius :  5.  Bardus 
Druydius  :  6.  Albion  Mareoticus  :  7-  Brytus  Julius  :  8.  Gerion 
Augur:  9.  Aquila  Septonius :  10.  Perdix  Prsesagus :  11.  Cam- 
bra  Formosa:  12.  Plenidius  Sagax,  &c. 

Of  these  some  never  were  men;  others,  if  men,  never  were 
writers  ;  others,  if  writers,  never  left  works  continuing  to  our 
age,  though  some  manuscript  mongers  may  make  as  if  they' 
perused  them.  It  is  well  they  had  so  much  modesty,  as  not  to 
pretend  inspection  into  the  book  of  life,  seeing  all  other  books 
have  come  under  their  omnividency. 

We  are  content  to  begin  our  number  at  Gildas,  commonly 
surnamed  the  ivisey  (flourishing  about  the  year  5  80);  and  are 
right  glad  to  have  so  good  a  general  to  lead  our  army  of  wri- 
ters, taking  it  for  a  token  of  good  success. 

Now  these  writers  were  either  such  who  wrote  before  or  since 
the  reformation  of  religion.  The  former  again  fall  generally 
under  a  treble  division,  as  either  historians,  philologists,  or 
divines  ;  and  we  will  insist  a  little  on  their  several  employments. 


Doctor  Collens,  King's  Professor  in  Cambridge,  and  that 
oracle  of  eloquence,  once  founded  his  speech  (made  to  enter- 
tain strangers  at  the  Commencement)  on  the  words  of  Saint 
Paul,  "  Salute  Philologus  and  Olympas."*  Under  the  former, 
he  comprised  all  persons  present,  eminent  in  human  learning; 
under  the  latter  all  skilful  in  heavenly  divinity. 

*  Rom.  xvi.  15, 



Indeed  philology  properly  is  terse  and  polite  learning,  melior 
litemtura  (married  long  since  by  Martianus  Capella  to  Mer- 
cury) •  being  that  florid  skill,  containing  only  the  roses  ot  learn- 
ing without  the  prickles  thereof,  in  which  narrow  sense  thorny 
philosophy  is  discharged,  as  no  part  of  philology.  But  we  take 
it  in  the  larger  notion,  as  inclusive  of  all  human  liberal  studies, 
and  preposed  to  divinity,  as  the  porch  to  the  palace. 

Havino-  passed  the  porch  of  philology  we  proceed  to  the 
palace  of  divinity.  The  writers  in  this  faculty  we  distinguish 
into  two  sorts.  First,  Positive  Divines ;  such  I  mean,  whose 
works  are  either  comments  on,  or  else  expositions  of,  some  por- 
tion of  Sacred  Writ.  Secondly,  School-men,  who  have  made  it 
their  business  to  weave  fine  threads  of  nicer  distinctions. 


This  is  either  Ecclesiastical  or  Civil.  Of  both  these,  England 
presenteth  many,  but  generally  Monks  before  the  Reformation, 
who,  too  much  indulging  to  holy  fraud,  have  farced  their  books 
with  many  feigned  miracles,  to  the  prejudice  of  truth.  How- 
ever, herein  foreign  historians  have  been  as  guilty  as  English- 
men of  the  same  age ;  witness  the  complaint  of  Mariana  the 
Jesuit,*  which  one  may  justly  wonder  how  it  passed  the  Index 
Expurgatorius  :  "  Quis  enim  negare  possit  fastos  ecclesiasticos, 
aliquando  adulatione  temporum,  aut  potius  incuria  hominum, 
multis  maculis  contaminatos,  libris  aliis,  quibus  preces  eccle- 
siastics ritusque  sacrorum  continentur,  multas  fuisse  inspersas 
eonfusasque  fabulas  et  commenta  :  Addam  nonnunquam  in  tern- 
plis  reliquias  dubias,  prophana  corpora  pro  Sanctorum  (qui  cum 
Christo  in  coelo  regnant)  exuviis  sacris  fuisse  proposita.  Est 
enim  miserum  negare  non  posse,  quid  sit  turpe  confiteri  ;  at, 
nescio  quo  pacto,  fictis  seepe  fabulis,  et  preeposteris  mendacio- 
rum  nugis,  populus  magis  quam  veritate  ac  sinceritate  capitur  : 
ea  est  mentis  nostrse  inanitas,  has  sordes,  ubi  semel  irrepserunt 
in  ecclesiam  sacrorum  ritus  libros  ecclesiasticos,  nobis  fortassis 
dormientibus,  attrectare  nemo  audet,  mutire  nemo,  ne  impieta- 
tis  suspicionem  commoveat,  scilicet  et  religioni  adversarius  esse 

Nor  hath  our  land  been  altogether  barren  of  historians  since 
the  Reformation,  having  yielded  some  of  as  tall  parts,  and  large 
performances,  as  any  nation  in  Christendom.  Besides  these, 
we  have  adventured  to  add  such  as  have  been  eminent  in 
poetry,  which  may  not  unfitly  be  termed  the  binding  of  prose  to 
its  good  behaviour,  tying  it  to  the  strict  observation  of  time  and 

Amongst  these,  some  are  additioned  with  the  title  of  Laureat, 
though  I  must  confess  I  could  never  find  the  root  whence  their 
bays  did  grow  in  England,  as  to  any  solemn  institution  thereof 

*  In  his  book  of  the  coming  of  St.  James  the  Apostle  into  Spains  chap.  I. 


in  our  nation.  Indeed,,  I  read  of  Petrarch  (the  pre-coetanean 
of  our  Chaucer)  that  he  was  crowned  with  a  laurel,  in  the  Ca- 
pitol ,,*  by  the  senate  of  Rome,  anno  1341 ;  as  also  that  Frederic 
the  third  emperor  of  Germany  gave  the  laurel  to  Conradus 
Celtes,f  and  since  the  count  palatines  of  the  empire  claim  the 
privilege  solemnly  to  invest  poets  with  the  bays. 

The  branches  hereof  in  all  ages  have  been  accounted  honour- 
able, insomuch  that  king  James,  in  some  sort,  waived  his  crown 
(in  the  two  and  twenty  shilling  pieces)  to  wear  the  laurel  in  his 
new  twenty  shilling  pieces.  On  the  same  token,  that  a  wag 
passed  this  jest  thereon,  that  poets  being  always  poor,  bays 
were  rather  the  emblem  of  wit  than  wealth,  since  king  James 
no  sooner  began  to  wear  them,  but  presently  he  fell  two 
shillings  in  the  pound  in  public  valuation. 

As  for  our  English  poets,  some  have  assumed  that  style  unto 
themselves,  as  John  Kay,  in  his  dedication  of  "  The  Siege  of 
Rhodes  "  to  king  Edward  the  Fourth,  subscribing  himself  "  his 
humble  poet  laureat."  Others  have  in  compliment  given  the 
title  to  such  persons  as  were  eminent  in  that  faculty ;  and 
nothing  more  usual  than  to  see  their  pictures  before  their  books, 
and  statues  on  their  tombs,  ornamented  accordingly.  However, 
all  this  is  done  by  civil  courtesy,  or  common  custom,  no  cere- 
monious creation  in  court  or  university.  I  write  not  this,  as  if 
I  grudged  to  poets  a  whole  grove  of  laurel,  much  less  a  sprig  to 
encircle  their  heads,  but  because  I  would  not  have  any  specious 
untruth  imposed  on  the  reader's  belief. 

Yet  want  there  not  those,  who  do  confidently  aver  that  there 
is  always  a  laureat  poet  in  England,  and  but  one  at  a  time  ;  the 
laurel  importing  conquest  and  sovereignty,  and  so  by  conse- 
quence soleness  in  that  faculty ;  and  that  there  hath  been  a 
constant  succession  of  them  at  court,  who  beside  their  salary 
from  the  king,  were  yearly  to*have  a  tun  of  wine,  as  very  essen- 
tial to  the  heightening  of  fancy :  this  last,  I  conceive,  founded  on 
what  we  find  given  to  Geoffrey  Chaucer :  "  Vigesimo  secundo 
anno  Richardi  Secundi,  concessimus  Galfrido  Chaucer  unum 
dolium  vini  per  annum  durante  vita,  in  portu  Civitatis  London, 
per  manus  capitalis  pincernse  iiostri."  But  Chaucer,  besides 
his  poetical  accomplishments,  did  the  king  service  both  in  war 
and  peace,  as  soldier  and  embassador ;  in  reward  whereof,  this 
and  many  other  boons  were  bestowed  upon  him. 


Music  is  nothing  else  but  wild  sounds  civilised  into  time  and 
tune.  Such  the  extensiveness  thereof,  that  it  stoopeth  as  low 
as  brute  beasts,  yet  mounteth  as  high  as  angels  :  for  horses  will 
do  more  for  a  whistle  than  for  a  whip ;  and,  by  hearing  their 
bells,  gingle  away  their  weariness. 

*  Vita  Petrarc.  f  Holdastus,  tom.  iii.  p.  482. 


The  angels  in  heaven   employ  themselves  in  music,  and  one 
ingeniously  expresseth  it  to  this  effect  : 

"  We  know  no  more  what  they  do  do  above, 
Save  only  that  they  sing,  and  that  they  love".* 

And  although  we  know  not  the  notes  of  their  music,  we  know 
what  their  ditty  is,  namely  Hallelujah. 

Such  as  cavil  at  music,  because  Jubal,f  a  descendant  from 
wicked  Cain,  was  the  first  founder  thereof,  may  as  well  be  con- 
tent to  lie  out  of  doors,  and  refuse  all  cover  to  shelter  them, 
because  Jabal,  of  the  same  extraction,  being  his  own  brother, 
first  invented  to  dwell  in  tents. 

I  confess  there  is  a  company  of  pretenders  to  music,  who  are 
commonly  called  croivders,  and  that  justly  too,  because  they 
crowd  into  the  company  of  gentlemen  both  unsent  for,  and  un- 
welcome ;  but  these  are  no  more  a  disgrace  to  the  true  profes- 
sors of  that  faculty,  than  monkeys  are  a  disparagement  to  man- 

Now  right  ancient  is  the  use  of  music  in  England,  especially 
if  it  be  true  what  I  read  in  a  worthy  Father  ;  J  and  I  know  not 
which  more  to  admire,  either  that  so  memorable  a  passage  should 
escape  Master  Camden's,  or  that  it  should  fall  under  my  obser- 

Af-yovcTi  os  Kat  01  raq  taropiac  <Tuvra£a/i€voi,  a^u^u  r?jv 
vrjdov    avTpov   TL    vwoKtifjitvov  opa"  ETTI    $£  Trie 
.     'E^uTriVrovrog  ovv  TOV  dvfp.ov  ilq  TO  avrpov  ,  /cot  irpoa- 
Tprjyvvp,evov  roi£  KoXiroiQ  TOV  opvy/LiaTOQ,  KV  /L 

("  They  say,  even  those  which  compose  histories,  that  in  the 
Island  of  Britanny,  there  is  a  certain  cave,  lying  under  a  moun- 
tain, in  the  top  thereof  gaping.  The  wind  therefore  falling 
into  the  cave,  and  dashing  into  the  bosom  of  a  hollow  place, 
there  is  heard  a  tinkling  of  cymbals,  beating  in  tune  and 

Where  this  musical  place  should  be  in  Britain,  I  could  never 
find:  yet  have  been  informed  that  Dr.  Miles  Smith,  bishop  of 
Herefprd,§  found  something  tending  that  way,  by  the  help  of 
an  active  fancy,  in  Herefordshire.  But,  waiving  this  natural, 
the  antiquity  of  artificial  music  in  this  island  is  proved  by  the 
practice  of  the  Bards,  thereby  communicating  religion,  learning, 
and  civility,  to  the  Britons, 

*  Dr.  Fuller  says,  "  The  Conceit  is  Mr.  Waller's,  whose  book  is  not  by  me  at  the 
sent  to  transcribe  the  very  words."  —The  couplet  alluded  to  stands  thus  in  the 
verses  on  the  death  of  Lady  Rich  : 

"  So,  all  we  know  of  what  they  do  above, 
Is  that  they  happy  are,  and  that  they  love." 
I  ^en'™:  21-    .         I  Clemens  Alexand.  Strom,  lib.  vi.  p.  632. 
§  L>r.  Miles  Smith,  who  had  been  a  canon  residentiary  of  Hereford,  was  bishop  of 
Gloucester  from  16  12  till  his  death  in  1624. 


Right  glad  I  am,  that  when  music  was  lately  shut  out  of  our 
churches,  on  what  default  of  hers  I  dare  not  to  inquire,  it  hath 
since  been  harboured  and  welcomed  in  the  halls,  parlours,  and 
chambers,  of  the  primest  persons  of  this  nation.  Sure  I  am,  it 
could  not  enter  into  my  head,  to  surmise  that  music  would  have 
been  so  much  discouraged  by  such  who  turned  our  kingdom 
into  a  Commonwealth,  seeing  they  prided  themselves  in  the 
arms  thereof,  an  impaled  harp  being  moiety  of  the  same.  When 
it  was  asked,  "  what  made  a  good  musician  ? "  one  answered, 
a  good  voice  ;  another,  that  it  was  skill.  But  he  said  the  truth, 
who  said,  it  was  encouragement.  It  was  therefore  my  constant 
wish,  that  seeing  most  of  our  musicians  were  men  of  maturity, 
and  arrived  at  their  full  age  and  skill,  before  these  distracted 
times  began,  and  seeing  what  the  historian  wrote  in  another 
sense  is  true  here  in  our  acceptation  and  application  thereof, 
"  Res  est  unius  seculi  populus  virorum ; "  I  say,  I  did  con- 
stantly wish,  that  there  might  have  been  some  seminary  of 
youth  set  up,  to  be  bred  in  the  faculty  of  music,  to  supply  suc- 
cession, when  this  set  of  masters  in  that  science  had  served 
their  generation. 

Yet  although  I  missed  of  what  I  did  then  desire  ;  yet,  thanks 
be  to  God,  I  have  lived  to  see  music  come  into  request,  since 
our  nation  came  into  right  tune,  and  begin  to  flourish  in  our 
churches  and  elsewhere  ;  so  that  now  no  fear  but  we  shall  have 
a  new  generation  skilful  in  that  science,  to  succeed  such  whose 
age  shall  call  upon  them  to  pay  their  debt  to  nature. 

If  any  who  dislike  music  in  churches  object  it  as  useless,  if  not 
hurtful,  in  Divine  service,  let  them  hear  what  both  a  learned 
and  able  divine*  allegeth  in  defence  thereof;  "  So  that  although 
we  lay  altogether  aside  the  consideration  of  ditty  or  matter,  the 
very  harmony  of  sounds  being  framed  in  due  sort,  and  carried 
from  the  ear  to  the  spiritual  faculties  of  the  soul,  it  is  by  a  na- 
tive puissance  and  efficacy  greatly  available  to  bring  to  a  perfect 
temper,  whatsoever  is  there  troubled ;  apt,  as  well  to  quicken 
the  spirits,  as  to  allay  that  which  is  too  eager ;  sovereign  against 
melancholy  and  despair,  forcible  to  draw  forth  tears  of  devo- 
tion, if  the  mind  be  such  as  can  yield  them,  able  both  to  move 
and  moderate  all  affections." 

In  recounting  up  of  musicians,  I  have  only  insisted  on  such 
who  made  it  their  profession  ;  and  either  have  written  books  of 
that  faculty,  and  have  attained  to  such  an  eminence  therein  as 
is  generally  acknowledged.  Otherwise  the  work  would  be  end- 
less, to  recount  all  up  who  took  it  as  a  quality  of  accomplish- 
ment ;  amongst  whom  king  Henry  the  Eighth  must  be  account- 
ed ;  who,  as  Erasmus  testifies  to  his  knowledge,  did  not  only 
sing  his  part  sure,  but  also  compose  services  for  his  chapel,  of 
four,  five,  and  six  parts,  though  as  good  a  professor  as  he  was, 

*  Hooker's  Ecclesiastical  Polity,  p.  858,  Sect.  38. 


he  was  a  great  destroyer  of  music  in  this  land  ;  surely  not  in- 
tentionally, but  accidentally,  when  he  suppressed  so  many 
choirs  at  the  Dissolution. 


After  the  writers  before  the  Reformation,  succeed  those  Ro- 
mish banished  writers  since  the  same,  all  living  since  the  reign 
of  queen  Mary,  which  might  have  been  distanced  from  the  for- 
mer with  a  black  line  interposed,  as  beheld  under  a  far  differ- 
ent, yea  worse,  qualification  :  for  the  superstitions  of  the  former 
were  the  more  pardonable,  as  living  in  a  dark  age,  which  are 
less  excusable  in  these  since  the  light  of  the  Gospel. 

I  confess  the  word  exile  carries  much  of  commiseration 
therein,  and  with  charitably-minded  men  bespeaks  pity  to  the 
persons,  until  the  cause  of  their  banishment  be  well  considered : 
for  some,  in  the  first  of  queen  Elizabeth,  wilfully  left  the  land, 
and  so  in  effect  banished  themselves ;  others,  having  their  lives 
forfeited  by  the  laws,  had  their  deaths  mercifully  commuted  by 
our  magistrates  into  banishment. 

Objection.— These  men  might  have  been  lost  without  loss ; 
and  been  omitted  in  your  book,  as  no  limb,  but  a  wen,  yea,  an 
ulcer  thereof. 

Answer. — Grant  them  never  so  bad,  being  digested  into  a 
classis  by  themselves,  their  mixture  cannot  be  infectious  to 
others.  Secondly,  abate  their  errors,  and  otherwise  many  of 
them  were  well  meriting  of  the  Commonwealth  of  learning. 
Lastly,  the  passages  of  their  lives  conduce  very  much  to  the 
clearing  of  ecclesiastical  history. 

In  noting  of  their  nativities,  I  have  wholly  observed  the  in- 
structions of  Pitzeus,  where  I  knock  off  with  his  death,  my  light 
ending  with  his  life  in  that  subject,  since  which  time  I  have 
neither  list  to  inquire,  nor  conveniency  to  attain,  of  these  Ro- 
mish fugitives  beyond  the  seas. 


Solomon  was  sensible  of  this  vanity,  even  in  his  time,  when 
pronouncing  "  of  books  there  is  no  end."*  The  heathen  poet 
took  notice  thereof : 

Scribimus  indocti  doctiqne  Poemata  passim. 
"  Poems  write  amain  we  do, 
Learned  and  unlearned  too." 

All  this  was  before  the  invention  of  printing,  when  books 
came  but  single  into  the  public,  which,  since  that  mystery  is 
made  common,  come  swimming  into  the  world  like  shoals  of 
fashes,  and  one  edition  spawneth  another.  This  made  learned 
Erasmus,  for  company  sake,  to  jeer  himself,  that  he  might  the 
more  freely  jeer  others:  Multi  mei  similes  hoc  morbo .  laborant, 

*  Eccl.  xii.  12. 


ut  cum  scribere  nesciant,  tamen  a  scribendo  temper  are  non  pos- 
sunt.*  ("  Many  men  like  myself  are  sick  of  this  disease,,  that  when 
they  know  not  how  to  write,  yet  cannot  forbear  from  writing.") 

A  worthy  English  baronet,  in  his  book  (incomparable  on  that 
subject,)  hath  clearly  and  truly  stated  this  point. 

Here  I  expect,  that  the  judicious  reader  will  excuse  me,  if  I 
take  no  notice  of  many  modern  pamphleteers ;  seeing  unlearned 
scribblers  are  not  ranked  with  learned  writers  ;  yea,  it  was,  though 
tartly,  truly  said,  to  the  author  of  such  a  book : 

Dum  scateant  alii  erratis,  daturunica  Libro 
Menda  tuo,  totum  est  integer  error  opus. 

"  Whilst  others  flow  with  faults,  but  one  is  past 
In  all  thy  book — .'tis  fault  from  first  to  last.'' 

Indeed  the  Press,  at  first  a  virgin,  then  a  chaste  wife,  is  since 
turned  common,  as  to  prostitute  herself  to  all  scurrilous  pam- 
phlets. When  the  author  of  an  idle  and  imperfect  book  endeth 
with  a  caetera  desiderantur,  one  altered  it  non  desiderantur,  sed 
desunt.  Indeed  they  were  not,  though  wanting,  wanted;  the 
world  having  no  need  of  them ;  many  books  being  like  king 
Joram,  who  lived  not  being  desired :  yea,  the  press  beginneth 
to  be  an  oppression  of  the  land,  such  the  burden  of  needless 
books  therein. 

Some  will  say,  the  charge  may  most  justly  be  brought  against 
yourself,  who  have  loaded  the  land  with  more  books  than  any 
of  your  age.  To  this  I  confess  my  fault,  and  promise  amend- 
ment, that,  God  willing,  hereafter  I  will  never  print  book  in 
the  English  tongue,  but  what  shall  tend  directly  to  divinity. 



THESE  are  reducible  to  several  heads  ;  and  we  will  begin  with 
them  who  have  been 


Such  centurions  who  have  erected  us  synagogues,  places  for 
God's  public  worship,  seem  to  me  to  have  given  good  testimony 
of  their  love  to  our  nation.  Bitter  was  the  brave  which  railing 
Rabsheca  sent  to  holy  Hezekiah,  proffering  him  2,OOO  horses,  on 
condition  that  the  other  were  but  able  to  find  riders  for  them.f 
But  it  grieves  me  to  see  the  superstition  of  the  former 
insult  over  the  religion  of  this  present  age,  bragging  that 
she  left  us  ten  thousand  churches  arid  chapels,  more  or 
less,  ready  built,  if  we  can  find  but  repairers  to  keep  them  up. 

It  is  in  my  opinion  both  dishonourable  to  God  and  scandalous 

*  Iu  Prefat.  in   tertiam  seriem  quart!  Tomi  Hierom.  p.  408.  f  Isaiah  xxxvi.  8. 


to  all  good  men,  to  see  such  houses  daily  decay :  but  there  is  a 
generation  of  people  who,  to  prevent  the  verifying  of  the 
old  proverb,  "Pater  nosier  built  churches,  and  Our  Father 
plucks  them  down  •"  endeavour  to  pluck  down  both  churches 
and  our  Father  together,  neglecting,  yea  despising  the  use 
both  of  the  one  and  the  other.  Be  it  here  remembered,  that 
it  is  not  only  equal  but  just,  that  such  as  have  been  founders  of 
churches,  or  grand  benefactors  unto  them,  should  have  due  re- 
spect in  preserving  their  monuments  from  violation  or  encroach- 
ment of  others.  I  urge  this  the  rather,  because  abuses  have 
been  frequent  in  this  kind,  even  to  those  that  have  deserved 
best.  I  cannot  with  patience  remember  the  story  of  Henry 
Keble,  lord  mayor  of  London  1511,  who,  besides  other 
benefactions  in  his  life-time,  rebuilded  Alder-Mary  church  run 
to  very  ruins,  and  bequeathed  at  his  death  a  thousand  pounds 
for  the  finishing  thereof.*  Yet,  within  sixty  years  after,  his 
bones  were  unkindly,  yea  inhumanly,  cast  out  of  the  vault 
wherein  they  were  buried,  his  monument  plucked  down  for 
some  wealthy  person  of  the  present  times  to  be  buried  therein.f 
I  could  not  but  on  this  occasion  rub  up  my  old  poetry : 

Facit  Indignatio    Versus. 

The  Author  to  Alder-Mary  Church.  Alder- Mary  Church's  Answer. 

'  "  Ungrateful  Church,  o'errun  with  rust,      '*  Alas  !  my  innocence  excuse  : 

Lately  buried  in  the  dust  ;  My  Wardens  they  did  me  abuse. 

Utterly  thou  hadst  been  lost,  Whose  avarice  his  ashes  sold, 

If  not  preserv'd  by  Keble's  cost :  That  goodness  might  give  place  to  gold  ; 

A  thousand  pounds,  might  it  not  buy  As  for  his  reliques,  all  the  town 

Six  foot  in  length  for  him  to  lie  :  They  are  scattered  up  and  down ; 

But,  ousted  of  his  quiet  tomb,  See'st  a  Church  repaired  well, 

For  later  corpse  he  must  make  room  :  There  a  sprinkling  of  them  fell : 

Tell  me  where  his  dust  is  cast,  See'st  a  new  Church  lately  built, 

Though  t  be  late,  yet  now  at  last ;  Thicker  there  his  ashes  spilt : 

All  his  bones  with  scorn  ejected,  O  that  all  the  land  throughout 

I  will  see  them  re-coUected  :  Keble's  dust  were  thrown  about ; 

Who  tain  myself  would  kinsman  prove  Places  scattered  with  that  seed 

I  o  all  that  did  God's  temple  love."  Would  a  crop  of  Churches  breed. " 

I  could  wish  this  was  the  last  barbarism  in  this  kind  5  and  am 
sorry  that,  upon  small  inquiry,  I  could  insist  on  later  instances. 


I  place  schools  before  colleges,  because  they  are  introductory 
thereunto,  intended  for  the  breeding  of  children  and  youth,  as 

3  other  for  youth  and  men.  And  seeing  much  of  truth  is 
contained  in  our  English  proverb,  "It  is  as  good  to  be  unborn 

unbred,  such  may  in  some  sort  seem  their  second  parents, 
who  have  provided  for  their  education. 

These  schools  are  of  two  kinds.  First,  those  wherein  only  a 
lalary  is  given  to  the  school-master  to  teach  children  gratis  : 

nnrn^       ' }  C^  T'  "?  §Ood'     Second1^  such  wherein  a  select 
scholars   have     competent    maintenance     allowed 

*  Stow's  Survey  of  London,  p.  89.  f  Idem,  p.  267. 


towards  their  living  in  the  university ;  and  these,  all  will 
acknowledge,  are  better.  Some  do  suspect  a  surfeit  in  our  land 
of  the  multitude  of  schools,  because  the  nursery  is  bigger  than 
the  orchard,  the  one  breeding  more  plants  than  the  other  can 
maintain  trees ;  and  the  land  not  affording  sufficient  preferment 
for  them,  learning  is  forced  to  stoop  to  mean  courses,  to  make 
a  livelihood.  But  I  conceive  that  6f  store  in  this  kind  is  no 
sore '"  and  if  we  must  not  (e  do  evil  that  good  may  come 
thereof,"  we  must  not  forbear  doing  that  which  is  good, 
for  fear  of  accidental  evils  which  may  arise  from  the  same. 


Builders  of  Bridges,  which  are  high-ways  over  water, 
and  makers  of  caused-ways  or  causeways,  which  are  bridges 
over  dirt,  though  last  in  order,  are  not  least  in  benefit  to  the 
commonwealth.  Such  conveniences  save  the  lives  of  many, 
ease  the  labour  of  more  painful  travellers,  and  may  be  said  in 
some  sort  to  lengthen  the  day,  and  shorten  the  way  to  men  in 
their  journeys ;  yea,  bridges  make  and  keep  this  our  island  a 
continent  to  itself.  How  great  the  care  of  the  ancient 
Romans  to  repair  them,  for  the  safety  of  passengers,  appears 
by  the  origination  of  Pontifex,  having  the  inspection  over 
bridges  by  his  primitive  institution. 

Indeed  the  word  bridge  appears  not  in  all  Scripture,  whereof 
this  the  reason.  The  rivers  of  Palestine  were  either  so  shallow, 
that  they  were  passable  by  fords,  as  of  Jabbok,*  Arnon,f  and 
Jordan,!  before  it  grew  navigable ;  or  else  so  deep,  that 
they  were  ferried  over,  as  Jordan  §  when  near  his  fall  into  the 
Dead  Sea :  but  most  of  ours  in  England  are  of  a  middle  size ; 
so  deep,  that  they  cannot  be  forded ;  so  narrow,  that  they 
need  not  to  be  ferried  over.  Hence  come  our  so  eminent 
bridges,  insomuch  that  such  structures  are  accounted  amongst 
our  English  excellences.  || 

However,  Palestine  was  subject  with  England  to  the  same  in- 
conveniences of  bad  high-ways ;  and  therefore,  in  the  list 
of  charitable  actors  reckoned  up  by  the  prophet,  he  is  ac- 
counted as  a  principal,  (e  the  restorer  of  paths  to  dwell  in  ;"^[ 
for  indeed  some  ways  may  be  said  not-habitable,  being  so  deep 
and  dirty  that  they  cut  off  all  intercourse,  the  end  general  of  all 
men's  dwelling  together. 

I  will  conclude  this  topic  of  bridges  with  this  memorable  acci- 
dent. Maud,  queen  to  king  Henry  the  First,  being  to  pass  the 
river  Lea  about  Stratford,  near  the  falling  of  the  said  river  into 
the  Thames,  was  almost  drowned  in  riding  over  it.**  But  this 
proved  the  bad  cause  of  a  good  effect ;  for  hereupon  she  built 
the  beautiful  bridge  there,  for  the  benefit  of  travellers :  and  the 

*  Gen.  xxxii.  22.  f  Isaiah  xvi.  2.          J  Judges  iii.  28.  §  2  Sam.  xix.  18. 

J  "Anglia,  mons,  pons,"  &c.  If  Isaiah  Iviii.  1?. 

**  Camden's  Britannia,  in  Essex. 


village,  probably  from  a  fair  arch  or  bow  therein,  received,  as 
some  conceive,  the  addition  of  Stratford  Bow.  Far  be  it  from 
me  to  wish  the  least  ill  to  any,  who  willingly  would  not  have 
their  fingers  to  ache,  or  an  hair  of  their  heads  lessened.  Yet 
this  I  could  desire,  that  some  covetous  churls,  who  otherwise 
will  not  be  melted  into  works  of  charity,  may,  in  their  passing  over 
waters,  be  put  into  peril  without  peril— understand  me,  might 
be  endangered  to  fright,  but  not  hurt— that  others  might  fare 
the  better  for  their  fears ;  such  misers  being  minded  thereby  to 
make  or  repair  bridges  for  public  safety  and  convenience. 


Because  we  live  in  an  age  wherein  men  begin  to  be  out  of 
charity  with  charity  itself;  and  there  be  many  covetous 
(not  to  say  sacrilegious)  people,  whose  fingers  itch  to  be  nim- 
ming  the  patrimony  of  the  poor ;  we  will  here  present  the  cavils 
of  this  against  the  charity  of  former  ages  herein. 

Cavil  1. — Shew  us  the  foundation  of  such  structures  in  Scrip- 
ture, either  in  the  Old  or  New  Testament.  As  for  the  place 
with  five  porches,  wherein  "  the  impotent  poor  lay,"*  near  the 
Pool  of  Bethesda,  it  was  of  another  nature.  Alms-houses 
therefore,  not  being  jure  divino,  may  lawfully  be  abolished. 

Answer.— The  constitution  of  the  Jewish  was  far  different 
from  our  English  commonwealth,  wherein  every  one  originally 
was  a  freeholder  of  some  proportion  of  land,  which,  though 
alienated,  reverted  to  the  owner  at  the  year  of  Jubilee.  There 
needs  not  an  express  or  particular  precept  for  all  our  actions ; 
that  general  one,  "  He  that  hath  pity  upon  the  poor  lendeth  unto 
the  Lord,"f  is  bottom  broad  enough  to  build  more  alms-houses 
on,  than  all  ages  will  afford.  Besides  this  precept,  we  have  the 
practice  of  the  primitive  Christians  in  the  time  of  the  apostles, 
parting  with  the  propriety  J  of  all  their  estate  ;  and  well  then 
may  we  appropriate  a  part  of  ours,  for  the  relief  of  the  poor. 

Cavil  2. — The  builders  of  them  for  the  most  part  have  been 
people  formerly  guilty  of  oppression,  who,  having  lived  like 
wolves,  turn  lambs  on  their  death  beds,  and  part  with  their 
fleece  to  people  in  want.  Having  ground  the  faces  of  the  poor, 
they  give  the  toll  thereof  to  build  an  alms-house,  though  too 
little  to  hold  half  the  beggars  which  they  have  made. 

Answer. — The  aspersion  cannot  be  fastened  on  many  found- 
ers ;  so  free  from  the  same,  that  malice  may  sooner  break  her 
own  teeth  and  jaws  too,  than  make  impression  on  their  reputa- 
tion. But  grant  the  charge  true  in  this  sense,  beatum  est  fuisse, 
"  blessed  arethey  that  have  been  bad ;" — "  And  such  were  some 
of  you."§  Let  not  envious  man  repine  at  that  whereat  the 
blessed  angels  rejoice,  the  conversion  of  sinners,  and  their  testi- 
fying thereof  by  such  public  expressions. 

*  John  v.  2.  f  Prov.  xix.  17.  J  Actsiv.  34.  $  1  Cor.  vi.  11. 


CavilS. — Such  builders  generally  have  a  pope  in  their  belly, 
puffed  up  with  a  proud  opinion  to  merit  by  their  performances. 
Answer. — When  did  the  caviller  steal  the  touch- stone  of 
hearts  ?  (for  God,  I  am  sure,  would  not  lend  it  him,  who  saith, 
66  My  glory  will  I  not  give  to  another)*"  that  he  is  so  well 
acquainted  with  men's  thoughts  and  intentions.  "  Charity/' 
saith  the  Apostle,  f(  thinketh  no  eviljf"  whereas  this  caviller 
thinks  little  good.  We  are  bound  to  believe  the  best  of  such 
founders,  especially  of  such  who  lived  since  the  Reformation, 
whereby  the  dangerous  error  of  merit  was  exploded. 

Cavil  4. — Grant  them  guiltless  of  superstition,  they  are  guilty 
of  vain-glory.  Witness  the  building  of  such  houses  commonly 
by  highway  sides  ;  when,  as  our  Saviour  saith,  "  Let  not  thy 
left  hand  know  what  thy  right  hand  doth.J" 

Answer. — The  objector  shall  have  leave  to  build  his  alms- 
house  in  what  private  place  he  please ;  in  the  middle  of  a  wood, 
if  he  shall  think  fitting;  but  we  know  who  saith,  "Let  your 
light  so  shine  before  men,  that  they  may  see  your  good  works, 
and  glorify  your  Father  which  is  in  heaven  ."§  "  That  they 
may  see  your  good  works/5  though  not  as  finis  operis,  yet  as 
modus  operandi,  thereby  to  provoke  others  to  imitation. 

Cavil  5. — As  some  affirm  of  tobacco,  that  it  causeth  as  much 
rheum  as  it  bringeth  away,  alms-houses  do  breed  as  many 
poor  as  they  relieve.  People  in  such  places  presume  to  be  idle, 
beholding  hospitals  as  their  inheritance,  wherein  their  old  age 
shall  be  provided  for. 

Answer. — What  is  good  per  se}  ought  not  to  be  waved  for 
what  is  ill  per  accidens.  This  calleth  aloud,  to  the  care  and 
integrity  of  feoffees  entrusted,  to  be  wary  in  their  elections. 
Besides,  I  must  stick  to  mine  own  maxim  :  it  is  better  that  ten 
drones  be  fed  than  one  bee  famished. 

Cavil  6. — Such  places  are  generally  abused,  against  the  will 
of  the  founders.  Statutes  are  neglected.  What  is  said  of  the 
laws  in  Poland,  that  .they  last  but  three  days,  is  as  true  of  the 
short  lived  orders  in  alms-houses.  Not  the  most  indigent,  or 
who  have  been  the  most  laborious,  but  the  best-befriended,  reap 
the  benefit  thereof. 

Answer. — I  could  wish  that  alms-houses  were  the  only  places 
wherein  laws  were  broken.  But  grant  too  much  truth  in  the 
cavil,  all  will  say,  "  From  the  beginning  it  was  not  so ;"  and  I 
will  hope,  "  unto  the  end  it  shall  not  be  so." 

Cavil  7.— Hospitals  generally  have  the  rickets,  whose  heads, 
their  masters,  grow  over  great  and  rich,  whilst  their  poor  bodies 
pine  away  and  consume. 

Answer. — Surely  there  is  some  other  cure  for  a  ricketish 
body,  than  to  kill  it ;  viz,  by  opening  obstructions,  and  deriving 
the  nutriment  to  all  parts  of  the  same.  But  enough  of  this 

*  Isaiah  xlii.  8.  f   1  Cor.  xiii.  5.  J  Matth.  vi.  3.         §  Matth.  v.  16. 


unwelcome  subject,  whereof  what  is  spoken  is  not  to  put  new 
cavils  into  the  heads  of  any,  but  to  pluck  old  ones  out  of  the 
hearts  of  too  many,  who  have  entertained  them.  If  these  our 
answers  seem  not  satisfactory  to  any,  know,  that  as  a  left- 
handed  man  hath  great  odds  in  fencing  against  one  that  is  right- 
handed;  so  in  controversies  of  this  kind,  cavillers,  with  their 
sinister 'inferences  from  men's  frailties,  have  a  vast  advantage 
over  those  who  are  of  candid  and  ingenuous  dispositions. 

Many  faults  must  be  confessed  in  such  foundations,  which 
for  the  future  may  be  amended. 

But,  grant  corruptions  should  continue  in  such  foundations, 
it  is  not  plea  enough  for  their  abolition.  If  the  sentence  of 
condemnation  was  pronounced  on  those  who  saw  Christ  naked, 
and  would  not  clothe  him  ;*  how  heavy  a  doom  would  fall  on 
such  who  found  Christ  clothed,  and  stript  him  in  his  poor 
members  of  endowments  given  to  their  maintenance  ! 


It  were  arrant  presumption  for  any  to  imprison  freedom  itself, 
and  confine  another's  bounty  by  his  own  (pretended)  discretion. 
Let  the  charitably-minded  do  what,  when,  where,  how,  to  whom, 
and  how  much,  God  and  their  own  goodness  shall  direct  them. 
However,  it  will  not  be  amiss  humbly  to  represent  unto  them 
the  following  considerations;  the  rather,  because  many  well 
affected  to  the  public  good  have  lately  been  disheartened  with 
the  frustrations  of  former  charity. 

First,  for  the  time  :  it  is  best  to  do  it  whilst  they  are  living,  to 
prevent  all  suspicions  that  their  intentions  should  be  misem- 
ployed. Sem  wiU  not  be  angry  with  me  for  saying  Cham  was 
a  mocker  of  his  father.  Peter  will  not  be  offended  if  I  call 
Judas  a  betrayer  of  his  Master.  Honest  executors  will  take  no 
exception  if  I  justly  bemoan  that  too  many  dishonest  ones  have 
abused  the  good  intents  of  the  testators.  How  many  legacies, 
sound  and  whole  in  themselves,  have  proved,  before  they  were 
paid,  as  maimed  as  the  cripples  in  the  hospitals  to  whom  they 
were  bequeathed !  Yea,  as  the  blinded  Syrians  (desiring  to  go, 
and  believing  they  went  to  Damascus)  f  were  led  to  their  ene- 
mies, and  into  the  midst  of  Samaria ;  so  is  it  more  than  suspi- 
cious, that  many  blind  and  concealed  legacies,  intended  for  the 
temple  of  God,  have  been  employed  against  the  God  of  the 

Next,  for  the  objects  of  well  doing.  Surely  a  vigilant  charity 
must  take  the  alarum  from  the  groans  of  the  prisoners. 

The  schoolmen  reduce  all  corporal  charity  to  seven  principal 
heads : 

1.   Visito,  to  visit  men  in  misery;    as  Ebed-melech  did  to 

*  Matth.  xxv.  43.  f  2  Kings  vi.  20. 


Jeremiah.*  2.  Poto,  to  give  drink  to  the  thirsty ;  as  Obadiah 
did  to  the  prophets.f  3.  Cibo,  meat  to  the  hungry;  as  Nehe- 
miah  did  to  the  Jews  and  Rulers.  :f  4.  Redimo,  to  rescue  the 
captive;  as  Abraham  did  Lot.§  5.  Tego,  to  cover  the  naked; 
as  Dorcas  did  the  widows. ||  6.  Colligo,to  dress  the  wounded; 
as  the  good  jailor  did  St.  Paul.«[T  7-  Condo,  to  bury  the 
dead ;  as  the  devout  men  did  St.  Stephen,** 

See  here  how  these  seven  kinds  of  good  works  are  placed  like 
the  planets ;  whilst  to  redeem  captives  stands  like  the  sun  in  the 
midst  of  all  the  rest. 

Indeed^  it  may  be  sadly  presumed,,  that  such  captives  ft  oft- 
times  want  visiting,  meat,  drink,  clothes,  dressing,  and  all 
things  but  burying  (except  any  will  say  that  they  are  buried 
alive,  liberty  being  the  life  of  man's  life) ;  so  that  the  redeem- 
ing of  captives  is  eminently  comprehensive  "of  all  these  outward 
acts  of  charity.  Yea,  this  act  may  extend  itself  to  a  spiritual 
concernment;  to  save  many  souls  from  damnation;  seeing  it 
may  be  feared  that  many,  despairing  of  ransom,  may  put  their 
souls  in  thraldom,  to  purchase  the  liberty  of  their  bodies,  and 
renounce  their  religion. 

I  could  therefore  wish  that  there  were  in  London  a  corpora- 
tion of  able  and  honest  merchants,  whereof  that  city  affordeth  a 
plentiful  choice,  legally  empowered  to  receive  and  employ  the 
charity  of  well-affected  people,  for  a  general  jail  delivery  of  all 
English  captives  in  Tunis,  Tripoli,  Algiers,  Salli,  &c. ;  and,  our 
countrymen  first  discharged,  if  there  were  any  surplusage  run- 
ning over,  that  it  might  be  disposed  for  the  ransoming  of  Chris- 
tians of  what  country  soever.  This  were  an  heroic  act  indeed, 
whereby  Christians  endeavour  to  be  like  Christ  himself,  who 
was  the  Grand  Redeemer. 

Oh,  that  I  might  be  but  instrumental,  in  the  least  degree,  to 
advance  their  enlargement,  I  should  behold  it  as  an  advance- 
ment to  myself.  Two  reasons  make  me  the  more  importunate 
therein ;  one,  because  the  papists  had  a  company  of  friars  in 
England,  of  the  order  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  de  Redimendis  Cap- 
tivis ;  which  being  now  extinct,  I  humbly  conceive  that  we  are 
bound  in  conscience,  as  to  quench  the  superstition,  so  to  con- 
tinue the  charity  of  so  good  a  design.  Secondly,  because  whilst 
other  beggars  can  tell  their  own  tale,  we  must  plead  for  them 
who  cannot  plead  for  themselves ;  there  being  so  great  a  gulf 
of  distance  betwixt  us  and  them ;  and  God  grant  that  we  may 
never  pass  over  to  theirs,  but  they  return  to  our  condition ! 

Objection  1. — It  maketh  mariners  cowards,  who,  presuming 
on  good  men's  charity  that  they  shall  be  ransomed,  do  not  fight 

*  Jer.  xxxviii.  11.  f   l  Kings  xviii.  13.  J  Neh.  v.  17. 

§   Gen.  xiv.  16.  ||  Acts  ix.  39.  H  Acts  xvi.  33. 

**  Acts  viii.  2» 

tf  The  redeeming  of  Christians  from  captivity  was,  at  the  time  when  Dr.  Fuller 
wrote,  a  very  important  branch  of  charity  ;  and  briefs  for  that  purpose  were  frequent 
in  our  churches. 



it  out  valiantly  against  the  Turks,  as  they  ought  and  might,  but 
surrender  themselves  on  such  expectations. 

Answer. — I  see  not  but  the  same  objection  lies  with  equal 
force  against  the  redeeming  of  soldiers  taken  in  land  fights,  by 
what  foe  soever,  by  exchange  or  otherwise.  Secondly,  acciden- 
tal and  sinister  miscarriages  ought  not  to  discourage  any  sincere 
intention.  Lastly,  let  those  who  have  given  the  best  testimo- 
nies of  their  valour  be  first  redeemed ;  and  let  them  lie  longer, 
to  suffer  bad  usage,  till  the  freeing  thereof  shall  convert  them 
into  more  valour,  if,  after  their  liberty  procured,  engaging  again 
on  the  same  occasion. 

Objection  2. — The  late  Long  Parliament  made  an  act,  since 
(after  some  intermission)  renewed,  charging  a  tax  on  merchants' 
goods,  known  by  the  name  of  Algier  duty,  for  the  redemption  of 
captives  in  Turkey. 

Answer. — The  blessing  of  God  light  on  the  hearts  of  those, 
if  living,  who  first  moved,  and  since  revived  it,  as  I  doubt  not 
but  those  departed  this  life  have  found  their  reward.  I  could 
heartily  wish  that  yearly  a  catalogue  were  printed  of  the  names 
of  such  prisoners  thereby  redeemed,  not  knowing  whether  it 
would  be  more  honourable  for,  or  satisfactory  to  this  nation. 
But,  seeing  such  provisions  fall  short  of  doing  the  work,  and 
cannot  strike  home  to  break  off  the  fetters  of  all  prisoners,  it 
will  not  be  amiss  to  implore  the  auxiliary  charity  of  others. 

Next  I  desire  them  to  reflect  upon  aged  sequestered  minis- 
ters, whom,  with  their  charge,  the  (generally  ill-paid)  fifth  part 
will  not  maintain.  Say  not  it  will  be  interpreted  an  affront  to 
the  state,  to  relieve  them  which  it  hath  adjudged  offenders.  If 
the  Best  of  beings  should  observe  this  rule,  all  the  world  would 
be  starved.  Secondly,  some  of  them,  abating  only  that  their 
conscience  inclined  them  to  the  royal  cause,  were  otherwise  un- 
blamable both  in  life  and  doctrine.  Thirdly,  the  better  divines 
they  were,  the  worse  they  are  able  to  shift  for  themselves,  having 
formerly  no  excursion  into  secular  affairs;  so  that  applying 
themselves  only  to,  and  now  debarred  the  exercise  of,  the  minis- 
try, they  are  left  in  a  sad  condition.  Lastly,  allow  them  faulty, 
yet  quid  teneri  infantes  ?  &c.  It  is  pity  their  wives  and  children 
should  be  ruined  for  their  offence.  But  enough  hereof,  seeing, 
in  motions  of  this  nature,  a  word  is  enough  to  the  wise,  and  half 
a  word  too  much  for  others.  [Reader,  this  passage  being  written 
some  three  years  since,  I  could  not  command  my  own  right 
hand  to  cross  it  out,  but  it  must  stand  as  it  did.] 

Lastly,  I  recommend  unto  their  charity,  such  servants  who 
have  nothing  save  what  they  have  gained  by  their  industry,  and 
have  lived  seven  years  and  upwards  with  the  same  master ;  I 
mean  not  apprentices,  but  such  covenant  servants  which  are 
bound  to  their  masters,  their  year  being  ended,  with  no  other 
indentures  than  their  own  discretion,  and  are  sensible  that  they 
must  run  a  hazard,  and  may  lose  with  their  alteration ;  especi- 


ally  such  females,  who  prefer  a  good  master  in  certain,  before  a 
good  husband  in  hopes,  and  had  rather  serve  in  plenty,  than 
wed  and  adventure  poverty. 

I  confess,  such  is  the. cruelty  of  some  masters,  no  servant  can, 
and  such  the  fickleness  of  others,  no  servant  may  stay  long  with 
them.  Such  a  master  was  he,  who,  being  suitor  to  a  gentle- 
woman, came,  every  time  he  visited  her,  waited  on  by  a  new 
man,  though  keeping  but  one  at  once ;  such  was  his  inconstancy 
and  delight  in  change.  Whereupon,  when  taking  leave  of  his 
mistress,  he  proffered  to  salute  her ;  £i  Spare  your  compliments/' 
said  she  unto  him,  ft  for  probably  I  shall  shortly  see  you  again ; 
but  let  me,  I  pray  you,  salute  your  servant,  whom  I  shall  never 
behold  any  more/* 

However,  though  sometimes  the  fault  may  be  in  the  masters 
or  mistresses,  yet  generally  servants  are  to  be  blamed  in  our  age, 
shifting  their  places  so  often  without  cause.  The  truth  is,  the 
age  that  makes  good  soldiers,  mars  good  servants,  cancelling 
their  obedience,  and  allowing  them  too  much  liberty.  What 
Nabal  applied  falsely  and  spitefully  to  David,  "  There  be  many 
servants  now  a  days  which  break  away  every  man  from  his  mas- 
ter/5* was  never  more  true  than  now.  Yea,  what  Tully  said  of 
the  Roman  consul  (chose  in  the  morning,  and  put  out  before 
night,)  f  some  servants  have  been  so  vigilant,  they  never  slept  in 
their  masters'  houses;  so  short  their  stay,  so  soon  their  de- 

The  fickleness  and  fugitiveness  of  such  servants  justly  addeth 
a  valuation  to  their  constancy  who  are  standards  in  a  family, 
and  know  when  they  have  met  with  a  good  master,  as  it  appears 
their  masters  know  when  they  have  met  with  a  good  servant. 
It  is  pity  but  such  properties  of  a  household  should  be  encou- 
raged ;  and  bounty  bestowed  upon  them  may  be  an  occasion  to 
fix  other  servants  to  stay  the  longer  in  their  places,  to  the  gene- 
ral good  of  our  nation. 

I  desire  these  my  suggestions  should  be  as  inoffensively  taken, 
as  they  are  innocently  tendered.  I  know  there  was  in  the  water 
of  Bethesda,J  after  the  angel  had  troubled  it,  a  medicinal  power. 
I  know  also  that  such  impotent  folk  as  lay  in  the  five  porches 
were  the  proper  subjects  to  be  cured :  but,  alas !  they  wanted 
one,  at  the  critical  instant,  to  bring  their  wounds  and  the  cure 
together,  and  to  put  them  seasonably  into  the  water.  I  am  as 
confident  that  there  be  hundreds  in  England,  really  willing  and 
able  to  relieve,  as  that  there  are  thousands  that  do  desire,  and  in 
some  sort  deserve,  their  charity.  But  there  wanteth  one,  in  the 
proper  juncture  of  time,  to  present  such  poor  objects  to  their 
liberality ;  and  if  these  my  weak  endeavours  may  be  in  any  degree 

*   1  Sam.  xxv.  10. 

f  "  Habemus  vigilem  consulem  qui  in  consulate  suo  nunquam  dorrnivit." 

I  John  v.  2. 

E    2 


instrumental  to  promote  the  same,  it  will  be  a  great  comfort 
unto  me. 

I  will  conclude  this  subject  with  a  motive  to  charity,  out  of 
the  road  of,  besides,  if  not  against  the  ordinary  logic  of  men : 
"  Give  a  portion  to  seven  and  to  eight,  for  thou  knowest  not 
what  evil  shall  be  upon  the  earth/'*— "To  seven  and  to  eight;" 
that  is,  extend  thy  bounty  to  as  high  a  proportion  of  deserving 
persons  as  can  consist  with  thy  estate ;  "  for  thou  knowest  not 
what  evil  will  be  upon  the  earth;"  matters  are  mutable,  and 
thou  mayest  need  the  relief  of  others. 

Ergo,  saith  the  miser,  "part  with  nothing,  but  keep  all  against 
a  wet  day."  Not  so  Solomon,  advising  to  secure  somewhat  in 
a  safe  bank — the  backs  and  bowels  of  the  poor.  Never  evil 
more  likely  to,  never  people  less  known  of  the  same,  than  our- 
selves. And  therefore  the  counsel  never  out  of,  is  now  most  in 


I  conceive  it  not  fit  to  mingle  both  together,  for  these  two  rea- 
sons :  first,  because  of  the  difference  of  their  charity  since  the 
Reformation,  as  not  parched  up  by  the  fear  of  the  fire  of  purga- 
tory, but  kindly  ripened  with  the  sun  ;  viz.  a  clear  apprehension 
by  the  light  of  the  Scripture  that  they  were  bound  to  do  good 

Secondly,  because  a  Romish  Goliah  f  hath  defied  our  English 
Israel,  taxing  our  church  since  the  Reformation,  as  able  to  shew 
few  considerable  pieces  of  charity  in  comparison  of  those  be- 
yond the  seas,  who  may  hence  be  easily  confuted. 

Indeed  when  I  read  the  emulations  between  Peninna  and 
Hannah,  it  mindeth  me  of  the  contests  betwixt  the  church  of 
Rome  and  us ;  such  the  conformity  between  them. 

"  Her  adversary  provoked  Hannah  sore,  for  to  make  her  fret, 
because  the  Lord  hath  shut  up  her  womb."{ 

"  But  how  did  Hannah  rejoice  afterwards  ?  The  barren  hath 
borne  seven,  and  she  that  hath  many  children  is  waxed  feeble."  § 

It  is  confessed,  immediately  after  the  Reformation,  Protestant 
religion  stood  for  a  while  in  amaze,  scarcely  recovered  from  the 
Marian  persecution,  and  was  barren  in  good  works.  ||  But  since 
her  beginning  to  bear  fruit,  she  hath  overtaken  her  Roman  co- 
rival,  and  left  her  fairly  behind. 

Let  the  extent  of  time  and  content  of  ground  be  proportion- 
ally stated,  and  England  cannot  be  matched  for  deeds  of  cha- 
rity in  any  part  of  Spain,  France,  and  Italy  ;  as  by  the  ensuing 
catalogue  of  benefactors  to  the  public  will  appear. 

*  Eccles.  xi.  2.  f  Mr.  Knot  the  Jesuit. 

J  1  Sam.  i.  6.  §   i  Sam.  ii.  5. 

II  See  the  Life  of  Mr.  William  Lambert  [Lambarde]  in  Kent. 


Objection. — You  had  better  omitted  them,  leaving  them  mo- 
destly to  multiply  and  increase  in  their  own  silence  and  secrecy. 
You  know  how  dear  David  paid  for  "  numbering  the  people."* 

Answer. — David  did  not  offend  in  mere  "  numbering  the 
people/*  but  in  not  paying  the  poll  money  appointed  by  God 
in  such  cases,  t  purposely  to  decline  the  plague,  which  omission 
argued  his  pride  of  heart.  It  is  lawful  for  Protestants,  without 
any  just  suspicion  of  vain  glory  and  ostentation,  to  make  a 
list  and  take  the  number  of  benefactors  in  this  kind,  provided 
the  quit-rent  of  praise  be  principally  paid  to  the  Lord  of  heaven. 
Besides,  we  are  not  challengers,  but  defenders  of  ourselves  here- 
in against  the  challenge  of  another;  desiring  to  do  it  in  all 
humility,  in  confidence  of  our  good  cause. 

And  here  I  can  hold  no  longer,  but  must  break  forth  into  a 
deserved  commendation  of  good  works.  Glorious  things  in  Scrip- 
ture are  spoken  of  you ;  yea,  fruits  of  the  Spirit.  By  them  the 
Gospel  is  graced,  wicked  men  amazed,  some  of  them  converted, 
the*  rest  of  them  confounded,  weak  Christians  confirmed,  poor 
Christians  relieved,  our  faith  justified,  our  reward  in  heaven  by 
God's  free  grace  amplified ;  angels  rejoice  for  them,  devils  re- 
pine at  them,  God  himself  is  glorified  in  them.  Oh,  therefore, 
that  it  were  in  my  power  to  exhort  my  countrymen  to  pursue 
good  works  with  all  earnestness,  which  will  add  so  much  to 
their  account. 

Some  will  say,  if  the  English  be  so  forward  in  deeds  of  charity 
as  appeareth  by  what  you  said  before,  any  exhortation  there- 
unto is  altogether  superfluous. 

I  answer,  the  best  disposed  to  bounty  may  need  a  remem- 
brancer ;  and  I  am  sure  that  nightingale  which  would  wake 
will  not  be  angry  with  the  thorn  which  pricketh  her  breast  when 
she  noddeth.  Besides,  it  is  a  truth  what  the  Poet  saith, 

Qui  monet  ut  facias  quod  jam  facis,  ipse  monendo 
Laudat,  el  hortatu  comprobat  acta  suo. 

"  Who,  what  thou  dost,  thee  for  to  do  doth  move, 
Doth  praise  thy  practice,  and  thy  deeds  approve.'' 

Thus  the  exhortations  of  the  Apostles  at  Jerusalem  were 
commendations  of  St.  Paul,  ee  Only  they  would  that  we  should 
remember  the  poor,  the  same  which  I  also  was  forward  to 

Lastly,  though  many  of  our  nation  be  free  in  this  kind,  there 
want  not  those  who,  instead  of  being  zealous  are  jealous  of  good 
works ;  being  so  far  from  shining  themselves,  that  they  enviously 
endeavour  to  extinguish  the  light  of  others,  whose  judgments  I 
have  laboured  to  rectify  herein. 

*  2  Sam,  xxiv.  15.  f  Exod.  xxx.  12.  $  Gal.  ii.  10. 



No  word  occurs  oftener  in  this  our  book  than  Reformation. 
It  is,  as  it  were,  the  equator,  or  that  remarkable  line  dividing 
betwixt  eminent  prelates,  learned  writers,  and  benefactors  to  the 
public  who  lived  before  or  after  it. 

Know  then  that  this  word,  in  relation  to  the  Church  of  Eng- 
land, is  of  above  twenty  years'  extent.  For  the  Reformation  was 
not  advanced  here  as  in  some  foreign  free  states,  suddenly,  not 
to  say  rapidly,  with  popular  violence,  but  leisurely  and  treatably, 
as  became  a  matter  of  so  great  importance.  Besides,  the  meet- 
ing with  much  opposition  retarded  the  proceedings  of  the  Re- 

We  may  observe,  that  the  Jews  returned  from  the  captivity 
of  Babylon  at  three  distinct  times,  under  the  conduct  of  several 
persons.  1 .  When  the  main  body  of  the  captives  was  brought 
home  by  Zerubbabel,*  by  whom  the  second  Temple  was  built. 

2.  When  a  considerable  company  returned  with  Ezra,f  by  whom 
the  church  part,  as  I  may  term  it,  was  settled  in  that  nation. 

3.  When  Nehemiah,J  no  doubt  with  suitable  attendance,  came 
home,  and  ordered  the  state  moiety,  repairing  the  walls  of  Jeru- 

In  like  manner  we  may  take  notice  of  three  distinct  dates  and 
different  degrees  of  our  English  Reformation ;  though,  in  rela- 
tion to  the  Jewish,  I  confess  the  method  was  altogether  inverted. 
For,  1 .  The  civil  part  thereof,  when  the  Pope's  supremacy  was 
banished  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth.  2.  When  the 
Church  Service  was  reformed,  as  far  as  that  age  would  admit,  in 
the  first  year  of  king  Edward  the  Sixth.  3.  When  the  same, 
after  the  Marian  interruption,  was  resumed  and  more  refined  in 
the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth. 

The  first  of  these  I  may  call  the  morning  star ;  the  second, 
the  dawning  of  the  day ;  the  third,  the  rising  of  the  sun  ;  and  I 
deny  not  but  that  since  that  time  his  light  and  heat  hath  been 

But  now  the  question  will  be,  what  is  to  be  thought  of  those 
prelates,  writers,  and  benefactors,  which  lived  in  the  aforesaid 
interval  betwixt  the  beginning  and  perfecting  of  this  Reforma- 
tion. For  these  appear  unto  us  like  unto  the  bateable  ground 
lying  betwixt  England  and  Scotland,  whilst  as  yet  two  distinct 
kingdoms,  in  so  dubious  a  posture  it  is  hard  to  say  to  which  side 
they  do  belong. 

It  is  answered,  the  only  way  to  decide  this  difference  is  to 
observe  the  inclinations  of  the  said  persons  so  far  forth  as  they 
are  discovered  in  their  writings  and  actions :  such  as  appear  in 

.    *  Ezraii.  2.  f  Ezraviii.  1—14.  J  Nehem.  ii.  6. 


some  good  degree  favourers  of  the  Gospel  are  reputed  to  be 
since,  whilst  those  who  are  otherwise  are  adjudged  to  be  before, 
the  Reformation. 



THE  former  heads  were  like  private  houses,  in  which  persons 
accordingly  qualified  have  their  several  habitations.  But  this 
last  topic  is  like  a  public  inn,  admitting  all  comers  and  goers, 
having  any  extraordinary,  not  vicious,  remark  upon  them,  and 
which  are  not  clearly  reducible  to  any  of  the  former  titles. 
Such,  therefore,  who  are  over,  under,  or  beside  the  standard  of 
common  persons,  for  strength,  stature,  fruitfulness,  vivacity, 
or  any  other  observable  eminence,  are  lodged  here  under  the 
notion  of  memorable  persons,  presuming  the  pains  will  not  be 
to  me  so  much  in  marking,  as  the  pleasure  to  the  reader  in  know- 
ing them. 

Under  this  title  we  also  repose  all  such  mechanics,  who  in 
any  manual  trade  have  reached  a  clear  note  above  others  in 
their  vocation. 

Objection. — It  is  deforme  spectaculum,  an  uncouth  sight,  to 
behold  such  handy  craftsmen  blended  with  eminencies  in  inge- 
nious professions ;  such  a  motley  colour  is  no  good  wearing. 
How  would  William  Cecil,  Lord  Treasurer  of  England,  and  Ba- 
ron of  Burleigh,  be  offended,  to  behold  James  York  the  black- 
smith set  with  him  at  the  same  table  amongst  the  natives  of 
Lincolnshire  ? 

Answer. — I  am  confident,  on  the  contrary,  that  he  would  be 
highly  pleased,  being  so  great  a  statesman,  that  he  would  coun- 
tenance and  encourage  his  industrious  countryman,  accounting 
nothing  little,  without  the  help  whereof  greater  matters  can  ei- 
ther not  be  attained,  or  not  long  subsist.  Yea,  we  see  what 
signal  notice  the  Spirit  of  God  takes  of  the  three  sons  of  La- 
mech,*  the  first  founders  of  tent-making,  organs,  and  iron- 
works ;  and  it  is  observable,  that  whereas  all  their  names  are 
forgotten  which  built  the  Tower  of  Babel,  though  done  on  de- 
sign to  get  them  a  name,t  these  three  mechanics,  viz.  Jabal, 
Jubal,  and  Tubal-cain,  are  nominatim  recorded  to  all  posterity. 
Thus  is  it  better  to  bottom  the  perpetuity  of  one's  memory  on 
honest  industry  and  ingenuous  diligence,  than  on  stately  struc- 
tures and  expensive  magnificence. 

I  confess  it  is  easier  to  add  to  any  art,  than  first  to  invent 
it ;  yet,  because  there  is  a  perfection  of  degrees,  as  well  as  kinds, 
eminent  improvers  of  an  art  may  be  allowed  for  the  co-invent- 
ors thereof  being  founders  of  that  accession  which  they  add 

*  Gen.  iv.  2      22.  23.  f  Gen.  xi.   4. 


thereunto,  for  which  they  deserve  to  be  both  regarded  and  re- 

I  could  name  a  worshipful  family  in  the  south  of  England, 
which  for  sixteen  several  descents,  and  some  hundreds  of  years, 
have  continued  in  the  same  stay  of  estate,  not  acquiring  one 
foot  of  land,  either  by  match,  purchase,  gift,  or  otherwise,  to 
their  ancient  patrimony.  The  same  may  be  said  of  some 
handicrafts,  wherein  men  move  in  the  same  compass,  but  make 
no  further  progress  to  perfection,  or  any  considerable  improve- 
ment; and  this  I  impute  generally  to  their  want  of  competent 



I  HAVE  concluded  this  work  with  these  chief  officers  in  that 
great  city ;  a  place  of  so  great  honour  and  trust,  that  it  hath 
commonly  been  said,  that,  on  the  death  of  an  English  king, 
the  Lord  Mayor  is  the  subject  of  the  greatest  authority  in  Eng- 
land 5  many  other  offices  determining  with  the  king's  life,  till 
such  time  as  their  charters  be  renewed  by  his  successor ;  where- 
as the  Lord  Mayor's  trust  continueth  for  a  whole  year,  without 
any  renewing  after  the  interregnum. 

Objection. — Such  persons  had  better  been  omitted,  whereof 
many  were  little  better  than  ya«mjpcc  apyol,  though  by  good  for- 
tune they  have  loaded  themselves  with  thick  clay ;  and  will  be 
but  a  burden  in  your  book  to  the  readers  thereof. 

Answer. — All  wise  men  will  behold  them  under  a  better  no- 
tion, as  the  pregnant  proofs  of  the  truth  of  two  proverbs,  not 
contradictory,  but  confirmatory  one  to  another.  Prov.  x.  22  : 
"The  blessing  of  the  Lord  maketh  rich."  Prov.  x.  4  : 
(( The  hand  of  the  diligent  maketh  rich."  The  one  as  the  prin- 
cipal, the  other  as  the  instrumental  cause ;  and  both  meeting  in 
the  persons  aforesaid. 

For  though  some  of  them  were  the  younger  sons  of  worship- 
ful and  wealthy  parents,  and  so  had  good  sums  of  money  left 
them ;  yet  being  generally  of  mean  extraction,  they  raised 
themselves  by  God's  providence,  and  their  own  painfulness ; 
the  city,  in  this  respect,  being  observed  like  unto  a  court  where 
elder  brothers  commonly  spend,  and  the  younger  gain,  an  es- 

But  such  Lord  Mayors  are  here  inserted,  to  quicken  the  in- 
dustry of  youth,  whose  parents  are  only  able  to  send  them  up 
to,  not  to  set  them  up  in,  London.  For  what  a  comfort  is  it 
to  a  poor  apprentice  of  that  city,  to  see  the  prime  magistrate 
thereof,  riding  in  his  majoralibus,  with  such  pomp  and  attend- 
ance, which  another  day  may  be  his  hap  and  happiness  ! 

LORD    MAYORS    OF    LONDON.  5? 

Objection. — It  cometh  not  to  the  share  of  one  in  twenty 
thousand,,  to  attain  to  that  honour ;  and  it  is  as  impossible  for 
every  poor  apprentice  in  process  of  time  to  prove  Lord  Mayor, 
as  that  a  minim  with  long  living  should  become  a  whale. 

Answer. — Not  so  ;  the  latter  is  an  utter  impossibility  as  de- 
barred by  nature,  being  fishes  of  several  kinds  :  whereas  there 
is  a  capacity  in  the  other  to  arrive  at  it,  which  puts  hopes,  the 
only  tie  which  keeps  the  heart  from  breaking,  into  the  hearts 
of  all  of  the  attainableness  of  such  preferment  to  themselves. 

Dr.  Hutton,  archbishop  of  York,  when  he  came  into  any 
great  grammar  school,  which  he  did  constantly  visit  in  his  vi- 
sitations, was  wont  to  say  to  the  young  scholars,  "Ply  your 
books,  boys,  ply  your  books,  for  bishops  are  old  men."  And 
surely  the  possibility  of  such  dignity  is  a  great  encouragement 
to  the  endeavours  of  students. 

Lord  Mayors  being  generally  aged,  and  always  but  annual, 
soon  make  room  for  succession,  whereby  the  endeavours  of  all 
freemen  in  companies  are  encouraged.  But  if  they  should 
chance  to  fall  short,  as  unable  to  reach  the  home  of  honour,  I 
mean  the  mayoralty  itself,  yet,  if  they  take  up  their  lodgings  at 
Sheriff,  Alderman,  and  Common-Councillor,  with  a  good  estate, 
they  will  have  no  cause  to  complain. 

I  confess  some  counties,  in  our  ensuing  discourse,  will  appear 
Lord  Mayor-less,  as  Cumberland,  Dorsetshire,  Hampshire,  &c. 
However,  though  hitherto  they  have  not  had,  hereafter  they 
may  have,  natives  advanced  to  that  honour ;  and  it  may  put  a 
lawful  ambition  into  them,  to  contend  who  shall  be  their  leader, 
and  who  should  first  of  those  shires  attain  to  that  dignity.  As 
lately  Sir  Richard  Cheverton,  skinner,  descended,  I  assure  you, 
of  a  right  ancient  and  worshipful  family,  was  the  first  in  Corn- 
wall, who  opened  the  door  for  others,  no  doubt,  to  follow  after 

Nor  must  it  be  forgotten  that  many  have  been  Lord  Mayors' 
mates,  though  never  remembered  in  their  catalogues ;  viz.  such 
who  by  fine  declined  that  dignity :  and  as  I  am  glad  that  some 
will  fine,  that  so  the  stock  of  the  chamber  of  London  may  be 
increased,  so  I  am  glad  that  some  will  not  fine,  that  so  the  state 
of  the  city  of  London  may  be  maintained. 

I  begin  the  observing  of  their  nativities,  from  Sir  William 
Sevenoke,  grocer,  Lord  Mayor  1418.  For  though  there  were 
Lord  Mayors  200  years  before,  yet  their  birth-places  generally 
are  unknown.  It  was,  I  confess,  well  for  me  in  this  particular, 
that  Mr.  Stow  was  born  before  me,  being  herein  the  heir  of 
endeavours,  without  any  pain  of  my  own ;  for,  knowing  that 
cuilibet  artifici  in  sud  arte  est  credendum,  I  have  followed  him, 
and  who  him  continued,  till  the  year  1633,  at  what  time  their 
labours  do  determine.  Since  which  term,  to  the  present  year, 
I  have  made  the  catalogue  out  by  my  own  inquiry,  and  friends' 
intelligence.  To  speak  truth  to  their  due  praise,  one  may  be 

58  WORTHIES    OF       ENGLAND. 

generally  directed  to  their  cradles,  though  by  no  other  candle 
than  the  light  of  their  good  works  and  benefactions  to  such 



AFTER  we  have  finished  the  catalogue  of  the  worthy  natives  of 
every  shire,  we  present  the  reader  with  a  list  of  the  Gentry  of 
the  land,  solemnly  returned  by  select  commissioners  into  the 
chancery,  thence  into  the  records  in  the  Tower,  on  this  occasion. 

The  Commons  in  Parliament  complained  that  the  land  then 
swarmed  with  pilours,  robbers,  oppressors  of  the  people,  man- 
stealers,  felons,  outlaws,  ravishers  of  women,  unlawful  haunters 
of  forests  and  parks,  &c.  Whereupon  it  was  ordered*,  for  the 
suppressing  of  present  and  preventing  of  future  mischiefs,  that 
certain  commissioners  should  be  empowered,  in  every  county,  to 
summon  all  persons  of  quality  before  them,  and  tender  them  an 
oath,  for  the  better  keeping  of  the  peace,  and  observing  the 
king's  laws  both  in  themselves  and  retainers. 

Excuse  me,  reader,  if  I  be  bold  to  interpose  my  own  conjec- 
ture, who  conceive,  whatever  was  intended  to  palliate  the  busi- 
ness, the  principal  intent  was,  to  detect  and  suppress  such  who 
favoured  the  title  of  York :  which  then  began  to  be  set  on  foot, 
and  afterwards  openly  claimed,  and  at  last  obtained  the  crown. 


The  first  amongst  the  commissioners  is  the  Bishop  of  their 
diocese,  put  before  any  Earl ;  partly  because  he  was  in  his  own 
diocese,  partly  because  giving  of  oaths,  their  proper  work,  was 
conceived  to  be  of  spiritual  cognisance. 

Besides  the  bishop,  when  they  were  three  (as  generally)  com- 
missioners, the  first  of  them  was  either  an  Earl,  or  at  least 
(though  often  entituled  but  Chivaler)  an  actual  Baron,  as 
will  hereafter  appear ;  and  which  will  acquaint  us  partly  with  the 
peerage  of  the  land  in  that  age. 

Next  follow  those  who  were  Knights  for  the  Shire  in  the  par- 
liament foregoing  ;  and  if  with  the  addition  of  Chivaler,  or  Miles, 
were  Knights  by  dubbing,  before  of  that  their  relation. 

All  commissioners  expressed  not  equal  industry  and  activity 
in  prosecution  of  their  trust ;  for,  besides  the  natural  reasons, 
that  in  all  affairs  some  will  be  more  rigorous,  some  more  remiss, 
by  their  own  temper,  some  more,  some  less  fancied  their 
employment,  insomuch  as  we  find  some  shires,  1 .  Over  done ; 
as  Oxford  and  Cambridge-shires,  whose  catalogues  are  too 


much  allayed,  descending  to  persons  of  meaner  quality. 
2.  Even  done ;  as  generally  the  most  are,  where  the  returns  bear 
a  competent  proportion  to  the  populousness  and  numerousness 
of  the  counties.  3.  Underdone ;  as  Shropshire,  Yorkshire,  Nor- 
thumberland, &c.,  where  the  returns  do  not  answer  to  the  extent 
of  those  shires.  4.  Not  done ;  which  I  sadly  confess,  and 
cannot  help ;  being  twelve  in  number,  as  hereafter  will  appear. 

I  dare  not  conjecture  the  cause  of  this  casualty ;  whether  in 
such  shires  the  oaths  were  never  tendered,  or  tendered  and  not 
taken,  or  taken  and  not  returned,  or  returned  and  not  recorded, 
or  recorded  and  not  preserved,  or  preserved  but  misplaced 
in  some  roll  which  hitherto  it  hath  not  been  my  hap  to  light 

It  is  possible  that  some  disgusted  the  king's  design,  as  who, 
under  the  pretence  of  keeping  the  peace,  endeavoured  to 
smother  and  suppress  such  who  should  appear  for  the  title  of 
York ;  whereof  more  in  the  respective  counties. 

May  the  reader  be  pleased  to  take  notice  that,  in  the  reign  of 
Henry  the  Sixth,  de  such  a  place  began  then  to  be  left  off,  and 
the  addition  of  Knight  and  Squire  to  be  assumed.  Yet,  because 
no  fashion  can  be  generally  followed  at  first,  such  additions  are 
used  in  the  returns  of  some  shires,  and  neglected  in  others. 

In  some  counties  we  have  the  names  of  a  few  mechanics  re- 
turned, with  their  trades,  Brazier,  Smith,  Ironmonger,  &c. ;  who, 
no  doubt,  were  considerable,  either  in  themselves,  as  robustious 
persons ;  or  in  their  servants,  as  numerous  ;  or  in  their  popular 
and  tumultuous  influence  of  others.  And  grant  these  passing 
under  the  name  of  Valecti  (whereof  formerly),  it  appears,  by  the 
penalty  imposed  on  their  recusancy  of  the  oath,  that  they  were 
substantial  people,  which  stood  (and  probably  could  make  others 
go)  on  their  own  account. 

Some  clergymen,  not  only  regular,  as  abbots  and  priors,  but 
secular  parochial  priests,  are  inserted  in  some  returns.  These, 
some  will  say,  might  well  be  omitted,  as  nothing  informative  to 
the  gentry  of  the  land,  because  dead  stakes  in  the  -hedge  ;  then 
unconcerned  in  posterity,  because  forbidden  marriage.  How- 
ever, I  have  here  presented  as  I  found  them,  intending  neither 
to  mingle  nor  mangle ;  conceiving  that,  if  I  were  found  guilty 
either  of  omissions  or  alterations,  it  might  justly  shake  the  cre- 
dit of  the  whole  catalogue.  Indeed  if  the  word  superstition  im- 
porteth  not  trespassing  on  religion,  and  if  the  bare  signification 
be  adequate  to  the  etymology  thereof,  a  super  stando,  for  stand- 
ing in  his  own  opinion  too  curiously,  on  a  thing  which  in  the 
judgment  of  others  may  not  merit  so  much  exquisiteness,  I  here 
voluntarily  confess  myself  superstitious  in  observing  every 
punctilio  according  to  the  original. 

May  the  reader  be  pleased  to  take  notice,  that  in  men's  pro- 
per names,  some  letters  of  like  sound  are  confounded  in  vulgar 
pronunciation,  as  V  for  F,  Fenner  and  Venner,  K  and  C,  Kary 


and  Gary ;  F  and  Ph,  as  Purfrey  and  Purphrey,  though  the 
name  be  the  same  in  both.  Sometimes  the  name  is  spelt,  not 
truly,  according  to  orthography,  but  according  to  the  common 
speaking  thereof,  which  melteth  out  some  essential  letters,  as 
Becham  for  Beauchamp. 

Again,  there  is  such  an  allusion  betwixt  the  forms  of  some  let- 
ters (nothing  symbolizing  in  sound)  that  as  they  are  written 
(though  not  in  ordinary)  in  record-hand,  they  may  easily  be  mis- 
taken by  a  writer  or  reader,  through  the  similitude  of  their  cha- 
racter; as, 


t  *  5  -°  { •*•  • }  r  {  r  y  t  c  y  3 

This  hath  put  us  many  times  to  a  stand,  and  sometimes  to  a 
loss,  what  letter  it  hath  been.  But  we  have  in  all  particulars 
conformed  our  transcript  to  the  original  in  all  possible  exact- 
ness, though  afterwards  taking  the  boldness  to  interpose  our 
opinion  in  our  observations. 

A  later  list  might  be  presented  of  the  English  gentry,  towards 
the  end  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth  ;*  but  such  would 
be  subject  to  just  exception.  For,  as  the  Gibeonites,  though  by 
their  mouldy  bread,  and  clouted  shoes,  pretending  to  a  long  pe- 
regrination, were  but  of  the  vicinage ;  so  most  of  those  gentry, 
notwithstanding  their  specious  claim  to  antiquity,  will  be  found 
to  be  but  of  one  descent,  low  enough  in  themselves,  did  they 
not  stand  on  the  vantage  ground,  heightened  on  the  rubbish  of 
the  ruins  of  monasteries. 



REEVE,  which  hath  much  affinity  with  the  Dutch  Gh*ave,  sig- 
nifieth  an  officer  to  oversee  and  order,  being  chief  in  the  Shire ; 
in  Latin  Vice-comes  or  Vice-count.  And  seeing  shadows  in 
effect  are  as  ancient  as  the  bodies,  they  may  be  believed  as  old 
as  Counts,  and  Counts  as  Counties,  and  Counties  as  king  Alfred, 
who  first  divided  England  into  Shires  about  the  year  of  our 
Lord  888. 

The  late  fashion  was,  that  the  clerk  of  the  peace  for  each 
county,  in  Michaelmas  term,  presented  to  the  lord  chief  justice 
of  the  King's  Bench  six  or  more  names  of  able  persons  for  that 
office.  The  lord  chief  justice  calling  the  other  judges  into  the 
Exchequer  Chamber,  where  the  attorney-general  and  solicitor 
attend,  presented  three  out  of  that  number  unto  the  king,  out 

*  This  List,  if  it  could  be  discovered,  and  it  is  probably  in  some  of  the  Record 
Jffices,  would  be  a  valuable  article  in  continuation  of  «« The  Worthies  of 


of    which   the   king   pricks   one,   who    stands    sheriff   of    the 

His  power  is  sufficiently  known;  to  suppress  riots,  secure 
prisoners,  distrain  for  debts,  execute  writs,  return  the  choice  of 
knights  and  burgesses  for  parliament,  empannel  juries,  attend 
the  judge,  see  the  execution  of  malefactors,  &c. 

Several  statutes  have  provided,  that  no  man  should  be  sheriff 
in  any  county,  except  he  hath  land  sufficient  in  the  same  county 
to  answer  the  king  and  his  people.*  And  it  is  remarkable  that, 
since  the  beginning  of  that  office,  it  appeareth  not  upon  any 
record,  that  ever  any  sheriff,  pro  tempore,  failed  in  his  estate, 
but  was  responsible  in  his  place ;  whereas  it  is  too  plain  by  sad 
precedents,  that  some  receivers  (being  men  of  meaner  estates) 

Sheriffs  are  bound  to  abide  in  their  proper  persons  within  the 
county,  that  they  may  the  more  effectually  attend  their  office,  t 
And  in  our  remembrance,  some  great  persons,  whose  activity  in 
parliament  was  suspected,  have  been  made  sheriffs,  to  keep 
them  out  of  harm's  way,  and  confine  them  at  home.  But  later 
years  have  dispensed  with  such  critical  niceties ;  unreasonable 
that  the  sheriff  himself  should  be  a  prisoner  in  his  own  county, 
allowing  him  more  liberty,  on  the  providing  of  an  able  deputy 
in  his  absence. 

Though  I  will  not  avouch  it  true,  there  may  be  somewhat  of 
truth  in  their  spiteful  observation,  who  maintain,  that  the  shriev- 
alty in  ancient  times  was  honos  sine  onere,  in  the  middle  times 
honos  cum  onere,  and  in  our  days  little  better  than  onus  sine 
honore ;  though  I  trust  the  office  will  now  be  restored  to  its 
former  honour. 

Honos  sine  onere,  a  an  honour  without  a  burden."  As  when 
prince  Edward  the  First  was  for  many  years  together  high- 
sheriff  of  Bedford  and  Buckinghamshire ;  and  many  prime  peers 
of  the  land  were  honorary  sheriffs,  gracing  the  place  with  ac- 
cepting it ;  living  where  they  pleased  themselves,  and  appoint- 
ing their  substitutes  to  transact  the  business  of  the  county. 

Honos  cum  onere,  "  an  honour  with  a  burden ;"  from  king 
Edward  the  Third,  till  within  our  remembrance.  For  the  prin- 
cipal gentry  in  every  shire,  of  most  ancient  extractions  and  best 
estates,  were  deputed  for  that  place,  keeping  great  attendance 
and  hospitality :  so  that  as  some  transcripts  have,  for  the  fair- 
ness of  their  character,  not  only  evened  but  exceeded  the 
original,  the  Vice-comites  have,  pro  tempore,  equalled  the  count 
himself,  and  greatest  lords  in  the  land,  for  their  magnificence. 

Onus  sine  honore,  "  a  burden  without  honour ;"  when  it  was 
obtruded  on  many  as  a  punishment  for  the  trouble  and  charge 
thereof,  and  laid  as  a  burden,  not  on  the  back  of  that  horse 
which  was  best  able  to  carry  it,  but  who  was  least  able  to  cast  it 

*  9  Edward  II.  Lincoln.     4  Edward  III.  9.     5  Edward  III.  4. 
|  4  Henry  IV.  5. 


off,  great  persons  by  friends  and  favour  easily  escaping  it,  whilst 
it  was  charged  on  those  of  meaner  estates :  though  I  do  believe 
it  found  all  them  Esquires,  and  did  not  make  any  so,  as  some 
will  suggest. 

Hence  was  it,  that  many  sheriffs  were  forced  to  consult  prin- 
ciples of  thrift,  not  being  bound  so  to  serve  their  country,  as  to 
disserve  themselves,  and  ruin  their  estates ;  and  instead  of  keep- 
ing open  houses,  as  formerly,  at  the  assizes,  began  to  latch, 
though  not  lock,  their  doors,  providently  reducing  it  to  an  ordi- 
nary expence ;  and  no  wise  man  will  conclude  them  to  be  the 
less  loyal  subjects,  for  being  the  more  provident  fathers. 

At  the  end  of  every  shire,  after  the  forenamed  catalogue  of 
the  gentry,  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Sixth,  I  have  set 
down  a  list  of  the  sheriffs  from  the  beginning  of  king  Henry 
the  Second  until  the  end  of  king  Charles,  carefully  collected  out 
of  the  Records.  For  I  hope  that  by  the  former,  which  I  call 
my  broad  (representing  the  gentry  of  one  generation  all  over 
England),  and  this  which  I  term  my  long  catalogue,  extending 
itself  successively  through  many  ages ;  I  hope,  I  say,  both  being 
put  together,  may  square  out  the  most  eminent  of  the  ancient 
gentry  in  some  tolerable  proportion.  Most  eminent ;  seeing,  I 
confess,  neither  can  reach  all  the  gentry  of  the  land :  for  as  in 
the  catalogue  of  king  Henry  the  Sixth,  many  ancient  gentlemen 
were  omitted,  who  were  minors  in  age,  and  so  incapable  of 
taking  an  oath ;  so  doth  not  the  list  of  sheriffs  comprehend  all 
the  gentry  in  the  shire,  finding  three  sorts  of  people  excluded 
out  of  the  same: — such  who  were,  1.  Above  discharging  the 
office :  2.  Besides  discharging  the  office :  3.  Beneath  discharg- 
ing the  office. 

Above.  Such  were  all  the  Peerage  in  the  land,  which  since 
the  reign  of  king  Edward  the  Third  were  excused,  I  am  sure,  de 
facto,  not  employed  in  that  place,  as  inconsistent  with  their 
attendance  in  parliament. 

Secondly,  such  who  were  besides  the  place,  privileged  by  their 
profession  from  that  office ;  which  may  be  subdivided  into— 
1.  Swordmen,  employed  in  wars  beyond  the  seas.  Thus  Sir 
Oliver  Ingham,  and  Sir  John  Fastoffe,  both  great  men,  and 
richly  landed  in  Norfolk,  were  never  sheriffs  thereof,  because 
employed  in  the  French  wars,  the  one  under  king  Edward  the 
Third,  the  other  under  king  Henry  the  Fifth.  2.  Gownmen ;  as 
judges,  sergeants  at  law,  barristers,  auditors,  and  other  officers 
in  the  Exchequer,  &c.  3.  Cloakmen  ;*  such  courtiers  as  were 
the  king's  servants,  and  in  ordinary  attendance  about  his  person. 

Lastly,  such  as  were  beneath  the  place,  as  men  of  too  narrow 
estates  to  discharge  that  office,  especially  as  it  was  formerly  in 
the  magnificent  expensiveness  thereof,  though  such  persons 
might  be  esquires  of  right  ancient  extraction. 

In  relation  to  the  present  mode  ;  otherwise  they  also  were  gownmen  anciently. 



And  here  under  favour  I  conceive,  that  if  a  strict  inquiry 
should  be  made  after  the  ancient  gentry  of  England,  most  of 
them  would  be  found  amongst  such  middle-sized  persons  as  are 
above  two  hundred,  and  beneath  a  thousand  pounds  of  annual 
revenue.  It  was  the  motto  of  wise  Sir  Nicholas  Bacon,  medio- 
criafrma,  "  moderate  things  are  most  lasting/'  Men  of  great 
estates,  in  national  broils,  have  smarted  deeply  for  their  visible 
engagements,  to  the  ruin  of  their  families,  whereof  we  have  had 
too  many  sad  experiments,  whilst  such  persons  who  are  mode- 
rately mounted  above  the  level  of  common  people  into  a  com- 
petency, above  want  and  beneath  envy,  have,  by  God^s  blessing 
on  their  frugality,  continued  longest  in  their  conditions,  enter- 
taining all  alterations  in  the  state  with  the  less  destructive 
change  unto  themselves. 

Let  me  add,  that  I  conceive  it  impossible  for  any  man,  and 
difficult  for  a  corporation  of  men,  to  make  a  true  catalogue  of 
the  English  gentry  ;  because,  what  mathematicians  say  of  a  line, 
that  it  is  divisibilis  in  semper  divisibilia,  is  true  hereof,  if  the 
Latin  were  (which,  for  aught  I  know,  if  as  usual  is)  as  elegant, 
addibilis  in  semper  addibilia.  Not  only  because  new  gentry  will 
every  day  be  added,  and  that  as  I  conceive  justly  too ;  for  why 
should  the  fountain  of  honour  be  stopped,  if  the  channel  of 
desert  be  running  ?  but  because  ancient  gentry  will  daily  be 
newly  discovered,  though  some  of  them  perchance  for  the  pre- 
sent but  in  a  poor  and  mean  condition,  as  may  appear  by  this 

It  happened  in  the  reign  of  king  James,  when  Henry  Earl  of 
Huntingdon  was  lieutenant  of  Leicestershire,  that  a  labourer's 
son  in  that  county  was  pressed  into  the  wars,  as  I  take  it  to  go 
over  with  count  Mansfield.  The  old  man  at  Leicester  requested 
his  son  might  be  discharged,  as  being  the  only  staff  of  his  age, 
who  by  his  industry  maintained  him  and  his  mother.  The  earl 
demanded  his  name,  which  the  man  for  a  long  time  was  loath 
to  tell,  as  suspecting  it  a  fault  for  so  poor  a  man  to  confess  a 
truth.  At  last  he  told  his  name  was  Hastings.  "Cousin  Hast- 
ings," said  the  earl,  "we  cannot  all  be  top  branches  of  the  tree, 
though  we  all  spring  from  the  same  root :  your  son  my  kinsman 
shall  not  be  pressed."  So  good  was  the  meeting  of  modesty  in  a 
poor,  with  courtesy  in  an  honourable  person,  and  gentry  I  believe 
in  both.  And  I  have  reason  to  believe,  that  some  who  justly  own 
the  surnames  and  blood  of  Bohuns,  Mortimers,  and  Plantagenets, 
though  ignorant  of  their  own  extractions,  are  hid  in  the  heap  of 
common  people ;  where  they  find  that  under  a  thatched  cottage, 
which  some  of  their  ancestors  could  not  enjoy  in  a  leaded  castle, 
contentment  with  quiet  and  security. 

To  return  to  our  catalogue  of  sheriffs.  I  have  been  bold  to 
make  some  brief  historical  observations  upon  them,  which  I  hope 
will  not  be  unpleasing  to  the  reader,  whom  I  request  first  to 


peruse  our  notes  on  Berkshire,  because  of  their  public  influence 
on  the  rest,  facilitating  some  difficulties  which  return  in  the 
sheriffs  of  other  counties. 

After  we  have  presented  the  sheriffs5  names,  we  have  annexed 
their  addition,  either  of  estate,  as  Esquire  ;  or  degree,  as  Knight, 
Baronet,  &c. ;  and  this  we  have  always  done  after,  sometimes 
before,  king  Henry  the  Sixth.  For  although  the  statute  of  Addi- 
tions was  made  in  the  first  of  king  Henry  the  Fifth,  to  indivi- 
duify,  as  I  may  say,  and  separate  persons  from  those  of  the 
same  name ;  and  although  it  took  present  effect  in  such  suits 
and  actions  where  process  of  outlawry  lieth,  yet  was  it  not 
universally  practised  in  other  writings  till  the  end  of  the  reign 
of  king  Henry  the  Sixth. 

After  their  additions,  we  have,  in  a  distinct  columel,  assigned 
the  places  of  their  habitation,  where  we  could  proceed  with  any 
certainty,  leaving  some  blanks  to  employ  the  industry  of  others. 
We  have  endeavoured,  as  near  as  we  could,  to  observe  propor- 
tion of  time  in  denoting  their  places,  lest  otherwise  our  there  be 
confuted  by  our  then,  the  date  of  the  king's  reign  which  is  pre- 
fixed. If  sometimes  we  have  made  a  prolepsis  with  VirgiPs 
Lavinia  litora,  (I  mean  if  we  have  placed  some  sheriffs  too 
early  in  their  possessions,  a  little  before  their  families  were 
fixed  there,)  I  hope  the  candid  reader  will  either  wink  or  smile 
at  the  mistake. 

It  often  cometh  to  pass  that  the  same  sheriff  in  the  same 
shire  hath  two  or  more  fair  seats.  This  should  raise  their  grati- 
tude to  God,  whose  own  Son  was  not  so  well  provided,  not  having 
"whereto  lay  his  head."  In  this  variety  our  catalogue  pre- 
senteth  but  one ;  sometimes  the  oldest,  sometimes  the  fairest, 
and  sometimes,  freely  to  confess,  what  comes  first  to  my  me^ 
mory.  The  best  is,  truth  doth  not  abate  thereby  ;  knowing  so 
much  law,  that  where  a  man  hath  an  household  in  two  places 
he  shall  be  said  to  dwell  in  both  of  them ;  so  that  this  addition 
in  one  of  them  doth  suffice. 

Next  to  the  place  of  sheriffs  we  set  down  their  arms  ;  whereof 
largely  in  the  next  chapter.  We  conclude  the  catalogue  of 
sheriffs  with  a  comment  upon  them,  presenting  their  most  re- 
markable actions.  Our  husbandmen  in  Middlesex  make  a  dis- 
tinction between  dodding  and  threshing  of  wheat ;  the  former 
being  only  the  beating  out  of  the  fullest  and  fairest  grain,  leav- 
ing what  is  lean  and  lank  to  be  threshed  out  afterwards.  Our 
comment  may  be  said  to  have  dodded  the  sheriffs  of  several 
counties,  insisting  only  on  their  most  memorable  actions  which 
are  extant  in  our  printed  histories;  otherwise  my  eyes  could 
not  look  into  locked  chests — I  mean,  pierce  into  the  private 
records  of  families,  carefully  concealed  and  kept  in  their  choicest 
cabinet.  Besides  such  unprinted  records  are  infinite  (under- 
stand it  in  the  same  sense  in  which  the  strength  of  Tyre  is 

OF    ARMS.  G5 

called  "  infinite,"*)  too  many  for  one  author  to  manage,  and 
therefore  are  left  to  such  as  undertake  the  description  of  several 



SOMETHING  must  be  premised  of  Arms  in  general.  They 
may  seem  in  some  sort  to  be  jure  divino  to  the  Jews,  having  a 
precept  for  the  practice  thereof :  "  Every  man  of  the  children 
of  Israel  shall  pitch  by  his  own  standard,  with  the  ensign  of  their 
father's  house."* 

The  use  thereof  is  great,  both  in  war  and  peace.  I  begin 
with  war,  because  Arms  had  their  first  rise  from  arms,  and  had 
a  military  origin.  Without  these  an  army  cannot  be  methodised, 
and  is  but  an  heap  of  men.  ef  Like  an  army/5  saith  the  Scrip- 
ture, "  terrible  with  banners  ;"J  without  which  an  army  is  not 
terrible,  but  ridiculous,  routing  itself  with  its  own  confusion. 
Now  as  no  army  without  banners,  so  no  banner  without  arms 
therein.  ee  If  the  trumpet  give  an  uncertain  sound,  who  shall 
prepare  himself  to  the  battle  ?  w§  Now,  as  the  trumpet  tells 
the  time,  so  the  banner  proclaims  the  place  of  meeting  ;  and  if 
it  have  not  distinguishable  emblems  therein,  who  shall  know 
whither  to  repair  to  his  captain  or  company. 

Arms  are  also  useful  in  peace,  to  distinguish  one  man  from 
another.  They  Bbe  termed  nomina  visibilia,  (( visible  names." 
For  as  a  name  notifieth  a  man  to  the  ear,  so  his  arms  do  signify 
him  to  the  eye,  though  dead  many  years  since  ;  so  signal  the 
service  of  arms  on  tombs  to  preserve  the  memory  of  the  de- 

Arms  anciently  were  either  assumed  or  assigned :  for  at  first 
men  took  what  arms  they  pleased,  directed  by  their  own  fancy ;  a 
custom  still  continuing  in  the  Low  Countries,  where  the  burgers 
choose  their  own  arms  with  as  great  confidence  as  tradesmen  make 
their  mark,  or  inn-keepers  set  up  their  signs  in  England.  As- 
signed arms  were  such  as  princes,  or  their  officers  under  them, 
appointed  to  particular  persons,  in  reward  of  their  service.  And 
whereas  assumed  arms  were  but  personal,  these  generally  were 
hereditary,  and  descended  to  their  families. 

It  is  the  rule  general  in  arms,  that  the  plainer  the-ancienter ; 
and  so  consequently  more  honourable :  "  Arma  prim 6  nuda  sine 
ornatu."  And  when  a  memorable  gentleman  (understand  me, 
such  an  one  the  beginning  of  whose  gentry  might  easily  be  re- 
membered) was  mocking  at  the  plain  coat  of  an  ancient  esquire, 

*  Nahum  Hi.  f  Num.  ii.  2.  J  Caiit.  vi.  4.  §1  Cor.  xiv.  8. 

VOL.  I.  F 


the  esquire  returned,,  "  I  must  be  fain  to  wear  the  coat  which  my 
great  great  grandfather  left  me ;  but  had  I  had  the  happiness  to 
have  bought  one,,  as  you  did,  it  should  have  been  guarded  after 
the  newest  fashion."  Two  colours  are  necessary  and  most 
highly  honourable;  though  both  may  be  blazoned  with  one 
word,  as  Varrey  (formerly  borne  by  the  Beauchamps,  of  Hatch 
in  Wiltshire,  and  still  quartered  by  the  duke  of  Somerset). 
Three  are  very  honourable ;  four  commendable  ;  five  excusable ; 
more,  disgraceful.  Yet  I  have  seen  a  coat  of  arms  (I  mean 
within  the  escutcheon)  so  piebald,  that  if  both  the  mefals  and  all 
the  colours,  seven  in  all,  were  lost  elsewhere,  they  might  have 
been  found  therein. 

Such  coats  were  frequently  given  by  the  heralds,  not  out  of 
want  of  wit,  but  will  to  bestow  better,  to  the  new  gentry  in  the 
end  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth.  One  said  of  a  coat 
that  it  was  so  well  victualled,  that  it  might  endure  a  siege ;  such 
the  plenty  and  variety  of  fowl,  flesh,  and  fish  therein :  though 
some  done  so  small,  one  needed  a  magnifying  glass  to  discover 
them ;  but  such  surfeited  coats  have  since  met  with  a  good 
physician,*  who  hath  cured  many  of  them. 

I  can  not  but  smile  at  his  fancy,  who  counting  himself  no 
doubt  wonderfully  witty,  would  be  a  reformer  of  our  heraldry, 
and  thought  it  fine,  if  it  were  thus  ordered,  that  all, — 1.  Descend- 
ed of  ancient  nobility  should  give  their  field  Or ;  2.  Extracted 
from  undoubted  gentry,  Argent ;  3.  Advancing  themselves  by 
sea-adventures,  Azure ;  4.  Raised  by  their  valour  in  war,  Gules ; 
5.  Gownmen  preferred  for  learning,  Sable  ;  6.  Countrymen 
raised  by  good  husbandry,  Vert. 

Indeed,  as  these  Metals  and  Colours  are  reckoned  up  in 
order,  so  are  they  reputed  in  honour,  save  that  the  contest  be- 
twixt Azure  and  Gules  is  not  so  clearly  decided, 

Or  and  Azure  in  composition  are  conceived  the  richest,  Ar- 
gent and  Sable  the  fairest  coat ;  because  setting  off  each  other 
discernible  at  the  greatest  distance.  The  lion  and  eagle  are 
reputed  the  most  honourable,  the  cross  the  most  religious  bear- 
ing ;  a  bend  is  esteemed  the  best  ordinary,  being  a  belt  borne 
in  its  true  posture  athwart,  as  a  fess  is  the  same  worn  about  the 
middle.  Things  natural  in  the  charge  presented  in  their  pro- 
per colour  are  best;  and  herbs  Vert  far  better  than  Or,  as 
flourishing  better  than  fading;  even  stained  are  no  stained 
colours  when  natural.  But,  seeing  the  whole  mystery  of  he- 
raldry dwells  more  in  the  region  of  fancy  than  judgment,  few 
rules  of  assurance  can  be  laid  down  therein. 

We  meet  with  some  few  coats  which  have  reasons  rendered 
of  their  bearing.  Thus,  whereas  the  earls  of  Oxford  anciently 
gave  their  coat  plain,  Quarterly,  Gules  and  Or;  they  took 
afterward  in  the  first  a  mullet,  or  star  Argent,  because  the  chief 

*  Mr.  Camden. 

OF    ARMS.  67 

of  the  house  had  a  falling-star,  as  my  author*  saith,  alighting  on 
his  shield,  as  he  was  fighting  in  the  Holy  Land.  But  it  were  a 
labour  in  vain  for  one  to  offer  at  an  account  for  all  things  borne 
in  armoury. 

This  mindeth  me  of  a  passage  in  the  north,  where  the  ancient 
and  worthy  family  of  the  Gascoignes  gave  for  their  arms  the 
head  of  a  lucie,  or  pike,  cooped  in  pale  ;  whereon  one  merrily, 

"  The  Lucy  is  the  finest  fish 
That  ever  graced  any  dish  ; 
But  why  you  give  the  head  alone, 
I  leave  to  you  to  pick  this  bone." 

A  question  which  on  the  like  occasion  may  be  extended  to 
beasts  and  fowl,  whose  single  heads  are  so  generally  borne  in 
several  coats. 

After  the  names  and  places  of  sheriffs,  exemplified  in  their 
respective  counties,  we  have  added  their  arms  ever  since  the 
first  of  king  Richard  the  Second.  And,  though  some  may 
think  we  begin  too  late  (the  fixing  hereditary  arms  in  England 
being  an  hundred  years  ancienter),  we  find  it  sometimes  too  soon 
to  attain  at  any  certainty  therein. 

In  perusing  these  arms,  the  reader  will  meet  with  much  ob- 
servable variety :  viz.  That  the  same  family  sometimes  gives 
two  paternal  coats;  as  Spencer,  in  Northamptonshire,  1.  Quar- 
terly, Argent  and  Gules ;  the  second  and  third  charged  with  a 
fret  Or :  over  all,  on  a  bend  Sable,  three  escallops  of  the  first. 
2.  Azure,  a  fess  Ermine  betwixt  six  sea-mews5  heads  erased 

Sometimes  two  distinct  families  and  names  give  the  self- 
same coat ;  as  in  Berkshire  :  Fettiplace  and  Hide,  Gules,  two 
chevrons  Argent. 

The  same  name,  but  being  distinct  families,  in  several  coun- 
ties, give  different  arms  :  Grey,  in  Leicestershire,  Barry  of  six, 
Argent  and  Azure ;  in  chief  three  torteaux :  in  Northumber- 
land, Gules,  a  lion  rampant  with  a  border  engrailed  Argent. 

The  same  name,  in  the  same  shire,  being  distinct  families, 
gives  different  coats ;  as  in  Northamptonshire  :  Green,  of  Greeks- 
Norton,  Azure,  three  bucks  trippant  Or :  of  Drayton,  Argent, 
a  cross  engrailed  Gules. 

The  same  name  and  family,  in  the  same  shire,  gives  the  same 
coat  for  essentials,  but  disguised  in  colours ;  as  in  Northamp- 
tonshire :  Tresham,  of  Lifden  and  of  Newton. 

The  same  family  giveth  a  coat  this  day,  bearing  some  general 
allusion  to,  but  much  altered  and  bettered,  from'  what  they  gave 
some  sixty  years  since ;  and,  forbearing  to  give  an  instance 
hereof,  for  some  reason,  I  refer  to  the  reader's  discovery. 

Contented  with  the  coat  itself,  I  have  not  inserted  the  differ- 
ences of  younger  houses,  crescents,  mullets,  martlets,  &c. ; 

t  Camden's  Remains,  in  the  Title  of  Armory. 

F  2 


chiefly  because  they  are  generally  complained  of,  and  confessed 
as  defective,  subject  to  coincidence,  and  not  adequate  to  the 
effectual  distinguishing  of  the  branches  from  the  same  root. 

As  the  affixing  of  Differences,  if  done,  were  imperfect ;  so  the 
doing  thereof  is  not  only  difficult,  but  also  dangerous.  Dan- 
gerous, for  it  would  bring  many  old  houses  (and  new  ones  too) 
on  his  head  who  undertakes  it;  so  undistinguishable  are  the 
seniorities  of  some  families,  parted  so  long  since,  that  now  it  is 
hard  to  decide,  which  the  root  and  which  the  branch.  I  re- 
member a  contest  in  the  court  of  honour,  betwixt  the  two 
houses  of  Constable,  the  one  of  Flamborough-head,  the  other 
of  Constable-Burton,  both  in  Yorkshire,  which  should  be  the 
eldest.  The  decision  was,  it  was  never  decided;  both  sides 
producing  such  ancient  evidences,  that  in  mounting  up  in  anti- 
quity, like  hawks,  they  did  not  only  lessen,  but  fly  out  of  sight, 
even  beyond  the  ken  and  cognizance  of  any  record.  The  case, 
I  conceive,  occurs  often  betwixt  many  families  in  England. 

-Some  names  we  have  left  without  arms.  Physicians  prescribe 
it  as  a  rule  of  health,  "  to  rise  with  an  appetite ;"  and  I  am 
loath  the  reader  should  fill  himself  with  all  which  he  might  de- 
sire. But,  not  to  dissemble,  I  could  not,  with  all  mine  own 
and  friends'  skill  and  industry,  attain  their  coats,  as  of  families 
either  extinct  in  those  counties  before  the  first,  or  only  extant 
therein  since  the  last  visitation  of  heralds.  Yet  let  not  my 
ignorance  be  any  man's  injury,  who  humbly  desireth  that  such 
vacuities  may  hereafter  be  filled  up  by  the  particular  chorogra- 
phers  of  those  respective  counties. 

This  I  am  sure,  fe  A  needle  may  be  sooner  found  in  a  bottle 
of  hay"  (a  task,  though  difficult,  yet  possible  to  be  done,)  than 
the  arms  of  some  sheriffs  of  counties  be  found  in  the  herald's 
visitations  of  the  said  counties :  for  many  were  no  natives  of 
that  shire,  but  came  in  thither  occasionally  from  far  distant 
places.  Thus  the  arms  of  Sir  Jervis  Clifton  (thrice  high-sheriff 
of  Kent,  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Sixth),  are  invisible  in 
any  Kentish  herald's  office,  as  not  landed  therein  himself, 
though  living  at  Braburn,  on  the  jointure  of  Isabel  his  wife, 
the  widow  of  William  Scot,  Esq.*  And  I  doubt  not  but  in- 
stances of  the  same  nature  frequently  are  found  in  other 

We  will  conclude  this  discourse  of  arms  with  this  memorable 
record,  being  as  ancient  as  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Fifth. 

Clam.   5,   Henrici   Quinti,  membrana  15,  in   dor  so,  in    Turre 


'f  Rex  Vicecomiti,  salutem,  &c.  Quia,  prout  informamur, 
diversi  homines  qui  in  viagiis  nostris  ante  hsec  tempora  factis, 
Arma  et  Tunicas  armorum  vocat.  Coat-Armours  in  se  susce- 

*  Villare  Cantianum,  p.  26. 

OF    ARMS.  69 

perunt,  ubi  nee  ipsi  nee  eorum  antecessores  hujusmodi  armis 
ac  tunicis  armorum  temporibus  retroactis  usi  fuerint,  et  ea  in 
present!  viagio  nostro  in  proximo,  Deo  dante,  faciend'  exercere 
proponant;  et  quanquam  Omnipotens  suam  gratiam  disponat 
prout  vult  in  naturalibus,  equaliter  diviti  et  pauperi ;  volentes 
tamen  quemlibet  ligeorum  nostrorum  predictorum  juxta  status 
sui  exigentiam  modo  debito  pertractari  et  haberi :  Tibi  preci- 
pimus,  quod,  in  singulis  locis  intra  ballivam  tuam,  ubi  per  breve 
nostrum  nuper  premonst.  faciendis  proclamari  facias,  quod 
nullus  cujuscunque  status,  gradus,  seu  conditionis  fuerit,  hujus- 
modi arma  sive  tunicas  armorum  in  se  sumat,  nisi  ipse  jure 
antecessorio,  vel  ex  donatione  alicujus  ad  hoc  sufficientem 
potestatem  habentis,  ea  possideat  aut  possidere  debeat.  Et 
quod  ipse  arma  sive  tunicas  illas  ex  cujus  dono  obtinet,  die 
monstrationis  sue,  personis  ad  hoc  per  nos  assignatis  seu 
assignandis  manifeste  demonstret,  exceptis  illis  qui  nobiscum 
apud  bellum  de  Agincourt  arma  portabant,  sub  pcenis  non  ad- 
missionis  ad  proficiendum  in  viagio  predicto  sub  numero  ipsius 
cum  quo  retentus  existit,  ac  perditionis  vadiorum  suorum  ex 
causa  predicta  preceptorum,  necnon  rasura  et  ruptura  dictorum 
armorum  et  tunicarum  vocat.  Coat-Armours,  tempore  mon- 
strationis sue  predicto,  si  ea  super  ilium  monstrata  fuerint  seu 
inventa.  Et  hoc  nullatenus  omittas.  T.  R.  apud  Civitatem 
Nov.  Sarum,  secundo  die  Junii/-* 

Per  ipsum  Regum. 

"  The  King  to  the  Sheriff,  health,  &c.  Because  there  are 
divers  men,  as  we  are  informed,  which  before  these  times,  in 
the  voyages  made  by  us,  have  assumed  to  themselves  Arms  and 
Coat- Armours,  where  neither  they  nor  their  ancestors  in  times 
past  used  such  arms  or  coat-armours,  and  propound  with  them- 
selves to  use  and  exercise  the  same  in  this  present  voyage, 
which  ( God  willing)  we  shortly  intend  to  make  :  and  although 
the  Omnipotent  disposeth  his  favours,  in  things  natural,  as  he 
pleaseth,  equally  to  the  rich  and  poor ;  yet  we  willing  that  every 
one  of  our  liege  subjects  should  be  had  and  handled  in  due 
manner,  according  to  the  exigence  of  his  state  and  condition ; 
we  command  thee,  that  in  every  place  within  thy  bailiwick, 
where  by  our  writ  we  have  lately  shewn,  you  cause  to  be  pro- 
claimed, that  no  man,  of  what  state,  degree,  or  condition  soever 
he  be,  shall  take  upon  him  such  arms,  or  coats  of  arms,  save  he 
alone  who  doth  possess,  or  ought  to  possess,  the  same" by  the 
right  of  his  ancestors,  or  by  donation  and  grant  of  some  who 
had  sufficient  power  to  assign  him  the  same.  And  that  he  that 
useth  such  arms  or  coats  of  arms  shall,  on  the  day  of  his  mus- 
ter, manifestly  shew  to  such  persons  assigned,  or  to  be  assigned 
by  us  for  that  purpose,  by  virtue  of  whose  gift  he  enjoyeth  the 
same ;  those  only  excepted  who  carried  arms  with  us  at  the 
battle  of  Agincourt ;  under  the  penalties  not  to  be  admitted  to 


go  with  us  in  our  foresaid  voyage  under  his  command  by  whom 
he  is  for  the  present  retained,,  and  of  the  loss  of  his  wages,  as 
also  of  the  rasing  out,  and  breaking  off,  the  said  arms  called 
Coat-armours,  at  the  time  of  his  muster  aforesaid,  if  they  shall 
be  shewed  upon  him,  or  found  about  him.  And  this  you  shall 
in' no  case  omit.  Witness  the  king,  at  the  city  of  New  Sarum, 
June  the  second." 

Consimilia  brevia  diriguntur  Vicecomitibus  Wilts.,  Sussex,  Dorset, 
sub  eadem  data. 

I  could  wish  a  reviving  of  this  instrument  in  our  age ;  many 
up-starts  in  our  late  civil  wars  having  injuriously  invaded  the 
arms  of  ancient  families. 



HAVING  dealt  so  largely  in  Surnames,  it  is  necessary  to 
observe,  that  Surnames  of  families  have  been  frequently  altered ; 
some  families  deposing  their  old  and  assuming  new  names  on 
several  occasions  ;  but  chiefly  for, 

1.  Concealment,  in  time  of  civil  wars.     A  name  is  a  kind  of 
face  whereby  one  is  known ;  wherefore  taking  a  false  name  is  a 
visard,  whereby  men  disguise  themselves,   and   that   lawfully 
enough,  when  not  fraudulently  done  to  deceive  others ;  but  dis- 
creetly, in  danger,   to   secure   themselves.     Thus,    during   the 
contest  betwixt  York  and  Lancaster,   Carington  in  Warwick- 
shire took  the  name  of  Smith  ;  La  Blunt  the  name  of  Croke  in 
Buckinghamshire  ;  with  many  others. 

2.  For  Advancement,  when  adopted  into  an  estate  ;  as  New- 
port, the  name  of  Hatton,  in  ^Northamptonshire ;  Throckmor- 
ton,  the  name  of  Carew,  at  Beddington  in  Surrey ;  as,  long 
before,  Westcoat,  the  name  of  Littleton,  in  Staffordshire. 

Besides,  the  same  surname  continued  hath  been  variously 
altered  in  writing.  First,  because  time  teacheth  new  orthogra- 
phy ;  altering  spelling,  as  well  as  speaking.  Secondly,  the  best 
gentlemen  anciently  were  not  the  best  scholars,  and,  minding 
matters  of  more  moment,  were  somewhat  too  incurious  in  their 
names.  Besides,  writers  engrossing  deeds  were  not  over:critical 
in  spelling  of  names ;  knowing  well,  where  the  person  appeared 
the  same,  the  simplicity  of  that  age  would  not  fall  out  about 

Lastly,  ancient  families  have  been  often  removed  into  several 
counties,  where  several  writings  follow  the  several  pronuncia- 
tions. What  scholar  knoweth  not  that  Zewc,  their  Greek  name 
for  Jupiter,  is,  by  their  seven  dialects,  written  ten  several  ways  ; 
and,  though  not  so  many  dialects  in  England,  there  is  a  real 


difference  bewixt  our  southern,  western,  and  northern  pronun- 

Hence  it  is  that  the  same  name  hath  been  so  often  disguised 
unto  the  staggering  of  many,  who  have  mistook  them  for  dif- 

Idem  non  idem,  quaruntque  in  nomine  nomen. 

11  The  same  they  thought  was  not  the  same  ; 
And  in  their  name  they  sought  their  name." 

Thus  I  am  informed,  that  the  honourable  name  of  Villiers  is 
written  in  fourteen  several  ways  in  their  own  evidences  ;  and  the 
like,  though  not  so  many,  variations  may  be  observed  in  others. 

And  the  name  of  Roper,  in  Derbyshire,  changed  from  Musard 
to  Rubra-Spatha,  Rospear,  Rouspee,  Rooper,  Roper.  I  insist 
the  longer  on  this  point,  because  in  our  catalogue  of  sheriffs  the 
same  surname  is  variously  written  ;  which  some,  without  cause, 
may  impute  to  my  carelessness,  being  the  effect  of  my  care,  con- 
forming the  orthography  exactly  to  the  original,  where  such 
variation  doth  plainly  appear ;  and  however  such  diversity  ap- 
peareth  in  the  eye  of  others,  I  dare  profess  that  I  am  delighted 
with  the  prospect  thereof. 



IMMEDIATELY  before  our  Farewell  to  the  respective  counties, 
we  have  inserted  a  breviate  of  modern  battles  since  our  civil 
distempers.  I  need  here  premise  nothing  of  the  difference  be- 
twixt a  skirmish,  being  only  the  engagement  of  parties,  and  a 
battle,  being  an  encounter  betwixt  generals  with  their  armies. 
Nor  yet  of  the  difference  betwixt  prcdium  a  fight  or  battle, 
and  bellum  a  war ;  the  former  being  a  fight  in  field ;  the  latter 
the  continuance  of  hostility,  which  may  be  for  many  years, 
whilst  the  difference  dependeth  undecided.  "  Peracto  preelio, 
manet  bellum."  And  though  a  truce  may  give  a  comma  or 
colon  to  the  war,  nothing  under  a  peace  can  put  a  perfect 
period  thereunto. 

In  describing  these  battles,  I  am,  for  distinction  sake,  necessi- 
tated to  use  the  word  Parliament  improperly,  according  to  the 
abusive  acception  thereof  for  these  latter  years.  Let  us  think 
and  judge  with  the  wise  ;  but,  if  we  do  not  speak  with  the  vul- 
gar, we  shall  be  dumb  to  the  vulgar.  Otherwise  I  know  a 
parliament  properly  is  a  complete  syllogism,  the  lords  and 
commons  being  the  two  propositions,  the  king  the  conclusion 
thereof;  and  our  English  tongue  wanteth  one  word  to  express 
the  dissenting  part  of  a  parliament ;  and  I  trust  in  God,  as  our 
language  doth  not  afford  the  name,  so  our  land  shall  not  here- 
after behold  the  nature  thereof. 

These  battles  are  here  inserted,  not  with  any  intent  (God 
knows  my  heart)  to  perpetuate  the  odious  remembrance  of  our 


mutual  animosities;  that  heart-burnings  may  remain,,  when 
house-burnings  are  removed ;  but  chiefly  to  raise  our  gratitude 
to  God,  that  so  many  battles  should  be  fought  in  the  bosom  of 
so  little  a  land,,  and  so  few  scars  and  signs  thereof  extant  in 
their  visible  impressions.  Such  who  consider  how  many  men 
we  have  lost,,  would  wonder  we  have  any  left;  and  such  who 
see  how  many  we  have  left,,  that  we  had  any  lost.  In  a  word, 
as  it  is  said  of  the  best  oil,  that  it  hath  no  taste,  that  is,  no  tang, 
but  the  pure  natural  gust  of  oil  therein ;  so  I  have  endeavoured 
to  present  these  battles  according  to  plain  historical  truth, 
without  any  partial  reflections. 



I  SAY  modern,  not  meaning  to  meddle  with  those  antiquated 
ones,  which  long  since  have  lost  their  names  and  bounds  :  as 
Winchelcombshire  united  to  Gloucestershire,*  Howdonshire 
annexed  to  Yorkshire,  and  Hexamshire  to  Northumberland. f 
As  little  do  we  intend  to  touch  on  those  small  tracts  of  ground, 
the  County  of  Poole  and  the  like,  being  but  the  extended  limits 
and  liberties  of  some  Incorporations. 

We  add  Shires,  or  Counties,  using  the  words  promiscuously 
as  the  same  in  sense.  I  confess,  I  have  heard  some  critics 
making  this  distinction  betwixt  them,  that  such  are  Shires 
which  take  their  denomination  from  some  principal  town  :  as 
Cambridgeshire,  Oxfordshire,  &c. ;  whilst  the  rest,  not  wearing 
the  name  of  any  town,  are  to  be  reputed  Counties,  as  Norfolk, 
Suffolk,  &c.  But  we  need  not  go  into  Wales  to  confute  their 
curiosity,  where  we  meet  Merionethshire  and  Glamorganshire, 
but  no  towns  so  termed,  seeing  Devonshire  doth  discompose 
this  their  English  conceit ;  I  say  English  Shires  and  Counties, 
being  both  Comitatus  in  Latin. 

Of  these  there  be  nine  and  thirty  at  this  day,  which  by  the 
thirteen  in  Wales, J  are  made  up" fifty  two ;  England  largely 
taken,  having  one  for  every  week  in  the  year. 

Here  let  me  tender  this  for  a  real  truth,  which  may  seem  a 
paradoxy,  that  there  is  a  County  in  England,  which,  from  the 
Conquest  till  the  year  1607  (when  Mr.  Camden's  last  Latin 
Britannia  was  set  forth)  never  had  Count  or  Earl  thereof,  as 
hereby  may  appear.  In  his  conclusion  of  Berkshire,  "  Heec  de 
Barkshire,  quse  hactenus  Comitis  honore  insignivit  neminem/' 

*  Rob.  de  Gloucester,  &  Codex  Wigomiensis.  f  Camden's  Britannia. 

J  Monmouthshire   being  now  considered    as   an  English  County,  there  are  at 
present  40  in  England,  and  only  12  in  Wales ED. 


Immediately  it  followeth,  f(  In  hujus  Comitatus  complexu  sunt 
Parochise   140." 

Now  this  may  seem  the  more  strange,  because  Comes  and  Co- 
mitatus are  relative.  But,  under  favour,  I  humbly  conceive, 
that  though  Berkshire  never  had  any  titular,  honorary,  or  here- 
ditary Earl  till  the  year  1620,  (when  Francis  Lord  Norris  was 
created  first  Earl  thereof) ;  yet  had  it  in  the  Saxons5  time,  when 
it  was  first  modelled  into  a  Shire,  an  Officiary  Count,  whose 
deputy  was  termed  Vice-comes  as  unto  this  day. 


First,  this  method  of  marshalling  them  is  new ;  and  there- 
fore, I  hope,  nevertheless  acceptable.  Secondly,  it  is  as  infor- 
mative to  our  judgments,  to  order  them  by  Counties  according 
to  their  place,  as  by  Centuries,  so  oft  done  before,  according  to 
the  time ;  seeing  where  is  as  essential  as  when  to  a  man's  being. 
Yea,  both  in  some  sort  may  be  said  to  be  jure  divino,  (under- 
stand it  ordered  by  God's  immediate  providence,)  and  therefore 
are  coupled  together  by  the  Apostle  :  ee  And  hath  determined 
the  times  before  appointed,  and  the  bounds  of  their  habitation."* 
If  of  their  habitation  in  general,  then  more  especially  of  the  most 
important  place  of  their  nativity. 

The  Spirit  of  God  in  Scripture  taketh  signal  notice  hereof : 
"The  Lord  shall  count  when  he  writes  up  the  people,  that  this 
man  was  born  there. "t  (f  Philip  was  of  Bethsaida,  the  city  of 
Andrew  and  Peter."J  And  all  know  how  St.  Paul  got  his  best 
liberty,  where  he  saw  the  first  light,  "  in  Tarsus,  a  city  of  Cilicia."§ 

When  Augustus  Caesar  issued  out  a  decree  to  tax  the  whole 
world,  it  was  ordered  therein,  that  "  every  one  should  go  into 
his  own  city,"  ||  as  the  most  compendious  way  to  prevent  con- 
fusion, and  effectually  to  advance  the  business.  I  find  the  same 
to  expedite  this  work,  by  methodizing  the  Worthies  therein  ac- 
cording to  the  respective  places  of  their  nativities.  If  some 
conceive  it  a  pleasant  sight,  in  the  city  of  London,  to  behold 
the  natives  of  the  several  Shires,  after  the  hearing  of  a  sermon, 
pass  in  a  decent  equipage  to  some  Hall,  there  to  dine  together, 
for  the  continuance  and  increase  of  love  and  amity  amongst 
them ;  surely  this  spectacle  will  not  seem  unpleasant  to  ingenu- 
ous eyes,  to  see  the  heroes  of  every  particular  county  modelled 
in  a  body  together,  and  marching  under  the  banners  of  their 
several  eminencies. 

Here  may  you  behold  how  each  County  is  innated  with  a  par- 
ticular genius,  inclining  the  natives  thereof  to  be  dexterous,  some 
in  one  profession,  some  in  another ;  one  carrying  away  the  cre- 
dit for  soldiers,  another  for  seamen,  another  for  lawyers,  another 
for  divines,  &c.,  as  I  could  easily  instance ;  but  that  I  will  not 

*  Actsxvii.  26.     f  Psalm  Ixxxvii.  6.     J  John  i.  44,    §  Actsxxii.  3.      ||  Luke  ii.  3. 


forestal  the  reader's  observation ;  seeing  some  love  not   a  rose 
of  another's  gathering,  but  delight  to  pluck  it  themselves. 

Here  also  one  may  see  how  the  same  County  was  not  always 
equally  fruitful  in  the  production  of  worthy  persons ;  but,  as 
trees  are  observed  to  have  their  bearing  and  barren  years,  so 
Shires  have  their  rise  and  fall  in  affording  famous  persons  :  one 
age  being  more  fertile  than  another,  as  by  annexing  the  dates  to 
their  several  worthies  will  appear. 

In  a  word,  my  serious  desire  is,  to  set  a  noble  emulation  be- 
tween the  several  Counties,  which  should  acquit  themselves 
most  eminent  in  their  memorable  offspring.  Nor  let  a  smaller 
Shire  be  disheartened  herein,  to  contest  with  another  larger  in 
extent,  and  more  populous  in  persons,  seeing  viri  do  not  always 
hold  out  in  proportion  to  homines.  Thus  we  find  the  Tribe  of 
Simeon  more  numerous  than  any  in  Israel  (Judah  and  Dan  only 
excepted)  as  which,  at  their  coming  out  of  Egypt,  afforded  no 
fewer  than  "fifty-nine  thousand  and  three  hundred."*  Yet 
that  tribe  did  not  yield  prince,  priest,  prophet,  or  any  remark- 
able person  :  Apocrypha,  Judith  only  excepted;  "  multi  grega- 
rii,  pauci  egregii ; "  and  multitude  with  amplitude  is  never  the 
true  standard  of  eminency,  as  the  judicious  reader,  by  perusing 
and  comparing  our  County  catalogues,  will  quickly  perceive. 


It  is  this.  Many  families,  time  out  of  mind,  have  been  cer- 
tainly fixed  in  eminent  seats  in  their  respective  Counties,  where 
the  ashes  of  their  ancestors  sleep  in  quiet,  and  their  names  are 
known  with  honour.  Now  possibly  it  may  happen,  that  the 
chief  mother  of  that  family,  travelling  in  her  travail  by  the  way- 
side, or  by  some  other  casualty,  as  visit  of  a  friend,  &c.,  may 
there  be  delivered  of  the  heir  of  her  family.  The  question  is, 
whether  this  child  shall  be  reputed  the  native  of  that  place  where 
his  mother  accidentally  touched,  or  where  his  father  and  the 
father  of  his  fathers  have  landed  for  many  generations. 

On  the  one  side,  it  seemeth  unreasonable  to  any  man,  accord- 
ing to  his  historical  conscience,  that  such  a  casual  case  should 
carry  away  the  sole  credit  of  his  nativity.  This  allowed,  et 
•  iota  Anglia  Londinizabit ;  a  moiety  almost  of  the  eminent  per- 
sons in  this  modern  age  will  be  found  born  in  that  city,  as  the 
inn-general  of  the  gentry  and  nobility  of  this  nation ;  whither 
many  come  to  prosecute  law-suits,  to  see  and  to  be  seen,  and  on 
a  hundred  other  occasions,  among  which  I  will  not  name  a  sav- 
ing of  house-keeping  in  the  country. 

One  instance  of  many.     I  find  by  the   Register  of  St.  Dun- 

m  s  m  the  West,  London,  that  Thomas  Wentworth,  after- 
ts  &arl  of  Strafford,  was  born  in  that  parish,  and  christened 

*  Numb.  i.  23. 


in  the  Church  aforesaid :  his  mother,  big  with  child,  probably 
coming  thither  for  the  conveniency  of  a  midwife.  Now  what  a 
wrong  is  it  to  deprive  Woodhouse  Wentworth  in  Yorkshire, 
where  his  family  hath  continued  in  a  noble  equipage  for  many 
years,  there  possessed  of  a  large  revenue,  of  the  honour  of  his 
nativity ! 

On  the  other  side,  it  is  clear  in  the  rigour  of  the  law,  (and  I 
question  whether  Chancery  in  this  case  will  or  can  afford  any 
remedy)  that  the  minute  of  the  birth  of  any  person  at  any  place 
truly  entitles  the  same  to  his  nativity.  This  is  plain  by  the  sta- 
tutes of  those  colleges  in  either  University,  that  confine  fellow- 
ships to  Counties  ;  and  it  will  be  said,  transit  onus  cum  honore, 
the  burthen  as  well  as  the  profit  is  to  be  conveyed  on  the  same 

Reader,  the  case  thus  stated  is  remitted  to  thy  own  arbitra- 
tion. However,  thus  far  I  have  proceeded  therein  in  this  fol- 
lowing work,  that  when  such  alterations  (for  I  can  give  them  no 
better  term)  and  accidental  stragglings  from  the  known  place  of 
their  family  shall  appear  unto  me,  I  am  resolved  to  enter  them 
in  those  places  accordingly.  But,  until  I  receive  such  intelli- 
gence, I  will  confidently  admit  them  in  that  place  which  is  ge- 
nerally known  in  persons  of  honour  for  the  principal  habitation 
of  their  family. 



IT  was  fashionable  for  the  clergy,  especially  if  regulars, 
monks,  and  friars,  to  have  their  surnames  (for  syr-names  they 
were  not)  or  upper-names,  because  superadded  to  those  given 
at  the  font,  from  the  places  of  their  nativity ;  and  therefore  they 
are  as  good  evidence  to  prove  where  they  were  born,  as  if  we 
had  the  deposition  of  the  midwife,  and  all  the  gossips  present  at 
their  mother's  labours.  Hence  it  is  that  in  such  cases  we  sel- 
dom charge  our  margin  with  other  authors,  their  surname  being 
author  enough  to  avow  their  births  therein. 

Some  impute  this  custom  to  the  pride  of  the  clergy,  whose 
extraction  generally  was  so  obscure,  that  they  did  InaixyvtaOai 
TOVQ  TrarepaQ,  were  ashamed  of  their  parentage :  an  uncharitable 
opinion,  to  fix  so  foul  a  fault  on  so  holy  a  function ;  and  most 
false,  many  in  orders  appearing  of  most  honourable  descent. 
Yet  Richard  bishop  of  London  quitted  Angervill,  though  his  fa- 
ther Sir  Richard  Angervil*  was  a  knight  of  worth  and  worship, 

*  Burton  in  his  Description  of  Leicestershire. 


to  be  called  of  Bury,  where  he  was  born ;  and  William  bishop 
of  Winchester  waived  Pattin  to  wear  Waynfleet,  though  he  was 
eldest  son  to  Richard  Pattin,*  an  esquire  of  great  ancientry. 

Others  say,  that  the  clergy  herein  affected  to  be  Levi-like, 
"  who  said  to  his  father  and  to  his  mother,  I  have  not  seen  him,"t 
practising  to  be  mimics  of  Melchisedech,  'And™?,  djur/rwp, 
iiytveaXoynrog,  "without  father,  without  mother,  without  de- 
scent,"! so  to  render  themselves  independent  in  the  world,  with- 
out any  coherence  to  carnal  relations.  Surely  some  were  well 
minded  herein,  that  as  they  might  have  no  children,  they  would 
have  no  fathers,  beholding  the  place  of  their  birth,  as  co-heir  at 
least  to  their  estates,  to  which  many  did  airolowai  TO.  rpo^cta, 
plentifully  pay  for  their  nursing  therein. 

Question. — But  oftentimes  it  comes  to  pass,  that  there  be 
many  towns  in  England,  the  same  to  a  tittle  both  in  spelling 
and  calling ;  so  that,  on  such  uncertain  evidence,  no  true  ver- 
dict can  be  found  for  their  nativity.  One  instance  of  many, 
William  of  Wickham  was  the  famous  founder  of  New  College 
in  Oxford.  But  how  can  his  cradle  be  certainly  fixed  in  any 
place,  when  it  is  equally  rocked  betwixt  twenty  villages  of  the 
same  denomination  ? 

Shire.  Hundred. 

1.  Wickham,  Berks,  Kentbury. 

2.  High  Wickham,  Bucks,  Burnham. 

3.  West  Wickham,  Bucks,  Disborough. 

4.  Wickham  West,  Camb.  Chilforde. 

5.  Wickham,  Essex,  Thurstable. 

6.  Wickham,  St.  Paul,  Essex,  Hinckford. 

7.  Wickham  Bonant,  Essex,  Uttlesford. 

8.  Wickham,  Hants,  Titchfield. 

9.  Wickham-brux,  Kent,  St.  Austin's. 

10.  Wickham  East,  Kent,  Sutton. 

11.  Wickham  West,  Kent,  Ibidem. 

12.  Wickham,  Line.  Ellowe. 

13.  Wickham  Brook,  Suffolk,  Risbridge. 

14.  Wickham,  Suffolk,  Wilforde. 

15.  Wickham  Skeyth,  Suffolk,  Hartesmer. 

16.  Wickham,  Oxford,  Banbury. 

17.  Wickham,  Sussex,  Bramber. 

18.  Wickham,  York,  RidaU. 

19.  Wickham,  York,  Pickering. 

20.  Wickham  Abbey,  York,  Ibidem§. 

See  here  a  lottery ;  and  who  dare  assure  himself  of  the  prize, 
having  nineteen  blanks  against  him.  Indeed  if  election  should 
be  made  by  the  eminency  of  the  place,  High  Wickham  in 
Buckingham-shire  would  clearly  carry  it,  as  an  "ancient  borough 

f  Deut.  xxxiii.  9. 
Villare  Anglican  urn.1' 

TKn.'. in  his  Catalogue  of  the  Bishops  of  Winchester. 
Heb.  vii.  3.  §  Collected  out  of  the  useful  Book  of 

ON    SURNAMES.  77 

town,  sending  burgesses  to  parliament.  But  all  these  being 
Wickhams  alike.,  bring  in  their  claims  to  the  aforesaid  William  ; 
and  how  shall  the  right  be  decided  ?  The  same  question  may; 
be  demanded  of  several  other  persons  on  the  same  occasion. 

Answer. — I  confess  the  case  often  occurs,  though  seldom 
so  many  places  be  competitors ;  wherefore  herein  we  have  our 
recourse  to  the  circumstances  in  the  history  of  such  a  contro- 
verted person,  and  consult  the  most  important  of  them  with  our 
greatest  diligence  and  discretion. 

Noscitur  e  socio  gui  non  noscetur  ab  ipso. 

1  f  We  by  their  company  do  own 
Men  by  themselves  to  us  unknown." 

Such  circumstances  may  be  called  the  associates  of  a  man's 
life,  as  where  they  most  conversed,  had  their  kindred,  got  their 
preferment,  &c.  And  these,  though  not  severally,  jointly  serve 
as  so  many  lights  to  expound  the  place  of  his  birth,  and  clear- 
ing the  homonymy  of  many  places,  state  that  town  justly  where- 
in he  was  born. 

Thus  are  we  not  only  in  bivio  or  trivio,  but,  as  I  may  say,  in 
vigentwio,  being  to  find  Wickhanr's  birth  amongst  twenty  of  his 
namesake  villages.  But  discovering  John  Perrot's  father 
richly  landed  about  Winchester,  and  the  principal  actions  of  his 
life  presented  thereabouts,  with  some  other  remarks,  all  meeting 
on  the  same  scene ;  one  may  safely  conclude,  that  Wickham  in 
Hampshire  (the  eighth  in  the  aforesaid  catalogue)  is  that  indi- 
vidual Wickham  therein  this  prelate  took  his  first  degree — I 
mean  proceeded  into  the  light  of  this  world,  The  like  evidence 
(though  not  always  so  clear)  hath,  upon  diligent  search,  directed 
us  in  differences  of  the  same  nature. 


It  often  cometh  to  pass  that  two  or  more  places  entitle  them- 
selves to  the  nativity  of  the  same  man.  Here  my  endeavour  is, 
to  keep  the  peace,  as  well  as  I  may,  betwixt  them  as  in  the  in- 
stance here  inserted : 

"  Bradwardin  Castrum,  unde  ortum  et  nomen  T.  Bradwardinus,  Arch.    Cant,  ha- 

buit.''   Camden,  Brit,  in  Herefordshire «' T.   Bradwardinus  |Hartfeldiae  natus  in 

Diocoesi  Cicestriensi."  J.  Hale  de  Script.  Brit.  Cent.  5.  page  435.  —  "  Tho.  Brad- 
wardinus Patria  Southsaxia,  ex  civitate  Cicestria  oriundus."  Joh.  Pitts,  de  Angl. 
Scrip,  anno  1350.  _"  Natus  fertur  Bradwardinus  Hatfeldise,  in  comitatu  Suffolci- 
ensi."  Godwin,  in  Catal.  Episc.  Londini  impress,  anno  1616. 

See  here  four  places  challenge  one  man  ;  and  I  am  as  unwill- 
ing to  accuse  any  of  falsehood,  as  I  am  unable  to  maintain  all  in 
the  truth. 

However,  the  difference  may  thus  be  accommodated  :  Brad- 
wardin's  ancestors  fetched  their  name  from  that  place  in  Here- 
fordshire, according  to  Camden ;  though  he  himself  was  born 


(as  Bale  saith)  at  Hartfield  in  Sussex;  within  the  city  (saith 
Pitts)  of  Chichester,  interpret  him  extensively  not  to  the  walls, 
but  diocese  and  jurisdiction  thereof.  As  for  Suffolk  in  Bishop 
Godwin,  I  understand  it  an  erratum  in  the  printer  for  Sussex. 

Our  usual  expedient  in  the  like  cases  is  this,  to  insert  the  cha- 
racter at  large  of  the  controverted  person  in  that  county  which 
(according  to  our  apprehension)  produceth  the  best  evidence 
for  him :  yet  so,  that  we  also  enter  his  name  with  a  reference 
in  the  other  respective  places,  which  with  probability  pretend 
unto  him. 

If  equal  likelihood  appear  unto  us  on  all  sides,  that  county 
clearly  carries  away  his  character,  which  first  presenteth  itself 
to  our  pen  in  the  alphabetical  order.  Thus  lately,  when  the 
same  living  was  in  the  gift  of  the  Lord  Chancellor,  Lord  Trea- 
surer, and  Master  of  the  Wards,  that  clerk  commonly  carried 
it  who  was  first  presented  to  the  bishop.  However,  though  in  the 
disputable  nativities  of  worthy  men,  i(  first  come,  first  served/' 
a  caveat  is  also  entered  in  other  counties,  to  preserve  their  titles 

It  must  not  be  forgotten,  that  many,  without  just  cause,  by 
mistake,  multiply  differences  in  the  places  of  men's  births.  The 
papists  please  themselves  .with  reporting  a  tale  of  their  own  in- 
venting, how  the  men  of  two  towns  in  Germany  fell  out,  and 
fought  together,  whilst  one  of  them  was  for  Martin,  the  other 
for  Luther,  being  but  the  several  names  of  the  same  person.  If 
one  author  affirms  Bishop  Jewel  born  at  Buden,  another  at  Be- 
rinerber,  let  none  make  strife  betwixt  these  two  writers ;  the 
former  naming  the  house  and  village,  the  latter  the  parish  wherein 
he  was  born,  a  case  which  often  occurs  in  the  notation  of  nati- 


There  goeth  a  common  report,  no  less  uncharitable  than  un- 
true, yet  meeting  with  many  believers  thereof,  as  if  clegymen's 
sons  were  generally  signally  unfortunate,  like  the  sons  of  Eli, 
Hophni  and  Phinehas,*  dissolute  in  their  lives,  and  doleful  in 
their  deaths  ;f  this  I  may  call  a  libel  indeed,  according  to  Sir 
Francis  Bacon's  description  thereof :  for  first,  it  is  a  lie,  a  no- 
torious untruth :  and  then  a  bell,  some  loud  and  lewd  tongue 
hath  told,  yea  rung  it  out,  and  perchance  was  welcome  music 
to  some  hearers  thereof. 

It  is  first  confessed,  that  the  best  saints  and  servants  of  God 
have  had  bad  as  well  as  good  children  extracted  from  them.  It 
is  the  note  of  Illiricus  on  those  words  of  St.  John  to  the  Elect 
Lady  :  "  I  rejoiced  greatly,  when  I  found  of  thy  children  walk- 
ing in  the  truth  "J  He  saith  not  all  thy,  but  of  thy  children  ; 

*  l  Sam.  ii.  12.  f  i  Sam.  iv.  11.  J  2  John  4. 


intimating  that  she  had  mingled  ware,  corn,  and  tares,  in  those 
who  were  descended  from  her.  Thus  Aaron  (for  I  desire  to  re- 
strain myself  in  instances  of  the  priests)  had  Nadab  and  Abihu, 
two  "  strange  fire  offerers,,"*  as  well  as  his  godly  sons  Eliazar 
and  Ithamar.  Yea,  I  find  one  of  the  best  fathers,  having  two 
(and  those  I  believe  all  he  had)  of  the  worst  sons,f  even  Samuel 

Nor  do  we  deny  but  that  our  English  clergy  have  been  un- 
happy in  their  offspring  (though  not  above  the  proportion  of 
other  professions)  ;  whereof  some  have  not  unprobably  assigned 
these  causes.  First,  if  fellows  of  colleges,  they  are  ancient 
before  they  marry.  Secondly,  their  children  then  are  all  Ben- 
jamins ;  I  mean,  ee  the  children  of  their  old  age,"  and  thereupon 
by  their  fathers  (to  take  off  as  much  as  we  may  the  weight  of 
the  fault  from  the  weaker  sex)  cockered  and  indulged,  which  I 
neither  defend  or  excuse,  but  bemoan  and  condemn.  Thirdly, 
such  children,  after  their  father's  death,  are  left,  in  their  minority, 
to  the  careless  care  of  friends  and  executors,  who  too  often  dis- 
charge not  their  due  trust  in  their  own  education;  whence  it  ig, 
such  orphans  too  often  embrace  wild  courses  to  their  own  de- 

But,  all  this  being   granted,  we  maintain  that  clergymen's 
children  have  not  been  more  unfortunate,  but  more  observed, 
than  the  children  of  the  parents  of  other  professions.     There 
is  but  one  minister  at  one  time  in  a  whole   parish ;  and  there- 
fore, the  fewer  they  are,  the  easier  they  are  observed,  both  in 
their  persons  and  posterities.     Secondly,  the  eminency  of  their, 
place  maketh  them   exposed   and   obvious   to   all   discoveries. 
Thirdly,  possibly  malice  may  be  the  eye-salve  to  quicken  men's 
sight,  in  prying  after  them.     Lastly,  one  ill  success  in   their 
sons  maketh  (for  the  reasons  aforesaid)  more  impression  in  the 
ears  and  eyes  of  people,  than  many  miscarriages  of  those  chil- 
dren whose  fathers  were   of  another  function  (I  speak  not  this 
out  of  intent  to  excuse  or  extenuate  the  badness  of  the  one  by 
the  badness  of  the  other,  but  that  both  may  be  mutually  pre- 
voked  to  amendment).     In  a  word,  other  men's  children  would 
have  as  many  eye-sores,  if  they  had  as  many  eyes  seeing  them. 
Indeed,  if  happiness  be  confined  unto   outward  pomp  and 
plenty,  and  if  those  must  be  accounted  unfortunate,  which  I  in 
the  true  meaning  of  the  word   must  interpret  unprovidenced, 
who  swim  not  in  equal  plenty  with  others,  then  that  epithet  may 
be  fixed  on  the  children   of  the  clergy ;  whose  fathers  coming 
late  to  their  livings,  and  surprised  by  death,  not  staying  long  on 
them,  which  at  the  best  afforded  them  but  narrow  maintenance, 
leave  them  oft-times  so  ill  provided,  that  they  are  forced,  without 
blame  or  shame  to  them,  as  I  conceive,  to  take  sometimes  poor 
and  painful  employments  for  their  livelihood. 

*  Levit.  x.  l.  f  1  Sam.  viii.  3.   ] 


But,  by  our  following  endeavours  it  will  plainly  appear,,  that 
the  sons  of  ministers  have,  by  God's  blessing,  proved  as  eminent 
as  any  who  have  raised  themselves  by  their  own  endeavours. 
For  statesmen,  George  Carew,  Privy  Councillor  of  England, 
Scotland,  and  Ireland,  and  as  able  a  man  (absit  invidia)  as  the 
age  he  lived  in  produced,  was  earl  of  Totnes,  the  same  place 
whereof  his  father  was  archdeacon.  Sir  Edward  Sandys,  son  to 
archbishop  Sandys,  will  be  acknowledged  even  by  his  enemies 
a  man  of  such  merit,  that  England  could  not  afford  an  office 
which  he  could  not  manage.  For  lawyers,  Sir  Thomas  Richard- 
son,* lately,  and  the  never  sufficiently  to  be  commended  Sir 
Orlando  Bridgeman,t  now  Lord  Chief  Justice,  with  many 
others.  For  seamen,  Sir  Francis  Drake,J  that  great  scourge 
and  terror  to  the  Spanish  pride. 

If  any  say,  these  are  but  thin  instances  out  of  so  thick  a  num- 
ber, de  tot  modo  millibus  unus,  "few  of  so  many  hundreds;" 
know,  we  have  onlji  taken  some  eminent  persons,  leaving  the 
rest  for  fear  to  be  counted  forestallers  to  the  collection  of  the 
reader  in  our  ensuing  book. 

But  the  sons  of  ministers  have  never  been  more  successful 
than  when  bred  in  the  professions  of  their  fathers,  as  if  some 
peculiar  blessing  attended  them  whilst  they  continue  therein. 
Thus,  of  the  prelatical  clergy,  we  have  Francis  Godwin,  a  bishop, 
the  son  of  a  bishop  ;  and  Doctor  John  King,  son  to  his  reverend 
father  the  Bishop  of  London.  And  of  other  clergymen  we  have 
three  generations  of  the  Wards  in  Suffolk ;  as  many  of  the 
Shutes  in  Yorkshire,  no  less  painful  than  pious  and  able  in  their 

Let  me  add,  that  there  were  at  one  time  three  Fellows  of 
King's  College,  sons  of  eminent  Divines,  and  afterwards  Doc- 
tors of  Divinity:  1.  Samuel  Collings :  2.  Thomas  Goad:  3. 
William  Sclater.  And  I  believe  there  were  not  severally,  in 
their  generations,  men  more  signal  in  their  different  eminen- 

It  is  easy  for  any  to  guess  out  of  what  quiver  this  envenomed 
arrow  was  first  shot  against  the  children  of  clergymen ;  namely, 
'from  the  Church  of  Rome ;  who,  in  their  jurisdiction,  forbid 
the  banns  of  all  clergymen,  against  the  law  of  nature,  scripture, 
and  the  practice  of  the  primitive  church ;  and  in  other  places 
unsubjected  to  their  power,  bespatter  the  posterity  of  the  clergy 
with  their  scandalous  tongues.  Yet  be  it  known  unto  them,  the 
sons  of  English  priests  or  presbyters  may  be  as  good  as  the  ne- 
phews of  Roman  cardinals.  However,  because  antidotes  may 
be  made  of  poisons,  it  is  possible  that  good  may  be  extracted 

*  Of  whom  see  under  Norfolk. 

t  Sir  Orlando  Bridgman,  who  had  been  a  short  time  Lord  Chief  Baron  of  the 
fcxehequer,  was  appointed  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  the  Common  Pleas,  Oct.  22,  1660. 
I  Ssee  under  Devonshire. 


out  of  this  false  report ;  namely,  if  it  maketh  clergymen  more 
careful  to  go  before  their  children  with  good  examples,  to  lead 
them  with  good  instructions,  to  drive  and  draw  them  (if  need 
so  requireth)  with  moderate  correction  seasonably  used,  putting 
up  both  dry  and  wet  prayers  to  God  for  his  blessing  on  their 
children.  As  also,  if  it  maketh  the  children  of  clergymen  to  fee 
more  careful,  by  their  circumspect  lives,  to  be  no  shame  to  the 
memory  and  profession  of  their  fathers. 



I  HAVE  ranked  all  persons  under  their  respective  titles,  ac- 
cording to  their  seniorities,  of  the  ages  they  lived  in.  Good  the 
method  of  the  sons  of  Jacob,  sitting  down  at  the  table  of  their 
[unknown]  brother,  Joseph,  "  the  first  according  to  his  birth- 
right, and  the  youngest  according  to  his  youth."*  If,  therefore, 
on  this  account  a  mean  man  take  place  of  a  mighty  lord,  the 
latter  (as  being  dead)  I  am  sure  will  not,  and  the  living  reader 
should  not,  be  offended  thereat. 


The  sun,  that  glorious  creature,  doth  serve  mankind  for  a 
double  use;  to  lighten  their  eyes  with  his  beams,  and  minds 
with  his  motion.  The  latter  is  performed  by  him  as  appointed 
S(  for  signs  and  for  seasons  ;"f  as  ne  is  the  great  regulator  of 
time,  jointed  into  years  and  months,  carved  into  weeks  and  days, 
minced  into  hours  and  minutes. 

At  what  a  sad  loss  are  such,  who,  living  in  lone  houses,  in  a 
gloomy  winter  day,  when  the  sun  doth  not  at  all  appear,  have 
neither  the  benefit  of  watches,  silent  clocks ;  nor  of  clocks, 
speaking  watches ;  being  ready  oft-times  to  mistake  noon  for 
night,  and  night  for  noon  !  Worse  errors  are  committed  by 
those  who,  being  wholly  ignorant  in  chronology,  set  the  grand- 
children before  their  grandfathers,  and  have  more  Hysteron- 
Proterons  than  of  all  other  figures  in  their  writings. 

The  maxim,  "  He  who  distinguished  well  instructeth  well,"  is 
most  true  in  the  observing  of  the  distinction  of  time.  It  will 
pose  the  best  clerk  to  read  (yea  to  spell)  that  deed,  wherein  sen- 
tences, clauses,  words,  and  letters,  are  without  points  or  stops, 
all  continued  together.  The  like  confusion  ariseth,  when  per- 
sons and  their  actions  are  not  distanced  by  years,  nor  pointed 
with  the  periods  of  generations. 

I  have  endeavoured,  in  my  following  work,  to  time  eminent 

*   Gen.  xliii.  33.  f  Gen'  *•  14' 

VOL    I  G 


persons  by  one  of  these  notations ;  first;  that  of  their  morning, 
or  nativity ;  the  second,  that  of  their  noon,  or  flourishing ;  the 
last,  that  of  their  night,  or  death.  The  first  is  very  uncertain, 
many  illustrious  men  being  of  obscure  extraction ;  the  second 
more  conspicuous,  when  men's  lustre  attracts  many  eyes  to  take 
notice  of  them.  Many  see  the  oak  when  grown,  (especially  if  a 
standard  of  remark)  ;  whilst  few,  if  any,  remember  the  acorn 
when  it  was  set.  The  last  is  not  the  least  direction,  as  which  is 
generally  observed.  It  cometh  to  pass  sometimes,  that  their 
deaths  acquaint  us  with  their  births,  viz.  when  attended  on  their 
tomb  with  intelligence  of  their  age ;  so  that,  by  going  backward 
so  many  years  from  their  coffins,  we  infallibly  light  on  their  cra- 

Some  persons  in  our  work  are  notified  by  all  of  these  indica- 
tions, most  with  two,  and  all  with  one  of  them.  When  we  find 
a  contest  amongst  chronologers,  so  that,  with  the  mutinous 
Ephesians,  (e  some  cry  one  thing,  and  some  another,"*  being  as 
much  dispersed  in  their  opinions,  as  the  Amonites  in  their  per- 
sons, when  defeated  by  Saul,  so  "  that  two  of  them  were  not  left 
together  ;"t  in  such  a  case,  I  have  pitched  on  that  date,  iinder 
correction  of  better  judgments,  which  seemed  to  me  of  greatest 


I  approve  the  plain  country  by-word,  as  containing  much  in- 
nocent simplicity  therein : 

"  Almost  and  very  nigh, 
Have  saved  many  a  lie." 

So  have  the  Latins  their  prope,  fere,  juxta,  rirciter,  plus  minus, 
used  in  matters  of  fact  by  the  most  authentic  historians.  Yea, 
we  may  observe,  that  the  spirit  of  truth  itself,  where  numbers 
and  measures  are  concerned,  in  times,  places,  and  persons,  useth 
the  aforesaid  modificatives,  save  in  such  cases  where  some  mys- 
tery contained  in  the  number  requireth  a  particular  specification 

In  Times. — Dan.  v.  31  :  "Darius  being  about  threescore  and  two  years  old." 
Luke  iii.  23  :  "  Jesus  began  to  be  about  thirty  years  of  age.'' 

In  Places — Lukexxiv.  13:  "From  Jerusalem  about  sixty  furlongs."  Johnvi. 
19  :  "  And  rowed  about  five  and  twenty  furlongs." 

In  Persons.  —  Exod.  xii.  37  :  "  About  six  hundred  thousand  men  on  foot."  Acts 
ii.  41  :  "  Added  to  the  church  about  three  thousand  souls." 

None,  therefore,  can  justly  find  fault  with  me,  if  on  the  like 
occasion  I  have  secured  myself  with  the  same  qualificatives. 
Indeed  such  historians  who  grind  their  intelligence  to  the 
powder  of  fraction,  pretending  to  cleave  the  pin,  do  sometimes 
miss  the  but.  Thus  one  reporteth  how  in  the  persecution  un- 
der Dioclesian  there  were  neither  under  nor  over,  but  just  nine 

*  Acts  xix.  32.  f  i  Sam.  xi.  11. 


hundred  ninety-nine  martyrs.  Yea,  generally  those  that  trade 
in  such  retail- ware,  and  deal  in  such  small  parcels,  may  by  the 
ignorant  be  commended  for  their  care,  but  condemned  by  the 
judicious  for  their  ridiculous  curiosity. 

But  such  who  will  forgive  the  use  of  our  foresaid  qualifica- 
tives,  as  but  limping  and  lameness,  will  perchance  not  pardon 
the  many  blanks  which  occur  in  this  book,  accounting  them  no 
better  then  our  flat  falling  to  the  ground,  in  default  of  our  in- 
dustry for  not  seeking  due  information.  But  let  such  know, 
that  those  officers,  who  by  their  place  are  to  find  out  persons 
inquired  after,  deserve  neither  to  be  blamed  nor  shamed,  when, 
having  used  their  best  diligence,  they  return  to  the  court  a  "  Non 
est  inventus." 

For  my  own  part,  I  had  rather  my  reader  should  arise  hungry 
from  my  book,  than  surfeited  therewith;  rather  uninformed 
than  misinformed  thereby ;  rather  ignorant  of  what  he  desireth, 
than  having  a  falsehood,  or,  at  the  best,  a  conjecture  for  a  truth, 
obtruded  upon  him. 

Indeed,  I  humbly  conceive  that  vacuity,  which  is  hateful  in 
nature,  may  be  helpful  in  history :  •  for  such  an  hiatus  beggeth 
of  posterity,  to  take  pains  to  fill  it  up  with  a  truth,  if  possible 
to  be  attained ;  whereas,  had  our  bold  adventure  farced  it  up 
with  a  conjecture  (intus  exist  ens  prohibuerit  extraneumj  no  room 
had  been  left  for  the  endeavours  of  others. 


It  is  sufficiently  known  to  all  antiquaries,  that  causes  brought 
to  be  heard  and  determined  before  the  Roman  judges  were  re- 
ducible to  two  kinds  : 

1.  Liquets.  When  the  case,  as  clear  and  plain,  was  presently 
decided.  2.  Ampliandums.  When,  being  dark  and  difficult, 
they  were  put  off  to  farther  debate,  somewhat  alluding  to 
our  demurs.  Hence  it  is,  that  we  find  the  Roman  orator  com- 
plaining of  an  unjust  judge,  "cum  causam  non  audisset, 
et  potestas  esset  ampliandi,  dixit  sibi  liquere"* 

I  should  be  loath  to  be  found  guilty  of  the  like  offence  in  rash 
adjudging  men's  nativities  to  places  on  doubtful  evidence  :  and 
therefore,  when  our  presumptions  do  rather  incline  than  satisfy, 
we  have  prefixed  AMP.  before  the  names  of  such  persons.  For, 
when  they  appear  undoubted  English,  and  eminent  in  their  re- 
spective qualities,  it  would  be  in  us  a  sin  of  omission  not  to  in- 
sert them ;  and  yet,  being  ignorant  of  the  exact  place  of 
their  birth,  it  would  be  presumption  peremptorily  to  design  it 
without  this  note  of  dubitation,  though  on  the  most  tempting 
probabilities.  Know  also  that  when  AMP.  is  used  in  the  arms 
of  sheriffs,  it  is  only  done  in  such  an  exigent,  where  there  are 

*  Pro  Csec.  290,  a. 
G  2 


different  coats  of  very  ancient  families,  and  largely  diffused,  as 
[Nevil,  Ferrers,  Basset,  &c.]  ;  so  that  it  is  hazardous  for  me  to  £x 
on  one  in  such  great  variety. 


When  we  cannot  by  all  our  endeavours  inform  ourselves  of 
the  nativities  of  some  eminent  persons,  we  are  forced  to  this  re- 
fuge (so  creditable,  that  I  care  not  what  eyes  behold  us  entering 
under  the  roof  thereof)  to  insert  such  persons  in  those  counties 
where  we  find  them  either  first  or  highest  preferred  :  and  this 
we  conceive  proper  enough,  and  done  upon  good  consideration. 
For  the  wild  Irish  love  their  nurses  as  well  as  (if  not  better 
than)  their  own  mother,  and  affect  their  foster-brothers,  which 
sucked  the  same  breast,  as  much  as  their  natural-brothers  which 
sprang  from  the  same  womb.  If  any  say  these  are  the  wild 
Irish,  whose  barbarous  customs  are  not  to  be  imitated,  I  defend 
myself  by  the  practice  of  more  civilized  people. 

The  Latins  have  a  proverb,  "  non  ubi  nascor,  sed  ubi  pascor;" 
making  that  place  their  mother,  not  which  bred  but  which  fed 
them.  The  Greeks  have  but  one  word,  Bioe,  both  for  life  and  live- 
lihood. The  Hebrews  accounted  that  place  was  to  give  a  man  his 
native  denomination,  where  he  had  his  longest  and  most  visible 
abode,  from  (though  not  sometimes  in)  his  infancy  ;  by  which 
common  mistake  Jesus  was  intituled  on  the  cross  of  Nazareth 
instead  of  Bethlehem. 

Yea,  we  may  observe  that  though  generally  our  English  clergy 
were  denominated  from  their  birth-places,  yet  some  few  quitted 
them,  to  be  named  from  those  places  where  they  found  their 
best  preferment,  especially  if  convents  or  dignities  of  signal  note  ; 
as  Henry  of  Huntingdon,  not  born,  but  archdeacon  there  ; 
William  of  Malmsbury  and  Matthew  of  Westminster,  no  natives 
of  those  towns,  but  monks  of  the  monastries  therein. 

However,  to  prevent  cavils  and  avoid  confusion,  and  to  dis- 
tinguish those  from  the  former,  their  names  are  marked  with  S.N. 
for  Second  Nativity,  to  shew  that  whencesoever  they  fetch  their 
life,  here  they  found  their  best  livelihood.  But  when  a  person 
plainly  appears  born  beyond  the  seas,  we  take  no  notice  of  him, 
though  never  so  highly  advanced  in  England,  as  without  our 
line  of  communication,  and  so  not  belonging  to  this  subject. 



We  meet  with  some  persons  in  this  our  work  whose  nativities 
we  cannot  recover  with  any  great  probability,  neither  Iby  help 
of  history,  or  heraldry,  or  tradition,  or  records,  or  registers,  or 
printed  or  written  books,  which  hitherto  have  come  to  our  hands. 
Now  if  such  persons  be  of  no  eminence,  we  intend  not  to  trou- 
ble ourselves  and  reader  with  them.  Let  obscurity  even  go  to 


obscurity :  when  we  find  no  great  note  in  them  we  take  not  any 
notice  of  them.  But  in  case  they  appear  men  of  much  merit, 
whose  nativities  are  concealed  by  some  casualty,  we  are  loath 
that  their  memories,  who  whilst  living  were  Worthies,  now  dead 
should  be  vagrants,  reposited  in  no  certain  place. 

Wherefore  we  have  disposed  them  in  some  shire  or  other, 
not  as  dwellers,  no,  nor  so  much  as  sojourners  therein,  but  only 
as  guests ;  and  we  render  some  slight  reasons  why  we  invited 
them  to  that  place  rather  than  another,  seeing  a  small  motive 
will  prevail  with  a  charitable  mind  to  give  a  worthy  stranger  a 
night's  lodging. 

However,  that  these  may  not  be  confounded  with  those  of 
whose  nativities  we  have  either  assurance  or  strong  pre- 
sumption, we  have  in  the  margin  charactered  them  with  a 
<f  RE  M/'  for  "  Remove  ;  "  it  being  our  desire  that  they 
should  be  transplanted  on  the  first  convincing  evidence  which 
shall  appear  unto  us,  to  their  proper  place.  And  therefore  I 
behold  them  as  standing  here  with  a  staff  in  their  hands,  ready 
to  pack  up  and  go  away  whither  any  good  guide  shall  give  them 

Always  provided,  that  as  they  are  set  here  with  little,  they 
be  not  removed  hence  with  less  probability ;  an  unset  bone  is 
better  than  a  bone  so  ill  set  that  it  must  be  broken  again,  to 
double  the  pain  of  the  patient.  And  better  it  is  these  persons 
should  continue  in  this  their  loose  and  dislocated  condition,  than 
to  be  falsely  fixed  in  any  place  from  whence  they  must  again  be 

Now,  reader  (to  recollect  our  marginal  or  prefixed  characters), 
know  it  is  the  best  sign  when  no  sign  at  all  is  added  to  a 
name :  for  then  we  proceed  on  certainty,  at  leastwise  on  the 
credit  of  good  authors,  for  the  place  of  his  nativity.  Thus  the 
best  of  the  house  giveth  his  coat  plain,  whilst  the  following 
differences  are  but  the  diminutions  of  the  younger  brothers  : 

1.  "AMP/3  Where  our  evidence  of  a  person's  birth  is  but 
conjectural,  and  craveth  further  instruction. 

2.  "  S.  N."  When,  having  no  aim  at  the  place  of  their  birth, 
we  fix  them  according  to  their  best  livelihood. 

3.  ee  REM."  When,  wholly  unsatisfied  of  their  position,  we 
remit  their  removal  to  the  reader's  discretion. 

Now  seeing  order  only  makes  the  difference  betwixt  a  wall 
and  a  heap  of  stones ;  and  seeing  "  qui  bene  distinguit  bene 
docet ;"  we  conceive  ourselves  obliged  to  part,  and  not  jumble 
together,  the  several  gradations. 


It  often  cometh  to  pass  that  the  same  person  may  justly  be 
entituled  to  two  or  more  topics,  as  by  the  ensuing  nlay  appear. 


Two  of  bishops,  writers ;  as  Arthur  Lakes.  Physicians,,  bene- 
factors ;  as  Jo.  Caius.  Three  of  bishops,  writers,,  benefactors ; 
as  Lancelot  Andrews.  Martyrs,  bishops,  writers;  as  Thomas 
Cranmer.  Four  of  saints,  bishops,  writers,  statesmen ;  as  Tho- 
mas Becket.  Confessors,  bishops,  writers,  benefactors;  as 
Edward  Grindall.  Two  of  seamen,  soldiers;  as  Sir  Francis 
Drake.  Statesmen,  soldiers ;  as  Sir  Ralph  Sadler.  Three  of 
statesmen,  lawyers,  benefactors  ;  as  Sir  Nicholas  Bacon.  States- 
men, lawyers,  writers ;  as  Sir  Francis  Bacon.  Four  of  lawyers, 
statesmen,  writers,  benefactors;  as  William  Lord  Cecil.  Sol- 
diers, seamen,  statesmen,  writers ;  as  Sir  Walter  Raleigh. 

The  question  is  now  under  what  head  they  shall  be  properly 
placed,  seeing  so  many  lay  claim  unto  them. 

Some  will  say,  let  them  be  ranked  in  that  capacity  wherein 
they  excelled.  This  I  humbly  conceive  is  an  invidious  work  for 
any  to  perform  :  seeing  none  have  made  me,  I  will  not  make 
myself,  a  judge  in  this  case,  many  appearing  equally  eminent  in 
their  several  capacities ;  but  have  embraced  the  following  order. 

First,  the  titles  of  saints  and  martyrs  carrieth  it  clearly  from 
all  others :  I  behold  them  as  heavenly  honours  ;  and  glory  out- 
shines gold.  Next,  I  deny  not  I  have  an  affection  for  benefac- 
tors to  the  public,  and  much  indulge  that  topic  clean  through 
this  work.  David  saith  to  God  himself,  "  Thou  art  good ;  there 
is  a  clear  spring,  and  thou  doest  good :  there  is  a  comfortable 
stream  ."*  Benefaction,  therefore,  being  a  God-like  act,  blame 
me  not  if  under  that  title  those  have  been  ranked  who  other- 
wise had  more  outwardly  honourable  relations.  For  the  rest,  I 
am  not  ashamed  to  confess,  that  casualty  in  such  who  came  first, 
and  conveniency  in  such  who  agreed  best  with  my  present  oc- 
casion, regulated  them  in  their  method ;  and  so  be  it  they  be 
here,  the  placing  of  them  is  not  so  much  material. 



I  AM  sadly  sensible  that  being  to  treat  of  the  Worthies  in 
several  professions,  I  shall  incur  many  men's  displeasure,  in  not 
ranking  them  according  to  their  own  desires;  the  rather  because 
there  always  hath  been  a  battle  royal  about  precedency  betwixt 
1.  Swordmen  and  Gownmen:  2.  Swordmen  and  Swordmen : 
3.  Gownmen  and  Gownmen. 

Concerning  the  first  couple,  the  question,  «  An  Doctor  prse- 
cedat  Militem  ?  "  hangeth  as  yet  on  the  file,  and  I  believe  ever 

*  Psal.  cxix. 


will,  as  which  is  often  determined  affirmatively  in  time  of  peace, 
but  always  negatively  in  time  of  war. 

Nor  less  is  the  contest  betwixt  swordmen  and  swordmen  (I 
mean  of  the  same  side  arid  interest)  about  priority,  whether  land 
or  sea-captains  should  take  place.  The  former  they  plead,  that 
they  fight  ,on  a  fixed  element,  not  so  subject  as  the  sea  to  casual 
advantages,  which  being  a  settled  theatre  of  valour,  men  may 
indifferently  try  their  courage  upon  it.  The  sea-captain 
allegeth,  that  the  greater  danger  the  greater  dignity ;  and  pre- 
cedency therefore  due  to  their  profession,  who  encounter  the 
winds  and  the  water,  besides  the  fierceness  and  fury  of  their 
enemies.  Besides,  it  is  very  difficult,  if  possible,  for  a  ship 
engaged  in  fight  to  escape  by  flight,  whereby  many  in  land 
battles  easily  preserve  themselves. 

I  confess  that  custom,  the  best  herald  in  controversies  of  this 
kind,  hath  adjudged  the  precedency  to  land- cap  tains,  but  not 
without  the  great  grudge  and  regret  of  seamen  therein.  We 
may  observe  in  nature,  that,  though  the  water  and  earth  make 
one  globe,  and  though  Providence  preserveth  the  earth  from 
being  overflown  by  the  water;  yet  the  water,  as  the  lighter 
element,  challengeth  the  highest  place  to  itself,  and  watcheth 
all  opportunities,  especially  when  great  rains  meet  with  low 
banks,  to  regain  its  superiority  by  inundations.  Sea-captains, 
in  like  manner,  though  depressed  by  practice  and  custom  to 
give  place  to  land-captains,  do  it  with  that  distaste  and  dislike, 
that  thereby,  though  they  cannot  recover  their  right,  they  con- 
tinue their  claim  to  precedency,  watching  their  opportunity,  and 
now  (in  our  so  many  naval  expeditions)  not  altogether  out  of 
hope  to  regain  it. 

Nor  less  the  difference  betwixt  gownmen  and  gownmen,  who 
should  take  the  upper  hand.  Witness  the  contest  betwixt  the 
Doctors  of  Physic  and  of  Canon  Law,  on  that  account :  the  for- 
mer pleading  the  following  instrument  in  their  behalf : 

"  Memorandum  quod  anno  Domini  1384,  in  vigilia  Purifica- 
tionis  Beatae  Mariee  Virginis,  in  plena  convocatione  regentium 
et  non  regentium,  per  fidem  convocatorum  declaratum.  est,  quod 
Doctor  in  Medicina  dextram  partem  cancellarii  in  congrega- 
tionibus  et  convocationibus  retineret,  et  non  sinistram ;  Doctor 
vero  in  Jure  Civili  partem  sinistram,  et  non  dextram.  Facta 
est  hsec  declaratio  ex  prsecepto  regis  Ricardi  Secundi  post  Con- 
questum,  anno  regni  sui  octavo."  *  Add  to  this  what  a  great 
professor  of  philosophy,  living  in  Padua  anno  1482,  concludeth 
after  a  long  debating  of  the  question :  6£  Dicamus  ergo  cum 
Sanct£  Romana  Ecclesia,  quod  Medicina  est  nobilior  Jure  Civili, 
quodque  Medicinee  professores  Domini  mereantur  dici ;  Juristee 
vero  prsecones."  t 

*  Caius  de  Antiq.  Cantab,  p.  20. 

f  Nicholaus  Vernias  Theatinus,  in  preefatione  in  Burleum  super  Physicis  Aris- 


But  for  all  this,  the  doctors  of  the  canon,  since  in  England 
united  with  the  civil  law,  will  not  yield  unto  them  ;  pleading 
for  themselves,  first,  that  professions  are  to  take  place  accord- 
ing to  the  dignity  of  the  subject  they  are  employed  about. 
Secondly,  that  the  soul  is  more  worth  than  the  body,  which 
is  the  sphere  of  the  physician.  Thirdly,  that  canonists  meddle 
with  many  cases  of  soul  concernment,  and  therefore  ought  to 
have  the  precedency. 

Wherefore,  to  prevent  all  exceptions  about  priority,  may  the 
reader  acquaint  himself  with  this  our  method  therein. 

1.  We  place  PRINCES  ;  and  both  loyalty  and  civility  will 
justify  us  therein. 

2.  SAINTS  ;  as  our  Saviour  said,  "  My  kingdom  is  not/5  so 
their  dignity  "  is  not  of  this  world ;"  *  and  therefore  none,   I 
hope,  will  repine  thereat. 

3.  4.  MARTYRS  and  CONFESSORS.     If  any  grudge  them  this 
their  high  place,  let  them  but  give  the  same  price  they  paid  for 
it,  and  they  shall  have  the  same  superiority. 

5.  EMINENT  PRELATES  ;  a  distance  which  they  might  justly 
claim  in  those  days  above  others,  as  generally  the  Lord  Chancel- 
lors and  Treasurers  of  the  land. 

6.  STATESMEN  ;  whose  eminent  offices  do  warrant  and  avouch 
this  their  station  against  all  opposition. 

7.  CAPITAL  JUDGES  ;    to  whom   this   place   doth  of  right 

These  premised,  in  the  next  four  we  have  observed  an  order 
without  order.  Some  will  maintain  that  sometimes  a  riot  is  as 
good  as  a  diet ;  when  at  a  feast  all  meats  cast  together  help  one 
to  digest  another.  "  Qui  vivit  medice,  vivit  miser e."  Sure  I 
am,  ef  scribit  misere,  qui  scribit  methodice  ;"  I  mean,  when  tied 
up  to  such  strict  terms  of  method,  in  such  cases  that  every 
misplacing  is  subject  to  exception. 

I  commend  the  no  less  politic  than  peaceable  custom  of  the 
Skinners'  and  Merchant  Tailors5  of  London,  who,  after  many 
long  and  costly  suits  betwixt  their  Companies  for  precedency,  to 
prevent  future  quarrels,  agreed  with  themselves  at  last,  to  go 
first  by  turns,  or  alternately.  The  same  method  I  embrace  in 
ranking  soldiers,  seamen,  civilians,  physicians,  sometimes  one 
first,  sometimes  another,  ringing  no  artificial  but  a  merely  casual 
change  in  the  ordering  their  professions.  These  thus  ranked, 
next  follow, 

12.  LEARNED  WRITERS.  Though  many  of  these  since  the 
Reformation,  being  Doctors  of  Divinity,  may  challenge  pre- 
cedency of  some  name  before,  yet  they  will  not  be  discontented 
to  come  last,  having  learned  the  Apostle's  rule,  "  in  honour 
preferring  one  another ;  "t  and  God  make  us  as  humble  as  we 
are  humbled. 

*  John  xviii.  36.  f  Rom.  xii.  10. 


13.  BENEFACTORS  TO  THE  PUBLIC.  It  is  good  to  conclude 
and  go  out  with  a  good  savour  ;  on  which  account  these  worthy 
persons  are  placed  last,  to  leave  the  grateful  perfume  of  their 
memory  behind  them. 

As  for  MEMORABLE  PERSONS,  they  are  last ;  last  placed, 
because  (as  that  title  is  taken  by,  us)  they  are  cast  in  as  super- 
pondium,  or  overweight,  our  work  being  ended  before. 



THE  plain  English  saying  hath  veiy  much  of  downright  truth 
therein ;  "  I  tell  you  my  tale,  and  my  tale-master ;"  which  is 
essential  to  the  begetting  of  credit  to  any  relation.  Indeed, 
when  one  writeth  with  St.  John,  waving  his  infallible  inspira- 
tion, "  that  which  we  have  heard,  which  we  have  seen  with  our 
eyes,  which  we  have  looked  upon,  and  our  hands  have  han- 
dled," *  such  clogging  a  book  with  authors  were  superfluous ; 
which  now  is  necessary  in  him  that  writeth  what  was  done  at 
distance,  far  from,  in  time  long  before  him. 

First,  to  assert  and  vindicate  the  writer.  When  Adam  com- 
plained that  he  was  naked,  God  demanded  of  him,  "  Who  told 
thee  that  thou  wast  naked  ?"f  Intimating  thus  much,  that  if  he 
could  not  produce  the  person  who  first  so  informed  him,  he 
might  justly  be  suspected,  as  indeed  he  was,  the  author  as  well 
as  utterer  of  that  sad  truth.  Our  Saviour  said  to  Pilate, 
"  Sayest  thou  this  thing  of  thyself,  or  did  others  tell  thee ?"  J 
And  all  things  reported  are  reducible  to  this  dichotomy  : 
1.  The  Fountain  of  Invention  ;  2.  The  Channel  of  Relation.  If 
one  ignorantly  buyeth  stolen  cattle,  and  hath  them  fairly 
vouched  unto  him,  and  publicly  in  an  open  fair  payeth  toll  for 
them,  he  cannot  be  damnified  thereby  :  the  case  I  conceive  of 
him  who  writeth  a  falsehood,  and  chargeth  his  margin  with  the 
author  thereof. 

Secondly,  to  edify  and  inform  the  reader ;  "  frustra  creditur, 
quod  sine  agnitione  originis  creditur."  ("  It  is  vainly  believed, 
which  is  believed  without  the  knowledge  of  the  original  thereof.") 
Yea,  properly  it  is  no  rational  belief,  but  an  easy,  lazy,  supine 

Such  as  designingly  conceal  their  authors,  do  it  either  out  of 
guiltiness  or  envy.  Guiltiness,  when  conscious  to  themselves, 
that,  if  inspection  be  made  of  such  quotations,  they  will  be 
found  defectively,  redundantly,  or  injuriously  cited,  distorted 
from  their  genuine  intention. 

*  1  John  i.  l.  f  Gen  iii.  11.  $  John  xviii,  34. 


Or  else  they  do  it  out  of  envy.  Tyrants  commonly  cut  off 
the  stairs  by  which  they  climb  up  unto  their  thrones  (witness 
king  Richard  the  Third  beheading  the  duke  of  Buckingham) ; 
for  fear  that,  if  still  they  be  left  standing,  others  will  get  up  the 
same  way.  Such  the  jealousy  of  some  writers,  that  their  readers 
would  be  as,  if  not  more,  knowing  than  themselves,  might  they 
be  but  directed  to  the  original,  which  they  purposely  intercept. 

Some,  to  avoid  this  rock  of  envy,  run  on  as  bad  of  ostenta- 
tion ;  and,  in  the  end  of  their  books,  muster  up  an  army  of 
authors  (though,  perchance,  they  themselves  have  not  seriously 
perused  one  regiment  thereof) ;  so  that  the  goodness  of  their 
library,  not  greatness  of  their  learning,  may  thence  be  con- 
cluded, that  they  have  (if  with  the  prophet's  axe*  some  were 
not  borrowed),  for  I  will  not  say  have  read,  many  books  in  their 

I  have  endeavoured  to  steer  my  course  betwixt  both  these 
rocks ;  and  come  now  to  give  in  the  particulars  whence  I  have 
derived  my  information,  knowing  full  well,  quantus  author  tanta 
fides.  These  may  be  referred  to  three  heads ;  first,  Printed 
Books;  secondly,  Records  in  Public  Offices;  thirdly,  Manu- 
scripts in  the  possession  of  private  gentlemen.  To  which  we 
may  add  a  fourth,  viz.,  Instructions  received  from  the  nearest 
Relations  to  those  persons  whose  lives  we  have  presented. 

We  pass  by  printed  books,  cited  in  the  margin,  and  obvious 
to  all  who  are  pleased  to  consult  them,  and  first  pitch  on  the 
Records  of  the  Tower.  Master  William  Riley  was  then  master 
of  those  jewels ;  for  so  they  deserve  to  be  accounted,  seeing  a 
scholar  would  prefer  that  place  before  the  keeping  of  all  the 
prisoners  in  the  Tower.  I  know  not  whether  more  to  com- 
mend his  care  in  securing,  dexterity  in  finding,  diligence  in 
perusing  them,  or  courtesy  in  communicating  such  copies  of 
them  as  my  occasions  required,  thanks  being  all  the  fees  ex- 
pected from  me. 

I  place  next  the  Records  in  the  Exchequer ;  for,  although  I 
had  a  catalogue  of  the  sheriffs  of  England  lent  me  by  Master 
Highmore,  of  the  Pipe-office,  which  I  compared  with  another 
of  that  learned  knight  Sir  Winkefield  Bodenham ;  yet,  being 
frequently  at  a  loss,  I  was  forced  to  repair  to  the  originals  in 
the  Exchequer.  Here  let  not  my  gratitude  be  buried  in  the 
graves  of  Master  John  Witt,  and  Master  Francis  Boyton,  both 
since  deceased ;  but,  whilst  living,  advantageous  to  my  studies. 

To  these  authentic  records  let  me  add  the  Church  Registers 
in  several  parishes,  denied  indeed  by  our  commons-lawyers,  but 
stickled  for  by  some  canonists  to  be  records-fellows  at  least, 
and  having,  though  not  the  formality  in  law,  the  force  thereof 
in  history,  very  useful  to  help  us  in  many  nativities. 

And  here  I  cannot  but  bemoan  the  peya  x^^y  that  great 

*  2  Kings  vi. 


gulf,  or  broad  blank,  left  in  our  registers  during  our  civil  wars, 
after  the  laying  aside  of  bishops,  and  before  the  restitution  of 
his  most  sacred  majesty.  Yea,  hereafter  this  sad  vacuum  is 
like  to  prove  so  thick,  like  the  Egyptian  darkness,  that  it  will 
be  sensible  in  our  English  histories. 

I  dare  maintain  that  the  wars  betwixt  York  and  Lancaster, 
lasting  by  intermission  some  sixty  years,  were  not  so  destruc- 
tive to  church  records,  as  our  modern  wars  in  six  years :  for 
during  the  former,  their  differences  agreed  in  the  same  religion, 
impressing  them  with  reverence  of  all  sacred  muniments  ;  whilst 
our  civil  wars,  founded  in  faction,  and  variety  of  pretended 
religions,  exposed  all  naked  church  records  a  prey  to  their 
armed  violence. 

Let  me  add,  that  it  conduced  much  to  the  exactness  of 
Jewish  genealogies,  that  their  children  were  solemnly  circum- 
cised and  named  on  the  eighth  day.  On  the  contrary,  the 
omitting  the  baptizing  of  infants  till  they  be  adult  (which 
causeth,  that  though  the  weekly  births  exceed  the  burials,  the 
burials  exceed  the  christenings  in  London),  will  perplex  those 
who  in  the  next  age  shall  write  the  nativities  of  such  persons. 
Say  not  it  matters  not  though  their  nativities  be  utterly  for- 
gotten :  for  though  their  fathers  were  factious  fanatics,  the  sons, 
by  God's  grace,  may  prove  sober  Christians,  and  eminent  in 
their  generations. 

The  last  port  to  which  I  trafficked  for  intelligence,  towards 
our  issuing  work,  was  by  making  my  addresses,  by  letters  and 
otherwise,  to  the  nearest  relations  of  those  whose  lives  I  have 
written.  Such  applications  have  sometimes  proved  chargeable ; 
but,  if  my  weak  pains  shall  find  preferment  (that  is,  acceptance) 
from  the  judicious  reader,  my  care  and  cost  is  forgotten,  and 
shall  never  come  under  computation. 

Here  I  cannot  but  condemn  the  carelessness,  not  to  say  in- 
gratitude, of  those  (I  am  safe  whilst  containing  myself  in 
general  terms)  who  can  give  no  better  account  of  the  place 
where  their  fathers  or  grandfathers  were  born,  than  the  child 
unborn ;  so  that  sometimes  we  have  been  more  beholden  to 
strangers  for  our  instructions  herein,  than  to  their  nearest  kin- 
dred. And  although  some  will  say  sons  are  more  comfortably 
concerned  to  know  the  time  of  their  father's  death  than  place 
of  their  birth,  yet  I  could  almost  wish  that  a  moderstte  fine 
were  imposed  on  such  heirs,  whose  fathers  were  born  before 
them,  and  yet  they  know  not  where  they  were  born.  How- 
ever, this  I  must  gratefully  confess,  I  have  met  with  many  who 
could  not,  never  with  any  who  would  not,  furnish  me  with 
information  herein. 

It  is  observable,  that  men  born  an  hundred  years  since,  and 
upwards,  have  their  nativities  fixed  with  more  assurance,  than 
those  born  some  eighty  years  since.  Men's  eyes  see  worst  in 
the  twilight,  in  that  interval  after  the  sun  is  set,  and  natural 


light  ended,  and  before  candles  are  set  up,  and  artificial  light 
beo-un.  In  such  a  crepusculum  of  time  those  writers  lived,  who 
fall  short  of  the  history  of  Bale  and  Leland,  yet  go  before  the 
memory  of  any  alive,  which  unhappy  insterstice  hath  often  per- 
plexed us,  and  may  easier  be  complained  of  than  amended. 

To  conclude,  should  I  present  all  with  books,  who  cour- 
teously have  conduced  to  my  instruction,  the  whole  impression 
would  not  suffice.  But  I  remember  the  no  less  civil  than 
politic  invitation  of  Judah  to  the  tribe  of  Simeon,  "  Come  up 
with  me  into  my  lot  [to  conquer  the  Canaanites],  and  I  like- 
wise will  go  with  thee  into  thy  lot."  *  If  such  who  have  lent 
me  theirs,  shall  have  occasion  to  borrow  mine  assistance,  my 
pains,  brains,  and  books,  are  no  more  mine  than  theirs  to  com- 
mand ;  which,  besides  my  prayers  for  them,  and  thanks  to  them, 
is  all  my  ability  in  requital  can  perform. 




THIS  discourse  I  tender  the  reader,  as  a  preparative  to  dis- 
pose him  for  the  better  observing  and  distinguishing  of  our 
English  gentry,  in  our  ensuing  lives  and  catalogue  of  Sheriffs. 

We  begin  with  the  Britons,  the  Aborigines,  or  native  inha- 
bitants of  the  south  of  this  Island,  but  long  since  expelled  by 
the  Saxons  into  the  West  thereof;  none  then  remaining  in, 
some  since  returning  into  our  land,  of  whom  hereafter. 

We  confess,  the  Romans  conquered  our  country,  planted  co- 
lonies, and  kept  garrisons  therein ;  but  their  descendants  are  not 
by  any  character  discernible  from  the  British.  Indeed,  if  any 
be  found  able  to  speak  Latin  naturally,  without  learning  it,  we 
may  safely  conclude  him  of  Roman  extraction.  Meantime,  it  is 
rather  a  pretty  conceit  than  a  solid  notion  of  thatf  great  anti- 
quary, who,  from  the  allusion  of  the  name,  collecteth  the  noble 
family  of  the  Cecils  (more  truly  Sytsilts)  descended  from  the 
Cecilii,  a  Senatorian  family  in  Rome. 

The  Saxons  succeed,  whose  offspring  at  this  day  are  the  main 
bulk  and  body  of  the  English  (though  not  gentry)  nation ;  I 
may  call  them  the  whole  cloth  thereof,  though  it  be  guarded 
here  and  there  with  some  great  ones  of  foreign  extraction. 
These  Saxons,  though  pitifully  depressed  by  the.  Conqueror,  by 
God's  goodness,  king  Henry  the  First's  favour,  their  own 
patience  and  diligence,  put  together  the  planks  of  their  ship- 

*  Judges  i.  3.  f  Verstegan,  of  Decayed  Intelligence,  p.  313. 


wrecked   estates,   and   afterwards   recovered  a  competent  con- 

The  Danes  never  acquired  in  this  land  a  long  and  peaceable 
possession  thereof,  living  here  rather  as  inroaders  than  inhabi- 
tants, the  cause  that  so  few  families  (distinguishable  by  their 
surnames)  are  descended  from  them,  extant  in  our  age. 
Amongst  which  few,  the  respected  stock  of  the  Denizes,  (often 
sheriffs  in  Devon  *  and  Gloucestershire)  appear  the  principal. 
As  for  Fitz-Hardinge,  the  younger  son  of  the  king  of  Denmark, 
and  direct  ancestor  of  the  truly  honourable  George  Lord 
Berkeley,  he  came  in  long  since,  when  he  accompanied  the 

I  must  confess  that,  at  this  day,  there  passeth  a  tradition  among 
some  of  the  common  people,  that  such  names  which  terminate  in 
son,  as  Johnson,  Tomson,  Nicolson,  Davison,  Saunderson,  are 
of  Danish  origination.  But  this  fond  opinion  is  long  since 
confuted  by  Verstegan,t  that  ingenious  and  industrious  anti- 
quary. Yea,  he  urgeth  this  as  an  argument  (which  much  pre- 
vaileth  with  me)  why  those  surnames  were  not  derived  from  the 
Danes,  because  they  had  no  such  name  in  use  amongst  them  as 
John,  Thomas,  Nicholas,  David,  Alexander,  from  whence  they 
should  be  deduced. 

Yea,  he  further  addeth,  that  it  is  more  probable  that  they 
made  the  child's  name,  by  adjecting  the  syllable  son  to  the 
appellation  of  the  father  (a  custom  which  is  usual  even  at  this 
time  amongst  the  vulgar  sort  of  the  Dutch).  Yet  is  there  not 
remaining  any  sign  thereof  amongst  the  names  of  our  age; 
which  probably  might  have  been,  Canutson,  Ericson,  Gormoson, 
Heraldson,  Rofolson,  &c. 

The  Normans,  or  French,  under  the  Conqueror,  swarmed  in 
England ;  so  that  then  they  became  the  only  visible  gentry  in 
this  nation ;  and  still  continue  more  than  a  moiety  thereof. 
Several  catalogues  of  their  names  I  have  so  largely  exemplified 
in  my  "  Church  History,"  that  some  have  taxed  me  for  tedious- 
ness  therein ;  and  I  will  not  add  a  new  obstinacy  to  iny  old 

But,  besides  these,  we  have  some  surnames  of  good  families 
in  England,  now  extant,  which,  though  French,  are  not  by  any 
diligence  to  be  recovered  in  the  lists  of  such  as  came  over  with 
the  Conqueror ;  and  therefore  we  suppose  them  to  have  remain- 
ed of  those  gentlemen  and  others  which  from  Renault  attended 
queen  Isabel,  wife  unto  king  Edward  the  Second.  Of  this 
sort  was  Devreux,  Mollineux,  Darcy,  Coniers,  Longchamp, 
Henage,  Savage,  Danvers,  with  many  more. 

Of  the  British  or  Welsh,  after  their  expulsion  hence  by  the 
Saxons,  some  signal  persons  have  returned  again ;  and,  by  the 
king's  grant,  matches,  purchases,  &c.  have  fixed  themselves  in 

Camden's  Britannia,  in  Devonshire.  f  Of  Decayed  Intelligence. 


fair  possessions  in  England,,  especially  since  the  beginning  of 
the  reign  of  their  countryman  king  Henry  the  Seventh,  reward- 
ing the  valour  of  many  contributing  to  his  victory  in  the  battle 
of  Bos  worth.  Of  the  Welsh,  now  re-estated  in  England,  and 
often  sheriffs  therein,  some  retain  their  old  surnames,  as  the 
Griffins  in  Northamptonshire,  the  Griffiths  and  Vaughans  in 
Yorkshire ; .  some  have  assumed  new  ones,  as  the  Caradocks, 
now  known  by  the  new  name  of  the  Newtons*  in  Somersetshire. 

Many  Scotch  (long  before  the  union  of  the  two  kingdoms 
under  king  James)  seated  themselves  in  this  land,  flying  hither 
for  succour  from  their  civil  wars ;  and  surely  it  was  against 
their  mind,  if  they  all  went  back  again.  Distress  at  sea  hath 
driven  others  in,  as  the  Stewards,  high-sheriffs  in  Cambridge- 
shire ;  as  other  accidents  have  occasioned  the  coming  in  of  the 
Scrimpshires,  an  hundred  years  since  high- sheriffs  in  Stafford- 
shire ;  more  lately  the  Nappers  in  Bedfordshire  ;  and  before 
both,  the  Scots  of  Scots-hall  in  Kent. 

I  much  admire,  that  never  an  eminent  Irish  native  grew  in 
England  to  any  greatness ;  so  many  English  have  prospered  in 
that  country.  But,  it  seems,  we  love  to  live  there,  where  we 
may  command ;  and  they  care  not  to  come  where  they  must 

Our  great  distance  from  Italy,  always  in  position,  and  since 
the  reformation  in  religion,  hath  caused  that  few  or  none  of  that 
nation  have  so  incorporated  with  the  English,  as  to  have  founded 
families  therein.  Yet  have  we  a  sprinkling  of  Italian  Protes- 
tants ;  Castilian,  a  valiant  gentleman  of  Berkshire.  The  Bassa- 
noes,  excellent  painters  and  musicians,  in  Essex,  which  came 
over  into  England  under  king  Henry  the  Eighth ;  and  since,  in 
the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  Sir  Horatio  Palavicine  (receiver  of 
the  Pope's  revenues)  landed  in  Cambridgeshire,  and  the  Csesars 
(alias  Dalmarii)  still  flourishing  in  Hertfordshire,  in  worshipful 
estates ;  though  I  never  find  any  of  these  performing  the  office 
of  sheriff. 

The  High-Dutch  of  the  Hans  Towns,  antiently  much  conversed 
in  our  land,  (known  by  the  name  of  Easterlings)  invited  hither 
by  the  large  privileges  our  kings  conferred  upon  them,  so  that 
the  Steel-yard  proved  the  Gold-yard  unto  them.  But  these 
merchants  moved  round  in  their  own  sphere,  matching  amongst 
themselves,  without  mingling  with  our  nation.  Only  we  may 
presume,  that  the  Easterlings  (corruptly  called  Stradlings)  for- 
merly sheriffs  in  Wiltshire,  and  still  famous  in  Glamorganshire, 
with  the  Westphalings,  lately  sheriffs  of  Oxfordshire,  were  ori- 
ginally of  German  extraction. 

The  Low  Country-men,  frighted  by  Duke  d'Alva's  tyranny, 
flocked  hither  under  king  Edward  the  Sixth,  fixing  themselves 

*  Camden's  Britannia,  in  Somersetshire. 


in  London,,  Norwich,  Canterbury,  and  Sandwich.  But  these 
confined  themselves  to  their  own  church  discipline,  and,  for 
ought  I  can  find,  advanced  not  forward  by  eminent  matches 
into  our  nation.  Yet  I  behold  the  worthy  family  of  De  la  Fon- 
taine in  Leicestershire,  as  of  Belgian  original,  and  have  read 
how  the  ancestors  of  Sir  Symonds  d'Ewes  in  Suffolk  came 
hither  under  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  from  the  Dunasti  or 
D'us  in  Guelderland. 

As  for  the  Spaniards,  though  their  king  Philip  matched  with 
our  queen  Mary,  but  few  of  any  eminence  now  extant  (if  I  well 
remember)  derive  their  pedigrees  from  them.  This  I  impute  to 
the  shortness  of  their  reign,  and  the  ensuing  change  of  religions. 
Probable  it  is,  we  might  have  had  more  natives  of  that  king- 
dom to  have  settled  and  flourished  in  our  nation,  had  he 
obtained  a  marriage  with  queen  Elizabeth  (of  blessed  memory), 
which  some  relate  he  much  endeavoured. 

As  for  Portugal,  few  of  that  nation  have  as  yet  fixed  their 
habitations,  and  advanced  families  to  any  visible  height  in  our 
land.  But  it  may  please  God  hereafter  we  may  have  a  happy 
occasion  to  invite  some  of  that  nation  to  reside,  and  raise  fami- 
lies in  England.  Meantime  the  Mays  (who  have  been  sheriffs 
in  Sussex)  are  all  whom  I  can  call  to  mind  of  the  Portugal 
race,  and  they  not  without  a  mixture  of  Jewish  extraction. 

Come  we  now  to  the  second  division  of  our  gentry,  accord- 
ing to  the  professions  whereby  they  have  been  advanced.  And 
here,  to  prevent  unjust  misprision,  be  it  premised,  that  such 
professions  found  most  of  them  gentlemen,  being  the  (though 
perchance  younger)  sons  of  wealthy  fathers,  able  to  give  them 
liberal  education.  They  were  lighted  before  as  to  their  gentility, 
but  now  set  up  in  a  higher  candlestick,  by  such  professions 
which  made  a  visible  and  conspicuous  accession  of  wealth  and 
dignity,  almost  to  the  eclipsing  their  former  condition.  Thus 
all  behold  Isis,  increased  in  name  and  water,  after  its  conjunc- 
tion with  Thame  at  Dorchester ;  whilst  few  take  notice  of  the 
first  fountain  thereof,  many  miles  more  westward  in  Glouces- 

The  study  of  the  Common  Law  hath  advanced  most  ancient  ex- 
tant families  in  our  land.  It  seems  they  purchased  good  titles, 
made  sure  settlements,  and  entailed  thrift  with  their  lands  on 
posterity.  A  prime  person  of  that  profession*  hath  prevented 
my  pains,  and  given  in  a  list  of  such  principal  families  ;  I  say 
principal,  many  being  omitted  by  him  in  so  copious  a  subject. 
Miraculous  the  mortality  in  Egypt  "  where  there  was  not  a 
house  wherein  there  was  not  one  dead."f  But  I  hope,  it  will 
be  allowed  marvellous,  that  there  is  not  a  generous  and  nume- 
rous house  in  England,  wherein  there  is  not  one  (though 
generally  116  first-born,  but  a  younger  brother)  anciently  or  at 

*  Sir  Edward  Coke.  |  Exod.  xii.  30. 


this  day  living,  thriving,  and  flourishing,  by  the  study  of  the 
law;  especially  if  to  them,  what  in  justice  ought,  be  added 
those  who  have  raised  themselves  in  courts  relating  to  the  law. 

The  city  hath  produced  more  than  the  law  in  number ;  and 
some  as  broad  in  wealth,  but  not  so  high  in  honour,  nor  long 
lasting  in  time,  who  like  land-floods,  soon  come,  and  soon  gone, 
have  been  dried  up  before  the  third  generation. 

Yet  many  of  these  have  continued  in  a  certain  channel,  and 
carried  a  constant  stream,  as  will  plainly  appear  in  the  sequel  of 
our  Worthies. 

The  church,  before  the  Reformation,  advanced  many  fami- 
lies :  for,  though  bishops  might  not  marry,  they  preferred  their 
brothers'  sons  to  great  estates ;  as  the  Kemps  in  Kent,  Peck- 
hams  in  Sussex,  Wickham  in  Hampshire,  Meltons  in  Yorkshire. 
Since  the  Reformation,  some  have  raised  families  to  a  knightly 
and  worshipful  estate ;  Hutton,  Bilson,  Dove,  Neil,  &c.  But 
for  sheriffs,  I  take  notice  of  Sandys  in  Worcester  and  Cam- 
bridgeshire, Westphaling  in  Herefordshire,  Elmar  in  Suffolk, 
Rud  in  Caermarthenshire,  &c. 

Sure  I  am,  there  was  a  generation  of  people  of  the  last  age, 
which  thought  they  would  level  all  clergymen,  or  any  descen- 
dants from  them,  with  the  ground.  Yea,  had  not  God's  arm 
been  stretched  out  in  their  preservation,  they  had  become  a  prey 
to  their  enemies'  violence,  and  what  they  had  designed  to  them- 
selves, and  in  some  manner  effected,  had  ere  this  time  been 
perfectly  completed. 

As  for  the  inferior  clergy,  it  is  well  if  their  narrow  main- 
tenance will  enable  them  to  leave  a  livelihood  to  their  little 
ones.  I  find  but  one,  Robert  Johnson*  by  name,  attaining  such 
an  estate,  that  his  grandson  was  pricked  sheriff  of  a  county,  but 
declined  the  place,  by  pleading  himself  a  deacon,  and  by  the 
favour  of  Archbishop  Laud. 

The  study  of  the  Civil  Law  hath  preferred  but  few ;  the  most 
eminent  in  that  faculty,  before  the  Reformation,  being  persons 
in  orders,  prohibited  marriage.  However,  since  the  Reforma- 
tion, there  are  some  worshipful  families  which  have  been  raised 
by  the  study  in  this  faculty. 

Yet  have  our  wars  (which  perhaps  might  have  been  advo- 
cated for  in  Turks  and  Pagans,  who  bid  defiance  to  all  huma- 
nity, but  utterly  misbeseeming  Christians,)  been  a  main  cause  of 
the  moulting  of  many  eminent  and  worthy  persons  of  this 
profession.  Nor  could  it  be  expected  that  the  professors  of 
human  laws  should  have  been  allowed  favour  during  our  un- 
natural dissensions,  the  promoters  thereof  having  a  constant 
pique  at  whatever  bore  but  the  resemblance  of  order  and  civi- 
lity, when  the  true  dispensers  of  God's  laws,  yea  the  law  of 
God,  yea  God  himself,  was  vilified  and  contemned. 

*  See  "  Benefactours  to  the  Publique  "  in  Lincolnshire. 


The  best  is,  that,  as  Divine  Providence  hath  in  his  mercy 
been  pleased  to  restore  our  sovereign,  so  with  him  we  have 
received  both  our  ancient  laws  and  liberties.  And  now  it 
begins  to  be  fair  weather  again,  as  with  this  so  with  all  other 
necessary  and  useful  avocations,  which  in  due  time  may  repair 
their  decayed  fortunes. 

Physic  hath  promoted  many  more,  and  that  since  the  reign  of 
king  Henry  the  Eighth.  Indeed,  before  his  time,  I  find  a  doc- 
tor of  physic,  father  to  Reginald,  first  and  last  Lord  Bray.  But 
this  faculty  hath  flourished  much  the  three  last  fifty  years  ;  it 
being  true  of  physic,  what  is  said  of  Sylla,  ee  suos  divitiis  exple- 
vit."  Sir  William  Butts,  physician  to  king  Henry  the  Eighth, 
doctor  Thomas  Wendy  and  doctor  Hatcher  to  queen  Elizabeth, 
raised  worshipful  and  wealthy  families  in  Norfolk,  Cambridge, 
and  Lincolnshire,  having  borne  the  office  of  sheriff  in  their 
respective  counties. 

Some  have  raised  themselves  by  sea-service,  and  letters  of 
mart,  especially  in  the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  when  we  had 
war  with  the  Spaniard.  But  such  estates,  as  flowing  so  have 
ebbed  with  the  tide,  seldom  of  long  continuance.  Such  prizes 
have  been  observed  best  to  prosper,  whose  takers  had  least  of 
private  revenge  and  most  of  public  service  therein.  Amongst 
these,  most  remarkable  the  baronet's  family  of  Drakes  in  De- 
vonshire, sometimes  sheriffs  of  that  county. 

Some  have  raised  themselves  by  their  attendance  at  court, 
rewarded  by  the  king^s  favour ; — court,  where  many  have  car- 
ried away  more,  for  bringing  the  less  to  it.  Here  some  younger 
brothers  have  found  their  lost  birth-right,  mending  their  pace 
to  wealth,  though  they  started  late  by  their  nativity.  But  I 
only  generally  point  at,  without  touching  them,  that  I  may  not 
forestal  the  reader,  whose  pains  may  be  pleasant  unto  him,  in 
his  own  discovery  thereof. 

Many  have  advanced  themselves  by  their  valour  in  foreign 
wars,  especially  in  France,  as  the  Knolls,  a  noble  family ;  and 
the  Calveleys,  often  sheriffs  in  Cheshire ;  so  that  Mars  in  this 
sense  may  be  said  to  be  the  father  of  Plutus,  his  steel  weapons 
procuring  to  his  followers  the  more  acceptable  metals  of  gold 
and  silver.  But  the  worst  is,  where  foreign  wars  have  raised 
one,  our  late  civil  ones  have  ruined  ten  families. 

Some  may  object,  that  as  they  have  destroyed  so  they  have 
raised  many  families  (which  before  in  themselves  were  mean 
and  contemptible)  to  high  titles  and  large  possessions.  All  I 
shall  return  in  answer  thereunto  is,  that  as  most  alive  saw  them 
rise,  per  saltum,  by  unwarrantable  means  to  such  a  pitch  of 
preferment ;  so  there  is  but  few  alive,  but  may,  if  not  willingly 
and  wilfully  blind,  see  them  deservedly  thrown  down  with  dis- 
grace and  contempt,  to  their  former  mean  and  despicable  con- 

VOL.  I.  H 


Clothing,  as  it  hath  given  garments  to  millions  of  people, 
hath  conferred  coats  of  arms,  and  gentility  therewith,  on  many 
families  in  this  land ;  as  on  the  Springs,  high-sheriffs  of  Suf- 

The  country,  with  her  two  full  breasts,  Grazing  and  Tillage, 
hath  raised  many  families.  Josephus  rendereth  a  reason,  as 
weak  in  itself  as  wide  from  the  truth,  why  Abel's  sacrifice  was 
preferred  before  Cain's ;  viz.  because  Abel  fairly  took  what  Na- 
ture freely  tendered  in  the  increase  of  his  cattle,  whilst  Cain 
violently  wounded  the  earth  with  his  ploughing.  But  St.  Paul 
teacheth  us  better  doctrine,  that  faith  caused  the  Deception  of 
the  one,  and  unbelief  the  rejection  of  the  other.*  Surely,  both 
callings  are  equally  acceptable  to  God,  who  hath  so  blessed  their 
endeavours,  that  thereby  many  have  gained  estates,  enabling 
them  to  serve  sheriffs  of  their  county.  But  I  forbear  to  instance 
them,  lest  what  was  the  honour  of  their  ancestors  to  raise  such 
families,  be  counted  in  this  captious  age  to  be  a  dishonour  to 
their  posterity,  to  be  raised  by  so  plain,  though  honest  and 
necessary,  an  employment. 

Some,  the  surer  to  hit  the  mark  of  wealth,  have  had  two 
strings  to  their  bow,  a  complication  of  professions  concurring 
to  their  advancement.  Thus  the  Chichleys  in  Cambridgeshire 
are  descendants  from  a  lord  mayor ;  allied  also  collaterally  to  an 
archbishop  of  Canterbury. 

On  the  main,  we  may  observe,  how  happy  a  liberal  (at  least 
lawful)  vocation  hath  proved  to  younger  brethren,  whereby 
Ephraim  hath  outgrown  Manasseh,  the  younger  outstript  the 
heir  of  the  family.  I  knew  a  school-boy,  not  above  twelve  years 
old,  and  utterly  ignorant  in  all  logical  terms,  who  was  com- 
manded to  English  the  following  distich : 

"  Dat  Galenus  opes,  dat  Justinianus  honores  ; 
Cum  genus,  et  species,  cogitur  ire  pedes." 

Only  they  favoured  the  boy  so  far,  to  inform  him,  that  Galenus 
did  signify  the  profession  of  physic,  Justinianus  of  law ;  on  which 
ground  he  thus  proceeded : 

Galenus,  the  study  of  physic,  dat  giveth,  opes  wealth ;  Jus- 
tinianus, the  study  of  law,  dat  giveth,  honores  honours :  cum 
when,  genus  high  birth,  et  species  and  beauty,  [having  no 
other  calling  (saith  the  boy)  to  maintain  them,]  cogitur  is  com- 
pelled, ire  pedes  to  go  on  foot." 

To  prevent  such  foot-travelling,  it  is  good  to  be  mounted  on 
a  gainful  vocation,  to  carry  one  out  of  the  mire,  on  all  occasions. 

*  Hebrews  xi.  4. 

ON    THE    STYLE    AND    MATTER.  99 



Exception  1. — You  usurp  the  style  of  princes,  speaking  often 
in  the  plural :  6e  come  we  now ;"  "  pass  we  now ;"  "  proceed 
we  now/5  &c. ;  which  is  false  grammar  from  a  single,  ill  ethics 
from  a  private,  person. 

Answer. — First,  I  appeal  to  any  exercised  in  reading  of  books, 
whether  the  same  be  not  used  in  other  authors. 

Secondly,  we  in  such  cases  includeth  the  writer  and  reader ; 
it  being  presumed  that  the  eye  of  the  one  goeth  along  with  the 
pen  of  the  other. 

Thirdly,  it  also  compriseth  all  other  writers  out  of  whom 
anything  is  transcribed,  and  their  names  quoted  in  the  margin. 

Let  me  add,  to  God's  glory,  my  friends'  credit,  and  my  own 
comfort,  that  our  we  is  comprehensive  of  all  my  worthy  friends, 
who,  by  their  pains  or  purses,  have  been  contributive  to  my 
weak  endeavours. 

Exception  2.  —  The  WORTHIES  of  ENGLAND  being  your 
subject,  you  have  mingled  many  Un worthies  among  them,  ra- 
ther notorious  than  notable,  except  in  the  same  sense  wherein 
Barabbas  is  termed  notable  in  the  Gospel.  * 

Answer. — Such  persons  are  so  few,  their  number  is  not 
considerable.  Secondly,  they  are  so  eminent  in  their  gene- 
rations, that  their  omission  would  make  a  maim  in  history. 
Thirdly,  how  bad  soever  their  morals  their  naturals  and  artifi- 
cials were  transcendant,  and  the  oracle-like  wisdom  of  wicked 
Achitophel  found  praise  from  the  pen  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  f 
Lastly,  the  worst  of  such  men  have  a  black  line  (serving  pro 
nigro  carbons)  prefixed  to  their  name,  for  distinction  sake. 

Exception  3. — You  might  better  have  omitted  the  mention 
of  some  modern  persons,  reputed  Malignants  by  the  present 
power,  and  blasted  by  these  times  in  their  estates.^ 

Answer. — All  persons  unhappy  must  not  presently  be  ac- 
counted unworthy,  especially  in  distracted  times.  Have  you  not 
heard  of  that  humorous  waterman  on  the  Thames,  who  would 
carry  none  in  his  boat  save  such  who  would  go  along  with  the 
tide,  till,  by  feeding  his  humour,  he  had  almost  starved  himself 
for  want  of  employment.  I  should  be  as  peevish  as  partial, 
should  I  admit  those  only  into  my  Catalogue  of  WORTHIES, 
who  of  late  years  did  swim  in  plenty,  seeing  many  have  been 
great  sufferers,  deservedly  commendable  by  the  testimony  of 
their  adversaries. 

*  Matthew  xxvii.  16.  f  2  Samuel  xvi.  23. 

f  Reader,  this  being  written  in  the  midnight  of  our  miseries,  I  could  not  com- 
mand my  hand  to  expunge  it. — F. 

H  2 


Exception  4. — You  only  report  the  virtues,  but  conceal  the 
faults  of  many  persons  within  our  own  memories: 

Answer. — I  conceive  myself  bound  so  to  do,  by  the  rules  of 
charity.  When  an  orator  was  to  praise  a  person  deceased, 
generally  and  justly  hated  for  his  viciousness,  it  was  suspected 
that  he  would,  for  his  fee,  force  his  conscience  by  flattery,  to 
commend  him  whose  expectations  he  thus  defeated.  "  This 
dead  person,"  saith  he,  "  must  in  one  respect  be  spoken  well  of 
by  all,  because  God  made  him ;  and  in  another  respect  should 
not  be  spoken  ill  of  by  any,  because  he  is  dead ;  e  et  de 
mortuis  nil  nisi  bonum/"  How  much  more,  when  men  have 
many  good  virtues,  with  some  faults,  ought  the  latter  to  be 
buried  in  their  graves  with  forgetfulness  \ 

Exception  5. — You  make  many  uncivil  and  unsatisfactory 
references  of  your  reader,  to  those  books  which  you  have  for- 
merly printed,  remitting  them  to  be  there  further  informed  ;  as 
if,  when  you  had  invited  guests,  you  consigned  them  over 
(coming  to  dine  with  you)  to  fetch  a  dinner  at  an  house  they  do 
not  know ;  it  being  probable  that  many  may  read  this  your 
book,  who  never  had  your  former  works. 

Answer. — Such  references  are  very  sparing,  only  to  avoid 
repetition  in  those  lives  which  I  have  formerly  written  at  large ; 
as  St.  Dunstan's,  Cardinal  Wolsey,  Thomas  Lord  Cromwell, 
Sir  John  Cheke,  Archbishop  Whitgift,  Mr.  Perkins,  &c.  And 
I  appeal  to  all  writers  of  many  books  (of  which  fault  I  myself 
am  guilty)  whether  such  references  be  not  usual  in  the  like 
cases.  I  will  not  add  that  I  have  passed  my  promise  (and  that 
is  an  honest  man's  bond)  to  my  former  stationer,  that  I  will 
write  nothing  for  the  future,  which  was  in  my  former  books  so 
considerable  as  may  make  them  interfere  one  with  another  to 
his  prejudice. 

Exception  J. — You  often  apply  the  word  create  to  men  ;  as, 
to  create  a  cardinal,  an  earl,  &c. ;  whereas  conscientious  people 
allow  that  word  appropriable  to  God  alone,  as  importing  the 
making  of  something  out  of  nothing. 

Answer. — I  hope  our  common  lawyers  will  plead  for  me  in 
this  case,  having  the  phrase  so  frequent  in  their  mouths,  to 
create  right,  to  create  a  title.  Besides,  I  observe,  that  such  who 
scruple  the  using  the  single  verb,  boggle  no  whit  at  the  com- 
pound, to  recreate  and  recreations.  Now  seeing  to  recreate  is 
to  create  twice,  I  understand  not  how  the  using  this  word  once 
should  be  a  sin,  whilst  it  is  no  sin  in  the  repetition  or  reaction 
thereof.  In  a  word,  in  words  of  this  nature,  I  conceive  one  may 
conform  himself  to  the  custom  of  common  language. 

Exception  8. — You,  out  of  flattery,  conceal  the  mean  extrac- 
tion of  many  (especially  modern)  men,  who  have  attained  to 
great  preferment,  pointing  at  the  place  of  their  birth,  but  sup- 
pressing their  parentage. 

ON    THE    STYLE    AND    MATTER.  101 

Answer. — I  conceive  myself  to  have  done  well  in  so  doing, 
If  inquiry  be  made  into  all  men's  descents,  it  would  be  found 
true  what  the  poet  doth  observe  : 

Majorum  primus  guisquisfuit  Hie  tuorum, 
Aut  pastor  fait,  aut  illud  quod  dicere  nolo. 
"  The  first  of  all  thine  ancestors  of  yore 
Was  but  a  shepherd,  or — I  say  no  more." 

Besides,  it  plainly  proveth  the  properness  of  their  parts,  and 
tallness  of  their  industry,  who  thereby,  and  by  God's  blessing 
thereon,  reached  so  high  preferment,  though  disadvantaged  by 
standing  on  so  low  ground  of  their  extraction. 

Exception  9. — "  Haste  makes  waste."  You  have  huddled 
your  book  too  soon  to  the  press,  for  a  subject  of  such  a  nature. 
You  should  have  sent  to  the  gentry  of  several  counties,  to  have 
furnished  you  with  memorables  out  of  their  own  pedigrees,  and 
should  have  taken  a  longer  time  to  compose  them. 

— —  Nonumque  prematur  in  annum. 

"  Eight  years  digest  what  you  have  rudely  hinted, 
And  in  the  ninth  year  let  the  same  be  printed." 

Answer. — That  ninth  year  might  happen  eight  years  after  my 
death,  being  sensible  of  the  impression  of  age  upon  me ;  and  a 
stranger  to  my  method  would  hardly  rally  my  scattered  and 
posthumed  notes.  By  the  difficulty  to  get  some  few,  I  conclude 
the  impossibility  to  procure  all  the  observables  out  of  gentle- 
men's records ;  and  therefore  leave  the  task  to  the  industry  of 
others  in  their  respective  counties. 

Exception  10. — Some  instructions  have  lately  been  sent  you, 
concerning  some  persons  which  appear  not  in  this  your  work. 

Answer. — Lately,  indeed,  though  neither  many  nor  consider- 
able, since  such  shires  were  put  under  the  press.  In  Holland, 
waggons  go  to  and  return  from  their  stages  at  set  hours,  though 
carrying  but  one  passenger,  and  sometimes  altogether  empty. 
Such  the  condition  of  the  press,  it  stays  for  no  man ;  nor  will 
attend  the  leisure  (not  to  say  lagging)  of  any ;  but  proceedeth 
on  with  what  it  hath  in  present,  be  it  never  so  little. 

Exception  11. — In  your  Protestant  writers  you  promiscuously 
mingle  some  very  zealous  for  Episcopacy,  others  as  active  for 
Presbytery.  These  ought  to  have  been  sorted  severally  by 
themselves,  seeing  the  great  distance  of  judgment  betwixt  them. 

Answer.— I  hope  such  conjoining  of  them  may  happily  pre- 
sage a  comfortable  expedient  betwixt  them,  who  differ  not  in 
fundamentals  of  religion.  2.  I  had  rather  privately  bemoan 
than  publicly  proclaim  the  difference  betwixt  them  when  alive ; 
charitably  believing  that  being  dead, 

Jam  bene  conveniunt,  et  inuna  sede  morantur. 

"  Now  they  are  agreed  well, 
And  in  bliss  together  dwell." 

However  it  is  not  without  precedents  in  the  best  authors,  to 
conjoin  those  in  history  who  dissent  in  opinion.  Witness 


Thuanus,  when  concluding  every  year  with  the  funerals  of  emi- 
nent persons,  though  fervent  in  opposite  persuasions. 

Exception  12. — There  is  great  disproportion  betwixt  your  ca- 
talogue of  statesmen ;  beginning  the  lord  treasurers  under  king 
Henry  the  Seventh  ;  the  lord  chancellors  under  king  Henry  the 
Eighth  ;  other  statesmen  at  other  epochs  :  whereas  had  you  ob- 
served the  same  era  in  all  of  them,  it  had  added  much  to  the 
uniformity  of  your  work.  And  as  all  start  not  from  the  same 
place,  they  run  not  to  the  same  mark ;  some  being  continued  to 
this  day,  some  concluded  seven  years  since ;  such  imparity 
making  the  list  seem  lame,  like  the  legs  of  a  badger. 

Answer. — I  hope  that  a  more  charitable  fancy,  with  as  good  a 
judgment,  will  compare  it  to  the  pipes  of  an  organ,  which  though 
of  an  uneven  length,  contribute  to  the  better  melody.  A  rea- 
son is  rendered  in  the  respective  places  where  these  general 
topics  are  premised,  why  such  several  catalogues  begin  and  end 
at  such  times.  And  I  do  believe  that  they  will  prove  satisfac- 
tory to  such  ingenuous  readers  that  come  with  no  cavilling  pre- 

Exception  13. — In  your  catalogue  of  learned  writers  you  have 
omitted  many,  as  may  appear  by  Pitseus's  K  Appendix  Illus- 
trium  Angliee  Scriptorum."  For  of  the  four  hundred  by  him 
mentioned,  not  fifty  appear  in  your. list  of  them. 

Answer. — Pitseus  himseif  shall  plead  for  me,  who  in  his  Pre- 
face to  his  Appendix  ingenuously  confesseth  :  (e  Eos  adhuc 
efficere  non  valeo  dignos,  qui  inter  illustres  Scriptores  locum  ob- 
tineant."  So  that  one  may  call  them  obscuros  illustres;  little 
being  known  of  the  books  which  they  wrote,  less  of  the  times 
when  they  lived,  nothing  of  the  places  where  they  wrere  born. 
However,  seeing  some  persons  of  eminence  have  straggled 
amongst  them,  I  have  selected  such  with  my  best  care,  and  pre- 
sented them  in  my  catalogue. 

Exception  14. — Of  some  men  you  have  little  save  their  name, 
life,  and  death :  and  yet  you  term  such  Eminent  Persons. 

Answer. — Surely  they  were  so  in  themselves,  and  deserve 
more  should  be  than  is  left  written  of  them,  through  the  injury  of 
time.  All  that  I  will  plead  in  my  own  defence  is  this  :  there  is  an 
officer  in  the  Exchequer  called  Clericus  Nihilorum,  or  the  Clerk 
of  the  Nichils,  who  maketh  a  roll  of  all  such  sums  as  are  nichilled 
by  the  sheriff  upon  their  estreats  of  the  green  wax,  when  such 
sums  are  set  on  persons  either  not  found,  or  not  found  solvable. 
This  roll  he  delivereth  into  the  treasurer's  Remembrancer's 
Office,  to  have  execution  done  upon  it  for  the  king ;  and  thus 
the  clerk  hath  done  his  duty,  leaving  it  to  them  to  see  if  they 
can  make  any  thing  of  his  return. 

I  conceive  in  like  manner  I  have  performed  my  utmost,  in 
that  I  return  such  persons  to  have  nothing  more  to  be  said  of 
them,  findable  by  all  my  endeavours.  However  I  consign  them 
over  to  more  able  historians,  whose  pains  I  will  neither  prejudice 

ON    THE    STYLE    AND    MATTER.  103 

nor  discourage  ;  but  if  they  be  pleased  to  begin  where  I  ended, 
I  wish  them  more  happy  success  in  their  discoveries. 

Exception  15. — Your  book  is  surcharged  with  Scripture  ob- 
servations, and  reflections  in  divinity,  even  when  no  necessity 
leadeth  you  thereunto. 

Answer. — The  reader  hath  conjitentem ;  but  I  will  never  ac- 
knowledge reum,  pleading  custom  and  conscience  in  my  just  ex- 
cuse :  custom,  being  habited  by  my  profession  therein.  The 
learned  observe  of  St.  Luke,  that,  being  a  physician  by  his  func- 
tion, and  describing  the  difference  between  Paul  and  Barnabas, 
he  made  use  of  an  expression  in  his  own  faculty,  "  and  there  was 
betwixt  them  a  dissension  "*  [in  Greek  trapofr tr^og]  :  that  is, 
"  the  height  and  heat  of  a  burning  fever ."  So  that  the  Spirit 
of  God,  guiding  his  pen,  permitted  him  to  make  use  of  the 
language  proper  to  his  vocation.  And  I  presume  the  same  fa- 
vour will  be  indulged  to  me  by  all  ingenuous  persons,  to  have 
(I  will  not  say  a  partiality,  but)  an  affection  to  the  expressions  of, 
and  excursions  into,  my  own  calling.  Secondly,  I  plead  con- 
science, that  seeing  some  may  cavil  this  work  to  be  a  deviation 
from  my  function  (and  I  myself  perchance  sensible  of  some 
truth  therein),  I  will  watch  and  catch  all  opportunity  to  make 
a  fair  regress  to  my  profession. 

Exception  16. — You  lay  down  certain  rules  for  the  better  re- 
gulating your  work,  and  directing  the  reader,  promising  to  con- 
fine yourself  to  the  observation  thereof,  and  break  them  often 
yourself.  For  instance,  you  restrain  the  topic  of  lawyers  to 
capital  judges  and  writers  of  the  law  ;  yet  under  that  head  insert 
judge  Paston  and  others,  who  were  only  puny  judges  in  their 
respective  courts.  You  limit  statesmen  to  lord  chancellors, 
treasurers,  English  secretaries  of  state,  &c.,  and  put  in  Sir 
Edward  Waterhouse,  who  was  secretary  but  in  Ireland.  In  a 
word,  few  heads  are  preserved  pure  according  to  their  constitu- 
tion, without  the  mixture  of  improper  persons  amongst  them. 
Why  did  you  break  such  rules,  when  knowing  you  made  them  ? 
Why  did  you  make  such  rules,  when  minding  to  break  them  ? 
And  this  is  an  exception  of  exceptions  against  you. 

Answer. — I  never  intended  to  tie  myself  up  so  close,  without 
reserving  lawful  liberty  to  myself  upon  just  occasion.  Indeed 
we  read  of  St.  Egwin  the  Third,  bishop  of  Worcester,  f  that  he 
made  for  himself  a  pair  of  iron  shackles,  and  locking  them  close 
unto  his  legs,  cast  the  key  thereof  into  the  Severn,  desiring  never 
to  be  loosed  till  he  had  made  satisfaction  for  his  sins.  Returning 
from  Rome,  a  fish  leaped  into  the  ship,  in  whose  belly  was 
found  the  key ;  and  so  Egwin  was  miraculously  restored  to  his 

Had  I  in  like  manner  fettered  myself  to  the  topics  propound- 
ed, on  presumption  of  so  strange  a  release,  none  would  have 

*  Acts  xv.  39.  f  Ranulphus  Cestrensis,  in  ejus  vita  ;  Matth.  Westm.  anno 

712.     Florent.  Wigorn.  anno  708. 


pitied  my  restraint,  wilfully  contracted  on  myself.  But  the  best 
is,  I  resolved  to  keep  the  key  in  my  own  hands,  to  enlarge  myself 
when  I  apprehended  a  just  cause  thereof.  However  I  have  not 
made  use  of  this  key  to  recede  from  my  first  limitations,  save 
where  I  crave  leave  of  and  render  a  reason  to  the  reader  ;  such 
anomalous  persons  being  men  of  high  merit,  under  those  heads 
where  they  are  inserted. 

Exception  17- — You  have  omitted  many  memorable  persons 
still  surviving,  as  meriting  as  any  you  have  inserted. 

Answer. — The  return  of  Martial,*  in  a  case  not  much  unlike, 
may  much  befriend  me  herein  : 

Miraris  veteres,  Vacerra,  solos, 
Nee  laudas  nisi  mortuos  poetas. 
Jgnoscas  petimus,  Vacerra  ,•  tanti  ' 
Non  est,  ut  placeam  tibi,  perire. 
"  Deceased  authors  thou  admir'st  alone, 
And  only  praisest  poets  dead  and  gone. 
Vacerra,  pardon  me,  I  will  not  buy 
Thy  praise  so  dear,  as  for  the  same  to  die." 

All  men  being  like-minded  with  Martial  herein,  none  surviv- 
ing will  distaste  their  omission  in  a  work,  for  reasons  afore- 
alleged  (save  in  some  cases)  confined  to  the  memories  of  the 

Exception  18.  —  Speaking  of  the  commodities  of  several 
counties,  you  say  the  wool  of  Herefordshire  is  best,  and  yet 
Gloucestershire  is  best :  the  wheat  of  Herefordshire  is  best,  and 
yet  Middlesex  best:  the  lead  of  Derbyshire  best,  and  yet 
Somersetshire  best :  the  iron  of  Sussex  best,  and  Stafford- 
shire best.  The  same  may  be  observed  in  your  praising  of 
persons ;  making  several  men  at  the  same  time  the  best  poets, 
divines,  schoolmen,  &c. ;  and  this  must  be  both  falsehood  and 
flattery  together. 

Answer. — Impute  it  (I  pray)  to  my  peaceable  disposition,  unwil- 
ling to  occasion  discord  betwixt  eminencies,  the  rather  because 
things  of  the  same  kind  may  severally  be  the  best  in  sundry 
qualities.  Some  wool  best  for  cloth,  other  for  hats ;  some 
wheat  best  for  yielding  of  most,  other  finest  flower ;  some  lead 
best  for  bullets,  other  for  sheeting  houses  ;  some  iron  best  for 
ordnance,  other  for  nails,  keys,  and  smaller  utensils. 

Neither  is  it  without  precedent  in  Scripture,  to  character  seve- 
ral men  best  in  the  same  profession,  both  Hezekiahf  and  Josiahf 
being  commended  to  have  had  none  like  unto  them,  neither  be- 
fore nor  after  them. 

Exception  19. — During  the  later  years  of  king  Charles  of 
blessed  memory,  you  have  for  the  most  part  omitted  the  sheriffs 
in  your  catalogue. 

Answer. — There  was  then  (as  I  may  say)  a  schism  in  that 
office,  betwixt  the  sheriffs  and  anti-sheriffs.  As  for  the  former, 

*  Lib.  viii.  Epig.  69.  f  2  Kings  xviii.  5.  J  Ibid,  xxiii.  25. 

OF    THE    STYLE    AND    MATTER.  105 

made  by  the  king's  designation,  and  beheld  as  the  only  legal 
ones,,  I  durst  not  name  them,,  as  the  times  then  stood  when  I 
collected  that  catalogue,  for  fear  lest  thereby  I  might  betray 
some  of  them  (till  that  time  concealed)  to  a  sequestration.  I 
therefore  preferred  to  leave  a  void  space  in  my  list,  and  wish  it 
were  the  worst  breach  or  desolation  made  by  our  late  civil 

Exception  20. — But,  since  the  happy  turn  of  the  times,  you 
might  have  inserted  them,  not  only  without  any  danger,  but  with 
great  honour  unto  them. 

Answer. — When  the  danger  was  removed,  the  difficulty  did 
deter  me.  For  in  those  tumultuary  times,  the  royal  sheriffs  did 
not  regularly  (according  to  ancient  custom)  pass  their  accounts 
in  the  Exchequer  at  London :  so  that  I  was  at  a  loss  to  recover 
certainty  herein,  Wherefore,  according  to  my  general  motto, 
"  a  blank  is  better  than  a  blot/'  I  left  a  vacuity  for  them.  For 
which  bald  place,  the  reader  (if  so  pleased)  may  provide  a  peri- 
wig, and  with  his  pen  insert  such  sheriffs  as  come  to  his  cogni- 

Exception.  21 . — It  was  expected  that  you  should  have  pre- 
sented the  maps  of  all  shires,  which  would  have  added  much 
light  and  lustre  to  your  work  (which  now  is,  as  an  house  with- 
out windows,  very  dark  and  uncomfortable) ;  as  also  that  you 
should  have  cut  the  arms  of  all  gentlemen  in  copper  (at  the 
least  in  wood)  which  would  have  been  more  satisfactory  to  them, 
and  ornamental  to  your  book. 

Answer. — Cuts  are  cuts,  as  I  have  found  by  dear  experience. 
Besides,  when  they  are  done,  they  are  not  done,  the  working 
them  off  at  the  rolling  press  being  as  expensive  as  the  graving 
them ;  both  which  will  mount  our  book  to  an  unreasonable 
price.  Secondly,  it  would  be  disgraceful  to  cut  those  maps 
worse,  and  difficult  (if  not  impossible)  to  do  them  better,  than 
they  are  done  already.  Thirdly,  such  gentlemen  (not  formerly 
furnished  therewith)  may  procure  them  at  a  cheaper  rate  than  I 
could  afford  them.  Lastly,  such  new  re-graving  them  would 
be  injurious  to  the  owners  of  the  old  maps  :  and  I  will  not  bot- 
tom my  profit  on  another  man's  prejudice. 

Exception  22. — You  betray  unworthy  partiality  in  omitting 
and  inserting  of  persons.  For  John  of  Gaunt,  though  son  to  a 
king,  and  worthy  warrior,  can  get  no  room  in  your  book,  whilst 
Simon  de  Gaunt,  a  bishop  of  Salisbury  (both  of  them  by  their 
surnames  equally  appearing  foreigners)  hath  a  place  found  for 
him  therein.  It  seems  a  prelate  finds  more  favour  from  you 
than  a  prince. 

Answer. — Is  there  not  a  cause,  and  that  a  satisfactory  one  ? 
I  prefer  not  a  prelate  before  a  prince,  but  truth  before  both ; 
and  the  methodical  regulation  of  my  book,  according  to  the 
rules  premised,  without  which  all  will  fall  to  confusion.  It  is 


as  notoriously  known,  that  John  of  Gaunt  was  born  at  Gaunt 
in  Flanders  (and  so  an  alien  from  our  subject) ;  as  plainly  it  ap- 
peareth,  that  Simon  de  Gaunt  (though  his  father  was  a  Fleming) 
was  born  in  London  :  "  Magister  Simon  de  Gaunt,"  saith  Mat- 
thew of  Westminster,  "  editus  Londini,  vir  in  arte  Theologiee 

Exception  23. — You  discover  much  negligence  in  dating  of 
particular  persons,  instancing  the  time  only  when  they  flou- 
rished, without  observing  when  they  were  born  or  died ;  and 
this  mindeth  me  of  a  passage  in  Tully,  charging  Verres,  the  de- 
puty of  Sicily,  with  notorious  laziness,  "  quod  nunquam  solem 
nee  orientem  nee  occidentem  viderat/'*  ("  that  he  never  saw  the 
sun  rising,  being  in  bed  after :  nor  setting,  being  in  bed  before 
it.")  Thus  your  pen  is  altogether  a  sluggard,  only  taking  notice 
of  them  when  shining  in  the  vertical  height,  without  either 
beholding  them  rising  out  of  their  cradle,  or  setting  in  their 

Answer.— Let  Tully  tell  out  his  story :  and  it  will  befriend 
and  furnish  me  with  a  just  defence.  Sicily  (saith  he)  enjoyeth 
so  clear  a  sky,  that  the  sun  is  seen  there  every  day  in  the  year 
rising  or  setting.  Intolerable  therefore  the  sloth  of  Verres 
(noble  at  nothing  but  oppression)  that  he  never  saw  the  sun 
either  to  rise  or  set,  as  roosted  after  or  before.  Were  it  so 
that  either  the  rising  or  setting  of  eminent  persons  (their  birth 
and  death)  were  (with  the  Sicilian  sun)  ever  visible,  as  always 
recorded  by  authors,  I  would  confess  myself  justly  taxed  with 
inexcusable  laziness;  but  seeing  sometimes  a  panic  silence 
herein,  not  meeting  either  with  the  midwife  or  sexton,  who  de- 
livered or  buried  such  people,  we  conceive  ourselves  have 
satisfied,  if  instancing  only  the  time  wherein  such  persons 

Exception  24. — It  had  been  more  proper  and  more  satisfac- 
tory for  you  to  have  placed  your  Exceptions  and  Answers  ra- 
ther at  the  end  than  beginning  of  your  book,  when  the  reader 
had  wholly  perused  it ;  only  premising,  you  will  be  responsible 
to  such  objections  as  would  be  made  against  your  endeavours 

Answer. — I  am  of  his  opinion,  who  said,  "  premising  is  bet- 
ter than  promising."  Sure  it  is  a  safer  way  to  prevent  a  dis- 
ease than  to  remove  it.  Besides,  I  hope  that,  clearing  these  ob- 
structions in  the  front  of  my  book,  I  shall  smooth  the  reader's 
way,  and  invite  him  the  rather  to  peruse  it.  However,  these  an- 
swers (wherever  placed)  are  placed  aright,  if  meeting  (which  I 
desire)  a  candid  acceptance  thereof. 

Exception  25.— It  is  easy  for  one  to  cast  down  a  pillar  of  his 
own  erection ;  but  let  another  set  it  up,  and  then  let  him  try 
his  strength  thereat.  None  will  pinch  themselves  so  as  to  fetch 

*  Tully  in  Verrcra  Orat. 


blood^  though  others  may  do  it.     Your  exceptions  are  all    of 
your  own  making,  to  your  own  advantage. 

Answer. — I  have  endeavoured  to  propound  them  without  any 
partiality.  However,  if  my  labours  meet  with  greater  and  more 
exception  from  others  against  them,  I  hope  they  shall  also  meet 
with  the  general  courtesy,  and  candour  of  course,  which  custom 
hath  in  some  sort  made  due  to  authors,  to  forgive  their  smaller 
faults ;  on  which  comfortable  confidence  I  proceed. 




WHEN  I  first  communicated  my  design  herein  to  a  person  of 
honour,*  he  offered  this  grand  objection  against  it ;  that  no  in- 
dustry could  be  so  circumspect,  or  intelligence  so  comprehen- 
sive, but  that  many  memorable  persons  would  escape  his  obser- 
vation ;  and  then  exception  will  be  taken  at  such  omissions. 
This  objection  many  since  have  renewed  and  enforced,  alleging 
that  the  omitting  of  one  shall  get  me  more  anger,  than  the  in- 
serting of  many  gain  me  good  will. 

To  this  I  answer  first,  in  general.  It  is  the  privilege  of  Di- 
vine Writ  alone,  to  be  so  perfect  that  nothing  may  be  taken 
thence,  or  added  thereunto.  The  best  human  authors  have 
had  their  failings  in  their  best  performances.  Far  be  it  from 
me  to  pretend  my  dim  eyes  more  quick  sighted  than  St.  Ber- 
nard's, who  notwithstanding  non  vidit  omnia  ;  I  trust  therefore, 
that  favour  will  be  indulged  to  my  endeavours,  for  my  many  in- 

To  come  to  particulars.  Some  seeming  omissions  will  ap- 
pear to  be  none,  on  better  inquiry ;  being  only  the  leaving  of 
many  persons,  which  belong  not  to  our  land,  to  their  foreign 
nativities.  If  any  ask,  why  have  you  not  written  of  John  a 
Gaunt  ?  I  answer,  because  he  was  John  of  Gaunt,  born  in  that 
city  in  Flanders.  Thus,  whilst  our  kings  possessed  large  do- 
minions in  France,  from  king  William  the  Conqueror  to  king 
Henry  the  Sixth,  many  eminent  men  had  their  birth  beyond 
the  seas,  without  the  bounds  of  our  subject. 

Secondly,  I  hope  real  omissions  will  neither  be  found  many 
nor  material.  I  hope  I  shall  not  appear  like  unto  him,  who,  under- 
taking to  make  a  description  of  the  planets,  quite  forgot  to  make 
mention  of  the  sun.  I  believe  most  of  those  who  have  escaped 
our  pen,  will  be  found  stars  of  the  lesser  magnitude. 

Thirdly,  I  protest  in  the  presence  of  God,  I  have  not  wit- 
tingly, willingly,  or  wilfully,  shut  the  door  against  any  worthy 

*  The  truly  Noble  Robert  Lord  Bruce. 


person  which  offered  to  enter  into  my  knowledge ;  nor  was  my 
prejudice  the  porter  in  this  kind,  to  exclude  any  (of  what  per- 
suasion soever)  out  of  my  book  who  brought  merit  for  their  ad- 
mission. Besides,  I  have  gone,  and  rid,  and  wrote,  and  sought 
and  searched  with  my  own  and  friends5  eyes,  to  make  what  dis- 
coveries I  could  therein. 

Lastly,  I  stand  ready  with  a  pencil  in  one  hand,  and  a  spunge 
in  the  other,  to  add,  alter,  insert,  expunge,  enlarge,  and  dilate, 
according  to  better  information.  And  if  these  my  pains  shall 
be  found  worthy  to  pass  a  second  impression,  my  faults  I  will 
confess  with  shame,  and  amend  with  thankfulness,  to  such 
as  will  contribute  clearer  intelligence  unto  me. 

These  things  premised,  I  do  desire  in  my  omissions  the  par- 
don especially  of  two  sorts,  concerned  in  my  History : 

First,  writers  since  the  Reformation  (having  those  before  it 
completely  delivered  unto  us)  who  cannot  be  exactly  listed : 

1st,  For  their  numerousness,  and  therefore  I  may  make  use 
of  the  Latin  distich,  wherewith  John  Pitseus*  closeth  his  book  of 
English  writers : 

Plum  voluminibus  jungenda  volumina  nostris. 
Nee  mild  scribendi  terminus  ullus  erit. 

"  More  volumes  to  our  volumes  must  we  bind  ; 
And  when  that's  done,  a  bound  we  cannot  find." 

2nd,  For  the  scarceness  of  some  books,  which  I  may  term 
publici  privati  juris,  because  though  publicly  printed,  their  copies 
were  few,  as  intended  only  for  friends,  though  it  doth  not  follow 
that  the  writers  thereof  had  the  less  merit,  because  the  more 

I  crave  pardon,  in  the  second  place,  for  my  omissions  in  the 
list  of  benefactors  to  the  public ;  for,  if  I  would,  I  could  not 
complete  that  catalogue,  because  no  man  can  make  a  fit  garment 
for  a  growing  child,  and  their  number  is  daily  increasing. 

Besides  if  I  could,  I  would  not.  For  I  will  never  drain  (in 
print)  the  spring  so  low,  but  to  leave  a  reserve ;  and  some  whom 
I  may  call  breeders  for  posterity,  who  shall  pass  un-named ;  in 
which  respect,  I  conceive  such  benefactors  most  perfectly 
reckoned  up,  when  they  are  imperfectly  reckoned  up. 

All  I  will  add  is  this.  When  St.  Paul,  writing  to  the  Phi- 
lippians,  had  saluted  three  by  name,  viz.  Euodias,  Syntyche,  and 
Clement,  he  passeth  the  rest  over  with  a  salutation  general, 
"  whose  names  are  in  the  book  of  life.^t  Thus  I  have  endea- 
voured to  give  you  the  most  exact  catalogue  of  benefactors ;  but 
this  I  am  sure,  what  is  lost  on  earth  by  my  want  of  industry, 
instruction,  &c.  will  be  found  in  Heaven,  and  their  names  are 
there  recorded,  in  that  register  which  will  last  to  all  eternity. 

As  for  my  omitting  many  rarities,  and  memorables  in  the  re- 
spective counties,  I  plead  for  myself,  that,  mine  being  a  general 

*  Page  923.  f  Phil.  iv.  3. 

A    COROLLARY    ABOUT    "  ALUMNUS."  109 

description,  it  is  not  to  be  expected  that  I  should  descend  to 
such  particularities  which  properly  belong  to  those  who  write  the 
topography  of  one  county  alone.  He  shewed  as  little  ingenuity 
as  ingeniousness,  who  cavilled  at  the  map  of  Grecia  for  imper- 
fect, because  his  father's  house  in  Athens  was  not  represented 
therein.  And  their  expectation  in  effect  is  as  unreasonable,  who 
look  for  every  small  observable  in  a  general  work.  Know  also, 
that  a  mean  person  may  be  more  knowing  within  the  limits  of  his 
private  lands  than  any  antiquary  whatsoever.  I  remember  a 
merry  challenge  at  court,  which  passed  betwixt  the  king's  porter 
and  the  queen's  dwarf ;  the  latter  provoking  him  to  fight  with  him, 
on  condition  that  he  might  but  choose  his  own  place,  and  be  al- 
lowed to  come  thither  first,  assigning  the  great  oven  in  Hamp- 
ton court  for  that  purpose.  Thus  easily  may  the  lowest  domi- 
neer over  the  highest  skill,  if  having  the  advantage  of  the  ground 
within  his  own  private  concernments. 

Give  me  leave  to  fill  up  the  remaining  vacuity  with 


The  word  Alumnus  is  effectually  directive  of  us  (as  much  as 
any)  to  the  nativities  of  eminent  persons.  However,  we  may 
observe  both  a  passive  and  active  interpretation  thereof.  I  put 
passive  first,  because  one  must  be  bred  before  he  can  breed ; 
and  Alumnus  signifieth  both  the  nursed  child  and  the  nurse ; 
both  him  that  was  educated,  and  the  person  or  place  which  gave 
him  his  education.  Wherefore  Laurentius  Valla  (though  an  ex- 
cellent grammarian)  is  much  deceived,  when  not  admitting  the 
double  sense  thereof,  as  by  the  ensuing  instances  will  appear. 

PassivZ.  Pro  Educate.  Cicero  Dolabellae  :  "  Mini  vero  glori- 
osum,  te  juvenem  Consulem  florere  laudibus,  quasi  Alumnum 
discipline  mece."  De  Finibus,  122.  b:  "  Aristoteles,  ceeterique 
Platonis  Alumni." 

Active.  Pro  Educatore.  Pliny,  lib.  3.  de  Italia:  "Terra  om- 
nium terrarum  Alumna,  eadem  et  parensnumine  Deum  electa." 
Augustinus,  lib.  70 :  "  Civit.  Jovem  Alumnum  cognominaverunt, 
quod  omnia  aleret." 

The  design  which  we  drive  on  in  this  observation,  and  the  use 
which  we  desire  should  be  made  thereof,  is  this ;  viz.  that  such 
who  are  born  in  a  place  may  be  sensible  of  their  engagement 
thereunto  :  that,  if  God  give  them  ability  and  opportunity,  they 
may  express  their  thankfulness  to  the  same. 

Quisguis  Alumnus  erat,  gralus  Alumnus  erit. 

"  A  thankful  man  will  feed 

The  place  which  did  him  breed." 

And  the  truth  hereof  is  eminently  conspicuous  in  many  per- 
sons, but  especially  in  great  prelates  before,  and  rich  citizens 
since,  the  Reformation. 


BERKSHIRE  hath  Wiltshire  on  the  west,  Hampshire  on  the 
South,  Surrey  on  the  east,  Oxford  and  Buckinghamshire 
(parted  first  with  the  Isis,  then  with  the  flexuous  river  of 
Thames)  on  the  north  thereof.  It  may  be  fancied  in  a  form 
like  a  lute  lying  along,  whose  belly  is  towards  the  west,  whilst 
the  narrow  neck  or  long  handle  is  extended  toward  the  east. 
From  Coleshull  to  Windsor,  it  may  be  allowed  in  length  forty 
miles.  But  it  amounteth  to  little  more  than  half  so  much  in 
the  broadest  part  thereof.  It  partaketh  as  plentiful  as  any 
county  in  England  of  the  common  commodities,  grass,  grain, 
fish,  fowl,  wool,  and  wood,  &c. ;  and  we  will  particularly 
instance  on  one  or  two  of  them. 


It  was  given  in  instruction  to  the  spies  sent  to  search  the  land 
of  Canaan,  that,  amongst  other  inquiries,  they  should  take  par- 
ticular notice,  "whether  there  be  wood  therein  or  not  ?*"  An 
important  question,  the  rather  because  at  that  time  the  Israelites 
were  in  Arabia  the  Desert,  where  they  saw  not  a  tree  in  many 
months5  travel,  (insomuch  that  it  is  recorded  for  a  wonder, 
that  in  Elim  were  e(  seventy  Palm  trees  "f)  an<l  n°w  knew  the 
worth  of  wood  by  wanting  it. 

But  Berkshire  affordeth  abundance  of  trees  of  all  kinds, 
though  her  oaks  in  Windsor  forest  for  the  present  come  only 
under  our  commendation. 

First,  for  their  firmness,  whereof  our  ships  are  made.  The 
oak  in  other  kingdoms  may  be  called  cowardly,  as  riving  and 
splitting  round  about  the  passage  of  the  bullet,  fearing  as  it 
were  the  force  thereof;  whilst  our  English,  as  heart  of  oak 
indeed,  though  entered  with  bullet,  remain eth  firm  round 
about  it. 

Secondly,  for  the  convenience  of  portage.  The  wealth  of  a 
covetous  man  (wanting  an  heart  to  make  use  thereof)  may  not 
unfitly  be  compared  to  the  oaks  and  fir-trees  (good  and  plenti- 

*  Num.  xiii.  20.  f  Exod.  xv.  27. 


ful  indeed)  in  the  highlands  in  Scotland,  but  growing  on  such 
inaccesible  mountains,  no  strength  or  art  can  render  them  use- 
ful, Nature  in  this  kind  having  given  them  full  coffers,  but  no 
key  to  unlock  them. 

Whereas,  so  indulgent  is  Divine  Providence  to  England,  that 
our  four  principal  forests  lie  either  on  the  sea,  or  navigable 
rivers ;  viz.  New  Forest  on  the  sea,  Shire  Wood  on  the  Trent, 
Dean  on  the  Severn,  and  this  Windsor  Forest  on  the  Thames ; 
and  I  could  wish  more  care  were  taken  for  preserving  the  tim- 
ber therein. 


The  very  name  of  this  shire  justly  entitles  us  here  to  handle 
this  commodity  (though  common  to  other  counties),  because 
Barkshire  (as  some  will  have  it)  was  so  called  from  a  stripped 
or  bark-bared  oaky*  to  which  signal  place  the  people  repaired  in 
time  of  trouble  to  make  their  general  defence.  It  is  essential 
for  making  good  leather,  though  lately  one  hath  propounded  a 
way  to  tann  it  solid  and  saleable  without  the  help  thereof,  on 
condition  (and  good  reason  too)  he  may  be  allowed  reasonable 
profit  for  so  rare  an  invention.  But  many  think  that  "  he  that 
waits  for  dead  men's  shoes/'  and  he  that  stays  for  leather  shoes 
"  made  without  bark/'  may  both  of  them  "  go  a  long  time  bare- 


This  is  a  pleasant  and  wholesome  fish,  as  whose  feeding  is  pure 
and  cleanly,  in  the  swiftest  streams,  and  on  the  hardest  gravel. 
Good  and  great  of  this  kind  are  found  in  the  river  of  Kennet 
nigh  Hungerford,  though  not  so  big  as  that  which  Gesner 
affirms  taken  in  the  Leman  lake,  being  three  cubits  in  length. 
They  are  in  their  perfection  in  the  month  of  May,  and  yearly 
decline  with  the  buck.  Being  come  to  his  full  growth,  he 
decays  in  goodness,  not  greatness,  and  thrives  in  his  head  till 
his  death.  Note  by  the  way,  that  an  hog-back  and  little  head 
is  a  sign  that  any  fish  is  in  season. 

Other  commodities  of  this,  return  in  other  counties,  where 
they  may  be  mentioned  with  more  convenience. 


It  is  plied  therein ;  and  because  we  meet  with  the  best  of 
our  manufactures  in  the  first  of  our  shires,  a  word  of  the  anti- 
quity thereof. 

1.  Cloth  sure  is  of  the  same  date  with  civility  in  this  land. 
Indeed  the  ancient  Britons  are  reported  to  go  naked,  clothed 

*  Camden ,  Britannia,  in  this  county. 


only  with  colours  painted,  custom  making  them  insensible  of 
cold,,  with  the  beggar,  who  being  demanded  how  he  could  go 
naked,  returned,  "  All  my  body  is  face."  But  no  sooner  had 
the  Romans  reduced  this  island,  but  cloth,  though  coarse,  such 
as  would  hide  and  heat,  was  here  generally  made  and  used. 

2.  Fine  Cloth  (though  narrow)  for  persons  of  worth  at  home 
to  wear,  and  for  foreign  exportation,  began  in  England  about 
the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  king  Edward  the  Third ;  before 
which  time  our  statutes  take  no    cognizance    of    clothing,    as 
inconsiderable  (wool  being  transported  in  specie),  and  needing 
no  rules  to  regulate  it,  save  what  prudence  dictated  to  private 
husbands  with  their  own  families. 

3.  Broad  Cloth  (wherein  the  wealth  of  our  nation  is  folded 
up)  made  with  broad  looms,  two  men  attending  each  of  them, 
began  here  in  the  reign  of  king  Herjry  the  Eighth.     And  I  have 
been  informed  that  Jack  of  Newberry  was  the  first  that  intro- 
duced it  into  this  county.     Well  may  the  poets  feign  Minerva 
the  goddess  of  wit  and  the  foundress  of  weaving,  so  great  is  the 
ingenuity  thereof. 


Windsor  Castle  was  a  royal  seat  ever  since  the  Conquest,  but 
brought  to  the  modern  beauty  chiefly  at  the  cost  of  king  Edward 
the  Third.  It  is  a  castle  for  strength,  a  palace  for  state ;  and 
hath  in  it  a  college  for  learning,  a  chapel  for  devotion,  and  an 
almshouse  (of  decayed  gentlemen)  for  charity.  In  this  palace 
most  remarkable,  the  hall  for  greatness,  Winchester  tower  for 
height,  and  the  terrace  on  the  north  side  for  pleasure,  where  a 
dull  eye  may  travel  twenty  miles  in  a  moment.  Nor  boasteth 
so  much,  that  it  consisteth  of  two  great  courts,  as  that  it  con- 
tained two  great  kings  (John  of  France,  and  David  of  Scotland,) 
prisoners  therein  together ;  as  also  that  it  was  the  seat  of  the 
honourable  order  of  the  Garter. 

Many  neat  houses  and  pleasant  seats  there  be  in  this  county, 
both  on  the  Kennet  and  Thames,  which  seem  dutifully  to  attend 
at  distance  on  Windsor  Castle ;  as  Aldermaston,  Inglefield,  &c. 
most  sweet  in  their  situations. 


I  meet  with  but  one  in  this  county,  but  either  so  narrow  that 
they  stretch  not  beyond  the  bonds  thereof,  or  else  so  broad, 
that  all  other  counties  equally  share  in  the  cause  and  usage  of 
them.  Wherefore  seeing  this  is  the  first  English  shire  in  the 
alphabetical  order,  to  avoid  a  vacuity,  we  will  here  insert  such 
proverbs,  wherein  England  or  Englishmen  are  by  express  men- 
tion concerned. 



But  first  we  will  dispatch  that  sole  proverb  of  this  county  — 

"  The  Vicar  of  Bray  will  be  Vicar  of  Bray  still."] 

Bray,  a  village  well  known  in  this  county,  so  called  from  the 
Bibroces,  a  kind  of  ancient  Britons  inhabiting  thereabouts.  The 
vivacious  vicar  hereof  living  under  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  king 
Edward  the  Sixth,  queen  Mary,  and  queen  Elizabeth,  was  first  a 
Papist,  then  a  Protestant,  then  a  Papist,  then  a  Protestant  again. 
He  had  seen  some  martyrs  burnt  (two  miles  off)  at  Windsor, 
and  found  this  fire  too  hot  for  his  tender  temper.  This  vicar 
being  taxed  by  one  for  being  a  turncoat  and  an  inconstant 
changeling,  —  "  Not  so,"  said  he  ;  "  for  I  always  kept  my  prin- 
ciple, which  is  this,  to  live  and  die  the  vicar  of  Bray/5  Such 
many  now-a-days,  who  though  they  cannot  turn  the  wind  will 
turn  their  mills,  and  set  them  so,  that  wheresoever  it  bloweth 
their  grist  shall  certainly  be  grinded. 

Proceed  we  now  to  the  proverbs  general  of  England  : 

"  When  our  lady  falls  in  our  lord's  lap 
Then  let  England  beware  a 


"  Then  let  the  clergyman  look  to  his  cap."] 

I  behold  this  proverbial  prophecy,  or  this  prophetical  menace, 
to  be  not  above  six  score  years  old,  and  of  Popish  extraction 
since  the  Reformation.  It  whispereth  more  than  it  dares  speak 
out,  and  points  at  more  than  it  dares  whisper  ;  and  fain  would 
intimate  to  credulous  persons  as  if  the  blessed  Virgin,  offended 
with  the  English  for  abolishing  her  adoration,  watcheth  an  op- 
portunity of  revenge  on  this  nation.  And  when  her  day  (being 
the  five  and  twentieth  of  March,  and  first  of  the  Gregorian  year) 
chanceth  to  fall  on  the  day  of  Christ's  resurrection,  then,  being 
as  it  were  fortified  by  her  Son's  assistance,  some  signal  judg- 
ment is  intended  to  our  state,  and  churchmen  especially.  Such 
coincidence  hath  happened  just  fifteen  times  since  the  Conquest, 
as  Elias  Ashmole,  Esquire,  my  worthy  friend  and  learned  mathe- 
matician, hath  exactly  computed  it  ;  and  we  will  examine,  by  our 
chronicles,  whether  on  such  years  any  signal  fatalities  befel 

G.  N. 

A.  D. 

Anno  RegnL 

W.  Rufus  8. 

D.  L. 


1106  Henry  I.  6. 

1117  Henry  I.  17.         G 

1190  Richard  I.  2. 




Signal  Disasters. 

King  Rufus  made  a  fruitless 
invasion  of  Wales. 

King  Henry  subdueth  Nor- 
mandy, and  duke  Robert 
his  brother. 

He  forbiddeth  the  Pope's 
legate  to  enter  England. 

King  Richard  conquereth 
Cyprus  in  his  way  to  Pa- 

VOL.  I. 




Anno  Regni.  D.  L.         G.  N.  Signal  Disasters. 

K.  John  2.  G  5     The    French   invade    Nor- 

G         16     King   John   resigneth    his 

kingdom  to  the  Pope. 
13     Nothing    remarkable     but 

peace  and  plenty. 
5     War  begun  with  Scotland, 

which  ended  in  victory. 
The  Scots  do  much  harm  to 

us  at  Peryth  Fair. 
G         16     Lancastrians  worsted  by  the 

Yorkists  in  fight. 

G  5     King  Henry  entered  Scot- 

land,  and   burnt    Edin- 

Hitherto  this  proverb  hath  had  but  intermitting  truth  at 
the  most,  seeing  no  constancy  in  sad  casualties.  But  the  sting, 
will  some  say,  is  in  the  tail  thereof  ;  and  I  behold  this  proverb 
born  in  this  following  year. 


1212  K.  John  13. 

1285  Edward  I.  13.        G 

1296  Edward  I.  24.        AG        5 

1380  Richard  II.  4.        AG      13 

1459  Henry  VI.  38. 

1543  Henry.VIII.  34 

1554  Q.  Mary  2. 

1627  Charles  3. 
1638  Charles  14, 

Queen  Mary  setteth  up  Po- 
pery, and  martyreth  Pro- 
G         13     The  unprosperous  voyage  to 

the  Isle  of  Rees. 
G  5     The  first  cloud  of  trouble  in 


G  16  The  first  complete  year  of 
the  English  common- 
wealth (or  tyranny  ra- 
ther) which  since,  bless- 
ed be  God,  is  returned 
to  a  monarchy. 

The  concurrence  of  these  two  days  doth  not  return  till  the 
year  1722  ;  and  let  the  next  generation  look  to  the  effects  thereof. 
I  have  done  my  part  in  shewing,  remitting  to  the  reader  the  cen- 
suring of  these  occurrences.  Sure  I  am  so  sinful  a  nation  de- 
serves that  every  year  should  be  fatal  unto  it.  But  it  matters 
not  though  "  our  Lady  falls  in  our  Lord's  lap,"  whilst  "  our 
Lord"  sits  at  "  his  Father's  "  right  hand,  if  to  him  we  make  our 
addresses  by  serious  repentance. 

"  When  HEMPE  is  spun, 
England  is  done.''] 

Though  this  proverb  hath  a  different  stamp,  yet  I  look  on  it 
as  coined  by  the  same  mint-master  with  the  former,  and  even  of 
the  same  age.  It  is  faced  with  a  literal,  but  would  be  lined 
with  a  mystical,  sense.  "  When  Hempe  is  spun ;"  that  is,  when 
all  that  necessary  commodity  is  employed,  that  there  is  no  more 
left  for  sails  and  cordage,  England  (whose  strength  consists  in 
shipping)  would  be  reduced  to  a  doleful  condition.  But  know 


under  HEMPE  are  couched  the  initial  letters  of  Henry  the  Eighth, 
Edward  the  Sixth,  Mary,  Philip,  and  Elizabeth,  as  if  with  the 
life  of  the  last  the  happiness  of  England  should  expire,  which 
time  hath  confuted.  Yet,  to  keep  this  proverb  in  countenance, 
it  may  pretend  to  some  truth,  because  then  England,  with  the 
addition  of  Scotland,  lost  its  name  in  Great  Britain  by  royal  pro- 

"  When  the  black  fleet  of  Norway  is  come  and  gone, 
England  build  houses  of  lime  and  stone, 
For  after  wars  you  shall  have  none.''] 

There  is  a  larger  edition  hereof,  though  this  be  large  enough 
for  us,  and  more  than  we  can  well  understand.  Some  make  it 
fulfilled  in  the  year  eighty-eight,  when  the  Spanish  fleet  was 
beaten,  the  surname  of  whose  king,  as  a  learned  author  *  doth 
observe,  was  Norway.  Others  conceive  it  called  the  black  fleet 
of  Norway,  because  it  was  never  black  (not  dismal  to  others, 
but  woful  to  its  own  apprehension)  till  beaten  by  the  English, 
and  forced  into  those  coasts  :  according  to  the  English  historian : 

"  They  betook  themselves  to  flight,  leaving  Scotland  on  the 
west,  and  bending  towards  Norway  ill-advised  (but  that  necessity 
urged,  and  God  had  infatuated  their  councils)  to  put  their  shaken 
and  battered  bottoms  into  those  black  and  dangerous  seas."t 

I  observe  this  the  rather,  because  I  believe  Mr.  Speed,  in 
this  his  writing,  was  so  far  from  having  a  reflection  on,  that  I 
question  whether  ever  he  had  heard  of,  this  prophecy. 

It  is  true  that  afterwards  England  built  houses  of  lime  and 
stone ;  and  our  most  handsome  and  artificial  buildings  (though 
formerly  far  greater  and  stronger)  bear  their  date  from  the  de- 
feating of  the  Spanish  fleet.  As  for  the  remainder,  ee  After  wars 
you  shall  have  none  ;"  we  find  it  false  as  to  our  civil  wars,  by 
our  woful  experience. 

And  whether  it  be  true  or  false  as  to  foreign  invasions  here- 
after we  care  not  at  all ;  as  beholding  this  prediction  either  made 
by  the  wild  fancy  of  one  foolish  man  :  and  then  why  should  the 
many  wise  men  attend  thereunto  ?  Or  else  by  him  who  always 
either  speaks  what  is  false  or  what  is  true  with  an  intent  to  de- 
ceive ;  so  that  we  will  not  be  elated  with  good,  or  dejected  with 
bad,  success  of  his  foretelling. 

"  England  is  the  ringing  island.'1] 

Thus  it  is  commonly  called  by  foreigners,  as  having  greater, 
more,  and  more  tunable  bells  than  any  one  country  in  Christen- 
dom, Italy  itself  not  excepted ;  though  Nola  be  there,  and  bells 
so  called  thence,  because  first  founded  therein.  Yea,  it  seems 
qur  land  is  much  affected  with  the  love  of  them,  and  loath  to 
have  them  carried  hence  into  foreign  parts,  whereof  take  this 
eminent  instance.  When  Arthur  Bulkley,  the  covetous  bishop 

*  The  Lord  Bacon,  in  his  Essays,  p.  215. 
t  J.  Speed,  in  his  History  of  Great  Britain,  in  the  year  1588. 

i  2 


of  Bangor,*  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  had  sacri- 
legiously sold  the  five  fair  bells  of  his  cathedral,  to  be  transport- 
ed beyond  the  seas,  and  went  down  himself  to  see  them  shipped, 
they  suddenly  sank  down  with  the  vessel  in  the  haven,  and  the 
bishop  fell  instantly  blind,  and  so  continued  to  the  day  of  his 
death.  Nought  else  have  I  to  observe  of  our  English  bells,  save 
that  in  the  memory  of  man  they  were  never  known  so  long  free 
from  the  sad  sound  of  funerals  of  general  infection ;  God  make 
us  sensible  of  and  thankful  for  the  same  ! 

"  When  the  sand  feeds  the  clay,  England  cries  Well-a-day  :f 
But  when  the  clay  feeds  the  sand,  it  is  merry  with  England."] 

As  Nottinghamshire  is  divided  into  two  parts,J  the  sand  and 
the  clay,  all  England  falls  under  the  same  dicotomy ;  yet  so  as  the 
sand  hardly  amounteth  to  the  fifth  part  thereof.  Now  a  wet  year, 
which  drowneth  and  chilleth  the  clay,  makes  the  sandy  ground 
most  fruitful  with  corn,  and  the  general  granary  of  the  land, 
which  then  is  dearer  in  other  counties ;  and  it  is  harder  for  one 
to  feed  four,  than  four  to  feed  one.  It  is  furthermore  observed, 
that  a  drought  never  causeth  a  dearth  in  England,  because  (though 
parching  up  the  sandy  ground)  the  clay,  being  the  far  greatest 
moiety  of  the  land,  having  more  natural  moisture  therein,  afford- 
eth  a  competent  increase. 

England  were  but  a  fling, 

Save  for  the  crooked  stick  and  the  gray-goose  wing."] 

"  But  a  fling,"  that  is,  a  slight,  light  thing,  not  to  be  valued, 
but  rather  to  be  cast  away,  as  being  but  half  an  island.  It  is  of 
no  great  extent.  Philip  the  Second,  king  of  Spain,  in  the 
reign  of  queen  Elizabeth  called  our  English  ambassadors  unto 
him  (whilst  as  yet  there  was  peace  betwixt  the  two  crowns) ; 
and,  taking  a  small  map  of  the  world,  laid  his  little  finger  upon 
England  (wonder  not  if  he  desired  to  finger  so  good  a  country) ; 
and  then  demanded  of  our  English  ambassador,  ef  where  Eng- 
land was?"  Indeed  it  is  in  greatness  inconsiderable  to  the 
Spanish  dominions. 

"  But  for  the  crooked  stick,"  &c.  That  is,  use  of  archery. 
Never  were  the  arrows  of  the  Parthians  more  formidable  to  the 
Romans  than  ours  to  the  French  horsemen.  Yea,  remarkable  is 
Divine  Providence  to  England,  that  since  arrows  are  grown  out 
of  use,  though  the  weapons  of  war  be  altered,  the  Englishman's 
hand  is  still  in  use  as  much  as  ever  before ;  for  no  country 
affords  better  materials  of  iron,  saltpetre,  and  lead ;  or  better 
workmen  to  make  them  into  guns,  powder,  and  bullets;  or 
better  marksmen  to  make  use  of  them  being  so  made  :  so  that 
England  is  now  as  good  with  a  straight  iron,  as  ever  it  was  with 
a  crooked  stick. 

"  England  is  the  paradise  of  women,  hell  of  horses,  purgatory  of  servants." 

For  the  first,  billa  vera ;  women,  whether  maids,  wives,  or 

*  Godwin,  in  his  Bishops  of  Bangor.  f  An  old  interjection  of  lamentation. 

J  Lamden,  Britannia,  in  Nottinghamshire. 


widows,  finding  here  the  fairest  respect  and  kindest  usage. 
Our  common-law  is  a  more  courteous  carver  for  them  than  the 
civil  law  beyond  the  seas,  allowing  widows  the  thirds  of  their 
husbands5  estates,  with  other  privileges.  The  TrpoT-o/oXio-tcu,  or 
highest  seats,  are  granted  them  at  all  feasts ;  and  the  wall  (in 
crowding,  most  danger  to  the  weakest ;  in  walking,  most  dig- 
nity to  the  worthiest,)  resigned  unto  them.  The  indentures  of 
maid-servants  are  cancelled  by  their  marriage,  though  the  term 
be  not  expired ;  which  to  young  men  in  the  same  condition  is 
denied.  In  a  word,  betwixt  law  and  (law's  co-rival)  custom, 
they  freely  enjoy  many  favours ;  and  we  men,  so  far  from  en- 
vying them,  wish  them  all  happiness  therewith. 

For  the  next,  "  England's  being  a  hell  for  horses ;"  Igno- 
ramus; as  not  sufficiently  satisfied  in  the  evidence  alleged. 
Indeed  the  Spaniard,  who  keeps  his  gennets  rather  for  show 
than  use,  makes  wantons  of  them.  However,  if  England  be 
faulty  herein  in  their  over-violent  riding,  racing,  hunting,  it  is 
high  time  the  fault  were  amended ;  the  rather,  because  "  the 
good  man  regardeth  the  life  of  his  beast/'* 

For  the  last,  "  Purgatory  for  servants ;"  we  are  so  far  from 
finding  the  bill,  we  cast  it  forth  as  full  of  falsehood.  We  have 
but  two  sorts,  apprentices  and  covenant  servants.  The  parents 
of  the  former  give  large  sums  of  money  to  have  their  children 
bound  for  seven  years,  to  learn  some  art  or  mystery ;  which 
argueth  their  good  usage  as  to  the  generality  in  our  nation : 
otherwise  it  were  madness  for  men  to  give  so  much  money  to 
buy  their  children's  misery.  As  for  our  covenant  servants,  they 
make  their  own  covenants  ;  and  if  they  be  bad,  they  may  thank 
themselves.  Sure  I  am,  their  masters,  if  breaking  them,  and 
abusing  their  servants  with  too  little  meat  or  sleep,  too  much 
work  or  correction  (which  is  true  also  of  apprentices)  are  liable 
by  law  to  make  them  reparation. 

Indeed,  I  have  heard  how,  in  the  age  of  our  fathers,  servants 
were  in  far  greater  subjection  than  now-a-days,  especially  since 
our  civil  wars  hath  lately  dislocated  all  relations ;  so  that  now 
servants  will  do  whatsoever  their  masters  enjoin  them,  so  be  it 
they  think  fitting  themselves.  For  my  own  part,  I  am  neither 
for  the  tyranny  of  the  one,  nor  rebellion  of  the  other,  but  the 
mutual  duty  of  both. 

As  for  Verna,  slaves  or  vassals,  so  frequent  in  Spain  and 
foreign  parts,  our  land  and  laws  (whatever  former  tenures  have 
been)  acknowledge  not  any  for  the  present. 

To  conclude,  as  purgatory  is  a  thing  feigned  in  itself;  so  in 
this  particular  it  is  false  in  application  to  England. 

"  A  famine  in  England  begins  first  at  the  horse-manger."] 

Indeed  it  seldom  begins  at  the  horse-rack ;  for,  though  hay 
may  be  excessive  dear,  caused  by  a  dry  summer,  yet  winter 
grain  (never  impaired  with  a  drought)  is  then  to  be  had  at  rea- 

*  Prov,  x.  12. 


sonable  rates.  Whereas,  if  peas  or  oats,  our  horse-grain  (and 
the  latter  man's  grain  also  generally  in  the  north  for  poor  people) 
be  scarce,  it  will  not  be  long  ere  wheat,  rye,  &c.  mount  in  our 
markets.  Indeed,  if  2ny  grain  be  very  dear,  no  grain  will  be 
very  cheap  soon  after. 

«•  The  king  of  England  is  the  king  of  devils."] 

The  German  emperor  is  termed  the  "  king  of  kings, "  having 
so  many  free  princes  under  him.  The  king  of  Spain,  "  king  of 
men,"  because  they  willingly  yield  their  sovereign  rational 
obedience.  The  king  of  France,  "king  of  asses,"  patiently 
bearing  unconscionable  burdens.  But  why  the  king  of  England 
"  king  of  devils,"  I  either  cannot,  or  do  not,  or  will  not  under- 
stand. Sure  I  am,  St.  Gregory  gave  us  better  language  when 
he  said,  "  Angli  velut  Angeli"  for  our  fair  complexions  ;  and  it 
is  sad  we  should  be  devils  by  our  black  conditions. 

"  The  English  are  the  Frenchmen's  apes.'"]  ^ 

This  anciently  hath  been,  and  still  is,  charged  on  the  English, 
and  that  with  too  much  truth,  for  ought  I  can  find  to  the  con- 


Et  did  potuisse,  et  non  potuisse  refelli. 

——— "  It  is  to  us  a  pain 

This  should  be  said,  and  not  gain  said  again." 

We  ape  the  French  chiefly  in  two  particulars : 

First,  in  their  language  (( ( which  if  Jack  could  speak,  he  would 

be  a  gentleman,")  which  some  get  by  travel,   others  gain  at 

home  with  Dame  Eglinton  in  Chaucer  :  * 

"  Entewned  in  her  voice  full  seemly, 
And  French  she  spake  full  feteously 
After  the  scole  of  Stratford  at  Bovve, 
For  French  of  Paris  was  to  her  unknow." 

Secondly,  in  their  habits,  accounting  all  our  fineness  in  con- 
formity to  the  French  fashion,  though  following  it  at  greater 
distance  than  the  field-pease  in  the  country  the  rath-ripe  pease 
in  the  garden.  Disgraceful  in  my  opinion,  that,  seeing  the 
English  victorious  arms  had  twice  charged  through  the  bowels 
of  France,  we  should  learn  tfur  fashions  from  them  to  whom  we 
taught  obedience. 

"  The  English  glutton."] 

Gluttony  is  a  sin  anciently  charged  on  this  nation,  which  we 
are  more  willing  to  excuse  than  confess,  more  willing  to  confess 
than  amend.  Some  pretend  the  coldness  of  climate  in  excuse  of 
our  sharp  appetites ;  and  plead  the  plenty  of  the  land  (England 
being  in  effect  all  a  great  cook's-shop,  and  no  reason  any  should 
starve  therein)  for  our  prodigious  feasts.  They  allege  also  that 
foreigners,  even  the  Spaniards  themselves,  coming  over  hither, 
acquit  themselves  as  good  trencher-men  as  any  ;  so  that  it  seems 
want,  not  temperance,  makes  them  so  abstemious  at  home. 

*  In  his  Prologue  of  the  Prioress. 


All  amounts  not  to  any  just  defence,  excess  being  an  ill- 
expression  of  our  thankfulness  to  God  for  his  goodness.  Nor 
need  we  with  the  Egyptians  to  serve  up  at  the  last  course  "  a 
dead  man's  head "  to  mind  us  of  our  mortality,  seeing  a  feast 
well  considered  is  but  a  charnel-house  of  fowl,  fish,  and  flesh ; 
and  those  few  shell-fish  that  are  not  killed  to  our  hands  are 
killed  by  our  teeth.  It  is  vain,  therefore,  to  expect  that  dead 
food  should  always  preserve  life  in  the  feeders  thereupon. 

"  Long  beards  heartless,  painted  hoods  witless  ; 
Gay  coats  graceless,  make  England  thriftless."*] 

Though  this  hath  more  of  libel  than  proverb  therein,  and  is 
stark  false  in  itself,  yet  it  will  truly  acquaint  us  with  the  habits 
of  the  English  in  that  age. 

"  Long  beards  heartless"  Our  English  did  use  nutrire  comam, 
both  on  their  head  and  beards,  conceiving  it  made  them  more 
amiable  to  their  friends,  and  terrible  to  their  foes. 

ff  Painted  hoods  witless."  Their  hoods  were  stained  with  a 
kind  of  colour,  in  a  middle  way  betwixt  dying  and  painting 
(whence  Painters-stainers  have  their  name),  a  mystery  vehe- 
mently suspected  to  be  lost  in  our  age.  Hoods  served  that  age 
for  caps. 

"  Gay  coats  graceless."  Gallantry  began  then  to  be  fashion- 
able in  England ;  and  perchance  those  who  here  taxed  them 
therewith  would  have  been  as  gay  themselves,  had  their  land 
been  as  rich  and  able  to  maintain  them. 

This  sing-song  was  made  on  the  English  by  the  Scots,  after 
they  were  flushed  with  victory  over  us  in  the  reign  of  king 
Edward  the  Second.  Never  was  the  battle  at  Cannae  so  fatal  to 
the  Romans  as  that  at  Sterling  to  the  nobility  of  England ;  and 
the  Scots,  puffed  up  with  their  victory,  fixed  those  opprobrious 
epithets  of  heartless,  witless,  graceless,  upon  us.  For  the  first, 
we  appeal  to  themselves,  whether  Englishmen  have  not  good 
hearts,  and,  with  their  long  beards,  long  swords.  For  the 
second,  we  appeal  to  the  world,  whether  the  wit  of  our  nation 
hath  not  appeared  as  considerable  as  theirs  in  their  writings  and 
doings.  For  the  third,  we  appeal  to  God,  the  only  searcher  of 
hearts,  and  trier  of  true  grace.  As  for  the  fourth,  thriftless,  I 
omit  it,  because  it  sinks  of  itself,  as  a  superstructure  on  a  foun- 
"dered  and  failing  foundation. 

All  that  I  will  add  is  this,  that  the  grave,  sage,  and  reduced 
Scottish-men  in  this  age,  are  not  bound  to  take  notice  of  such 
expressions  made  by  their  ancestors ;  seeing,  when  nations  are. 
at  hostile  defiance,  they  will  mutually  endeavour  each  other's 

"  He  that  England  will  win, 
Must  with  Ireland  first  begin."] 

This  proverb  importeth  that  great*  designs  must  be  managed 
gradatim,  not  only  by  degrees,  but  due  method.     England,  it 

*  Fox,  Stow,  Speed,  all  our  English  historians  in  the  first  year  of  king  Edward 
the  Third. 


seems,  is  too  great  a  morsel  for  a  foreign  foe  to  be  chopped  up 
at  once ;  and  therefore  it  must  orderly  be  attempted,  and  Ireland 
be  first  assaulted.  Some  have  conceived,  but  it  is  but  a  conceit 
(all  things  being  in  the  bosom  of  Divine  Providence),  that,  had 
the  Spanish  Armada  in  eighty-eight  fallen  upon  Ireland,  when 
the  well-affected  therein  were  few  and  ill-provided,  they  would 
have  given  a  better  account  of  their  service  to  him  who  sent 
them.  To  rectify  which  error,  the  king  of  Spain  sent  afterward 
John  de  Aquila  into  Ireland,  but  with  what  success  is  sufficiently 
known.  And  if  any  foreign  enemy  hath  a  desire  to  try  the 
truth  of  this  proverb  at  his  own  peril,  both  England  and  Ireland 
lie  for  climate  in  the  same  posture  they  were  before. 

"  In  England  a  bushel  of  March  dust  is  worth  a  king's  ransom."] 

Not  so  in  southern  sandy  counties,  where  a  dry  March  is  as 
destructive  as  here  it  is  beneficial.  How  much  a  king's  ransom 
amounteth  unto,  England  knows  by  dear  experience,  when  pay- 
ing one  hundred  thousand  pounds  to  redeem  Richard  the  First, 
which  was  shared  between  the  German  emperor  and  Leopoldus 
duke  of  Austria.  Indeed  a  general  good  redounds  to  our  land 
by  a  dry  March ;  for  if  our  clay-grounds  be  over-drowned  in 
that  month,  they  recover  not  their  distemper  that  year. 

However,  this  proverb  presumeth  seasonable  showers  in 
April  following ;  or  otherwise  March  dust  will  be  turned  into 
May  ashes,  to  the  burning  up  of  grass  and  grain ;  so  easily  can 
God  blast  the  most  probable  fruitfulness. 

"  England  a  good  land,  and  a  bad  people."] 

This  is  a  French  proverb  ;  and  we  are  glad  that  they,  being 
so  much  admirers  and  magnifiers  of  their  own,  will  allow  any 
goodness  to  another  country. 

This  maketh  the  wonder  the  less,  that  they  have  so  much 
endeavoured  to  get  a  share  in  this  good  country,  by  their  former 
frequent  invasions  thereof;  though  they  could  never,  since  the 
Conquest,  peaceably  possess  a  hundred  yards  thereof  for  twenty 
hours,  whilst  we  for  a  long  time  have  enjoyed  large  territories 
in  France. 

But  this  proverb  hath  a  design  to  raise  up  the  land,  to  throw 
down  the  people ;  gracing  it  to  disgrace  them.  We  Englishmen 
are,  or  should  be,  ready  humbly  to  confess  our  faults  before 
God,  and  no  less  truly  than  sadly  to  say  of  ourselves,  "  Ah, 
sinful  nation ! "  However,  before  men,  we  will  not  acknowledge 
a  visible  badness  above  other  nations.  And  the  plain  truth  is, 
both  France  and  England  have  need  to  mend,  seeing  God 
hath  formerly  justly  made  them  by  sharp  wars  alternately  to 
whip  one  another. 

"  The  High-Dutch  pilgrims,  when  they  beg,  do  sing  ;  the  Frenchmen  whine 
and  cry  ;  the  Spaniards  cwse,  swear,  and  blaspheme  ;  the  Irish  and  Eng- 
lish steal."] 

This  is  a  Spanish  proverb ;  and  I  suspect  too  much  truth  is 
suggested  therein;  the  rather  because  the  Spaniards  therein 

PRINCES.  121 

spare  not  themselves,  but  impartially  report  their  own  black 
character.  If  any  ask  why  the  Italians  are  not  here  mentioned, 
seeing  surely  their  pilgrims  have  also  their  peculiar  humours ; 
know  that  Rome  and  Loretta,  the  staples  of  pilgrimages,  being 
both  in  Italy,  the  Italians  very  seldom  (being  frugal  in  their 
superstition)  go  out  of  their  own  country. 

Whereas  stealing  is  charged  on  our  English,  it  is  confessed 
that  our  poor  people  are  observed  light-fingered ;  and  therefore 
our  laws  are  so  heavy,  making  low  felony  highly  penal,  to  re- 
strain that  vice  most,  to  which  our  peasantry  is  most  addicted. 

I  wish  my  country  more  true  piety  than  to  take  such  tedious 
and  useless  journeys ;  but,  if  they  will  go,  I  wish  them  more 
honesty  than  to  steal ;  and  the  people  by  whom  they  pass,  more 
charity  than  to  tempt  them  to  stealth,  by  denying  them  neces- 
saries in  their  journey. 


JOHN,  eldest  son  of  king  Edward  the  First  and  queen  Elea- 
nor, was  born  at  Windsor  before  his  father's  voyage  into  Syria. 
His  short  life  will  not  bear  a  long  character,  dying  in  his  in- 
fancy,* 1273  (the  last  year  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the 
Third) ;  and  was  buried  August  the  8th,  in  Westminster,  under 
a  marble  tomb,  in-laid  with  his  picture  in  an  arch  over  it. 

ELEANOR,  eldest  daughter  to  king  Edward  the  First  and 
queen  Eleanor,  was  born  at  Windsor,  anno  Dom.  1266.f  She 
was  afterwards  married  by  a  proxy,  a  naked  sword  being  in  bed 
interposed  betwixt  him  and  her  body,  to  Alphonso  king  of  Arra- 
gon,  with  all  ceremonies  of  state.  And  indeed  they  proved  but 
ceremonies,  the  substance  soon  miscarrying,  the  said  king  Al- 
phonso dying  anno  Dom.  1292,  before  the  consummation  of  the 
marriage.  But,  soon  after,  this  lady  found  that  a  living  earl  was 
better  than  a  dead  king,  when  married  to  Henry  the  third  earl 
of  Berry  in  France,  from  whom  the  dukes  of  Anjou  and  kings 
of  Sicily  are  descended.  This  lady  deceased  in  the  seven  and 
twentieth  of  her  father's  reign,  anno  Dom.  1298. 

MARGARET,  third  daughter  of  king  Edward  the  First  and 
queen  Eleanor,  was  born  at  Windsor,  in  the  third  year  of  her 
father's  reign,  1275.  J  When  fifteen  years  old  she  was  married 
at  Westminster,  July  9th,  1290,  to  John  the  second  duke  of 
Brabant,  by  whom  she  had  issue  John  the  third  duke  of  Bra- 
bant, from  whom  the  dukes  of  Burgundy  are  descended. 

MARY,  sixth  daughter  of  king  Edward  the  First  and  queen 
Eleanor,  was  born  at  Windsor,  April  the  12th,  12?9.  Being  but 

*  Speed,  History,  page  563.  f    Ibid.  p.  564. 

J  Speed's  Chronicle,  p.  564. 


ten  years  of  age,  she  was  made  a  nun  at  Amesbury  in  Wiltshire 
without  her  own,  and  at  the  first  against  her  parents'  consent, 
merely  to  gratify  queen  Eleanor  her  grandmother.*  Let  us 
pity  her,  who  probably  did  not  pity  herself,  as  not  knowing  a 
veil  from  a  kerchief ;  not  understanding  the  requisites  to,  nor 
her  own  fitness  for,  that  profession ;  having  afterwards  time  too 
much  to  bemoan,  but  none  to  amend,  her  condition. 

As  for  the  other  children  of  this  king,  which  he  had  by  Elea- 
nor his  queen,  probably  born  in  this  castle,  viz.  HENRY,  AL- 
PHONSE,  BLANCHE,  dying  in  their  infancy  immediately  after 
their  baptism,  it  is  enough  to  name  them,  and  to  bestow  this 
joint  epitaph  upon  them. 

"  Cleansed  at  font  we  drew  untainted  breath, 
Not  yet  made  bad  by  life,  made  good  by  death." 

The  two  former  were  buried  with  their  brother  John  (of  whom 
before)  at  Westminster  in  the  same  tomb :  but  where  Blanche 
was  interred  is  altogether  unknown. 

EDWARD  the  Third,  son  to  Edward  the  Second  and  queen 
Isabel,  was  born  at  Windsor,  October  13,  1312,  (and  proved 
afterwards  a  pious  and  fortunate  prince).  I  behold  him  as 
merely  passive  in  the  deposing  of  his  father,  practised  on  in  his 
minority  by  his  mother  and  Mortimer.  His  French  victories 
speak  both  of  his  wisdom  and  valour ;  and  though  the  conquests 
by  king  Henry  the  Fifth  were  thicker  (achieved  in  a  shorter 
time),  his  were  broader  (in  France  and  Scotland  by  sea  and 
land),  though  both  of  length  alike,  as  lost  by  their  immediate 

He  was  the  first  English  king  which  coined  gold,t  which  with 
me  amounts  to  a  wonder,  that  before  his  time  all  yellow  pay- 
ments in  the  land  should  be  made  in  foreign  coin.  He  first 
stamped  the  rose-nobles,  having  on  the  one  side, 


And  on  the  reverse,  his  own  image  with  sword  and  shield,  sit- 
ting in  a  ship  waving  on  the  sea.  Hereupon  an  English  rhymer, 
in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Sixth, 

"  For  four  things  our  Noble  sheweth  to  me 
King,  Ship,  and  Sword,  and  Power  of  the  See.  J 

He  had  a  numerous  and  happy  issue  by  Philippa  his  queen ; 
after  whose  death,  being  almost  seventy  years  old,  he  cast  his  • 
affection  on  Alice  Pierce  his  paramour,  much  to  his  disgrace ; 
it  being  true  what  Epictetus  returned  to  Adrian  the  emperor, 
asking  of  him  what  love  was,  ee  In  puero,  pudor ;  in  virgine,  ru- 
bor ;  in  foemina,  furor ;  in  juvene,  ardor ;  in  sene,  risus."  ("  In  a 
boy,  bashfulness ;  in  a  maid,  blushing ;  in  a  woman,  fury ;  in  a 
young  man,  fire ;  in  an  old  man,  folly/3)  However  take  this  king 

*  Speed's  Chronicle.  f  Camden's  Remains,  under  the  title  of  "  Money." 

J  Manuscript  in  Bibl.  Cotton. 


altogether,  at  home,,  abroad,  at  church,  in   state,  and  he  had  few 
equals,  none  superiors.     He  died  anno  Dom.  1378. 

WILLIAM,  sixth  son  of  king  Edward  the  Third  and  queen 
Philippa,  was  born  at  Windsor.*  Indeed  his  second  son,  born 
at  Hatfield,  was  of  the  same  name,  who  died  in  his  infancy,  and 
his  mother  had  a  fond  affection  for  another  William,  because 
her  father's,  brother's,  and  a  conquering  name,  till  his  short  life 
also,  dying  in  his  cradle,  weaned  her  from  renewing  her  desire. 
As  for  king  Edward's  female  children,  Isabel,  Joan,  Blanch, 
Mary,  and  Margaret,  there  is  much  probability  of  their  French, 
and  no  assurance  of  their  English  nativity. 

HENRY  the  Sixth,  son  to  Henry  the  Fifth,  was  born  in  Wind- 
sor Castle,  against  the  will  of  his  father,  by  the  wilfulness  of  his 
mother.  He  was  fitter  for  a  cowl  than  a  crown ;  of  so  easy  a 
nature,  that  he  might  well  have  exchanged  a  pound  of  patience 
for  an  ounce  of  valour ;  being  so  innocent  to  others,  that  he  was 
hurtful  to  himself.  He  was  both  over  subjected  and  over- wived : 
having  married  Margaret  the  daughter  of  Reinier  king  of  Jeru- 
salem, Sicily,  and  Arragon,  a  prince  only  puissant  in  titles, 
otherwise  little  able  to  assist  his  son-in-law.  Through  home- 
bred dissensions,  he  not  only  lost  the  foreign  acquisitions  of  his 
father  in  France,  but  also  his  own  inheritance  in  England  to  the 
house  of  York.  His  death,  or  murder  rather,  happened  in  1471. 

This  Henry  was  twice  crowned,  twice  deposed,  and  twice  bu- 
ried (first  at  Chertsey,  then  at  Windsor),  and  once  half  sainted. 
Our  Henry  the  Seventh  cheapened  the  price  of  his  canonization 
(one  may  see  for  his  love,  and  buy  for  his  money,  in  the  court  of 
Rome),  but  would  not  come  up  to  the  sum  demanded.  How- 
ever, this  Henry  was  a  saint  (though  not  with  the  Pope)  with 
the  people,  repairing  to  this  monument  from  the  farthest  part  of 
the  land,  and  fancying  that  they  received  much  benefit  thereby. 
'  He  was  the  last  prince  whom  I  find  expressly  born  at  Windsor. 
It  seems  that  afterwards  our  English  queens  grew  out  of  conceit 
with  that  place,  as  unfortunate  for  royal  nativities. 


MARGARET  and  ALICE  RICH  were  born  at  Abbington  in  this 
county,  and  were  successively  prioresses  of  Catesby  in  North- 
amptonshire.f  They  were  sisters  to  St.  Edmund,  whose  life 
ensueth,  and  are  placed  before  him  by  the  courtesy  of  England, 
which  alloweth  the  weaker  sex  the  upper  hand.  So  great  the 
reputation  of  their  holiness,  that  the  former  dying  anno  1257, 
the  latter  in  1270,  both  were  honouredf  for  saints,  and 

*  Speed's  Hist.  p.  602. 

T  The  English  Martyrology,  in  the  15th  and  24th  of  August. 

I  Matthew  Paris,  in  Hist.  Majori.  ad  ann.  Dora.  1217,  et  demceps. 


many  miracles  reported  by  crafty,  were  believed  by  credulous, 
people,  done  at  their  shrine  by  their  reliques. 

St.  EDMUND,  son  to  Edward  Rich  and  Mabel  his  wife,  was 
born  at  Abbington  in  Berkshire,*  and  bred  in  Oxford.  Some 
will  have  Edmund's-hall  in  that  university  built  by  his  means, 
but  others  (more  probably)  named  in  his  memory.  He  became 
canon  of  Salisbury ;  and  from  thence,  by  the  joint  consent  of 
pope,  king,  and  monks  (three  cords  seldom  twisted  in  the  same 
cable),  advanced  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  where  he  sate  al- 
most ten  years,  till  he  willingly  deserted  it ;  partly  because  of- 
fended at  the  power  of  the  pope's  legate,  making  him  no  more 
than  a  mere  cipher,  signifying  only  in  conjunction  (when  con- 
curring with  his  pleasure) ;  partly  because,  vexed  at  his  polling 
and  peeling  of  the  English  people,  so  grievous,  he  could  not  en- 
dure, so  general,  he  could  not  avoid  to  behold  it.  For  these 
reasons  he  left  the  land,  went  (or,  shall  I  say,  fled  ?)  into  France, 
where  he  sighed  out  the  remainder  of  his  life,  most  at  Ponti- 
niac,  but  some  at  Soissons,  where  he  died  anno  1240. 

Pope  Innocent  the  Fourth  canonized  him  six  years  after  his 
death,  whereat  many  much  wondered,  that  he  should  so  much 
honour  one,  a  professed  foe  to  papal  extortions.  Some  con- 
ceived he  did  it  se  defendendo,  and  for  a  ne  noceat,  that  he  might 
not  be  tormented  with  his  ghost.f  But  what  hurt  were  it,  if  all 
the  enemies  of  his  Holiness  were  sainted,  on  condition  they  took 
death  in  their  way  thereunto  ?  Sure  it  is  that  Lewis  king  of 
France  a  year  after  translated  his  corpse,  and,  three  years  after 
that,  bestowed  a  most  sumptuous  shrine  of  gold,  silver,  and 
crystal  upon  it;  and  the  16th  of  November  is  the  festival  ap- 
pointed for  his  memorial. 


It  appeareth,  by  the  confession  of  Thomas  Man  (martyred  in 
the  beginning  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth)  that  there  was  at  New- 
berry,  in  this  county,  as  glorious  and  sweet  society  of  faithful 
favourers,  who  had  continued  the  space  of  fifteen  years  together, 
till  at  last,  by  a  certain  lewd  person  whom  they  trusted  and  made 
of  their  council,  they  were  betrayed ;  and  then  many  of  them,  to 
the  number  of  six  or  seven  score,  were  abjured,  and  three  or 
four  of  them  burnt.}  Now  although  we  know  not  how  to  call 
these  martyrs  who  so  suffered,  "  their  names/'  no  doubt,  "  are 
written  in  the  Book  of  Life." 

We  see  how  the  day  of  the  Gospel  dawned  as  soon  in  this 
county  as  in  any  place  in  England.  Surely  seniority  in 
this  kind  ought  to  be  respected,  which  made  Paul  a  puisne  in 

*  Antiq.  Brit.  p.  165. 

t  "Veritus,  ne  manes  ipsius  mortui  Romanam  sedem  ob  tot  acceptas  injurias 
vindicarent."     M.  Parker,  Antiq.  Brit.  p.  173. 
J  Fox,  Acts  and  Monuments,  p.  81 7. 

MARTYRS.  125 

piety  to  "  Andronicus "  and  "  Junia,"  his  kinsman,  to  enter  this 
caveat  for  their  spiritual  precedency,  "who  were  in  Christ  before 
me."*  On  which  account  let  other  places  give  the  honour  to 
the  town  of  Newberry,  because  it  started  the  first  (and  I  hope 
not  tire  for  the  earliness  thereof)  in  the  race  of  the  Reformed  re- 
ligion. Yea,  Doctor  William  Twiss,  the  painful  preacher  in  that 
parish,  was  wont  to  use  this  as  a  motive  to  his  flock,  to  quicken 
their  pace,  and  strengthen  their  perseverance  in  piety,  because 
that  town  appears  the  first-fruits  of  the  Gospel  in  England. 
And  Windsor,  the  next  in  the  same  county,  had  the  honour  of 
martyrs5  ashes  therein,  as  by  the  ensuing  list  will  appear. 

There  was  in  Windsor  a  company  of  right  godly  persons,  who 
comfortably  enjoyed  themselves,  until  their  enemies  designed 
their  extirpation,  though  it  cost  them  much  to  accomplish  it,  one 
of  them  confessing  that  for  his  share  he  expended  an  hundred 
marks,  besides  the  killing  of  three  geldings.  These,  suspecting 
that  the  judges  itinerant  in  their  circuit  would  be  too  favourable 
unto  them,  procured  a  special  session,  got  four  arraigned  and 
condemned  by  the  commissioners,  whereof  the  three  following 
were  put  to  death  on  the  statute  of  the  Six  Articles. 

1.  Anthony  Persons,  a  priest  and  profitable  preacher,  so  that 
the  great  clerks  of  Windsor  thought  their  idleness  upbraided  by 
his  industry.     Being  fastened  to  the  stake,  he  laid  a  good  deal 
of  straw  on  the  top  of  his  head,  saying,  "  This  is  God's  hat ;  I 
am  now  armed  like  a  soldier  of  Christ,"f 

2.  Robert  Test  wood,  a  singing-man  in  the  choir  of  Windsor. 
There  happened  a  contest  betwixt  him  and  another  of  that  so- 
ciety, singing  an  anthem  together  to  the  Virgin  Mary :  Robert 
Philips  on  the  one  side  of  the  choir,  "  O  Redemtrix  et  Salvatrix  1" 
Robert  Testwood  on  the  other  side  of  the  choir,  ee  Non  Redemtrix, 
nee  Salvatrix." 

I  know  not  which  sung  the  deepest  base,  or  got  the  better  for 
the  present.  Sure  I  am  that  since  by  God's  goodness  the  Nons 
dave  drowned  the  Ohs  in  England.  Testwood  was  also  accused 
for  dissuading  people  from  pilgrimages,  and  for  striking  off  the 
nose  of  the  image  of  our  Lady. 

3.  Henry  Fillmer,  churchwarden  of  Windsor,  who  had  arti- 
cled against «their  superstitious  vicar  for  heretical  doctrine. 

These  three  were  burnt  together  at  Windsor,  anno  1544  ; 
and  when  account  was  given  of  their  patient  death  to  king 
Henry  the  Eighth,  sitting  on  horseback,  the  king  turning  the 
horse's  head,  said,  "  Alas,  poor  innocents  ! " — a  better  speech 
from  a  private  person  than  a  prince,  bound  by  his  place  not 
only  to  pity  but  protect  oppressed  innocence.  However,  by 
this  occasion  other  persecuted  people  were  pardoned  and  pre- 
served, of  whom  hereafter, under  the  ensuing  title  of  Confessors. 

This  storm  of  persecution  thus  happily  blown  over,  Berkshire 

*  Rom.  xvi.  7.  f  Fox,  Acts  and  Monuments,  p.  1211,  &c. 


enjoyed  peace  and  tranquillity  for  full  twelve  years  together, 
viz.  from  the  year  of  our  Lord  1544  till  1556 ;  when  Dr.  Jeffrey, 
the  cruel  chancellor  of  Salisbury,  renewed  the  troubles  at  New- 
berry,  and  caused  the  death  of 

JULIUS  PALMER,  (see  his  character,  being  born  in  Coven- 
try, in  Warwickshire) :  JOHN  GWIN  :  THOMAS  ASKINE.  These 
three,  July  16,  1556,  were  burnt  in  a  place  nigh  Newberry, 
called  the  Sandpits,  enduring  the  pain  of  the  fire  with  such  in- 
credible constancy,  that  it  confounded  their  foes,  and  confirmed 
their  friends  in  the  truth.* 


JOHN  MARBECK  was  an  organist  in  the  choir  of  Windsor? 
and  very  skilful  therein ;  a  man  of  admirable  industry  aud  inge- 
nuity, who  not  perfectly  understanding  the  Latin  tongue,  did 
out  of  the  Latin,  with  the  help  of  the  English  Bible,  make  an 
English  Concordance,  which  bishop  Gardiner  himself  could  not 
but  commend  as  a  piece  of  singular  industry :  professing  that 
there  were  no  fewer  than  twelve  learned  men  to  make  the 
first  Latin  Concordance.  And  king  Henry  the  Eighth  hearing 
thereof,  said  that  "he  was  better  employed  than  those  priests 
which  accused  him."  Let,  therefore,  our  modern  Concordances 
of  Cotton,  Newman,  Bernard,  &c.,  as  children  and  grand- chil- 
dren, do  their  duty  to  Marbeck's  Concordance,  as  their  parent 
at  first  endeavoured  in  our  language. 

This  Marbeck  was  a  very  zealous  Protestant,  and  of  so  sweet 
and  amiable  nature,  that  all  good  men  did  love,  and  few  bad 
men  did  hate,  him.  Yet  was  he  condemned,  anno  1544,  on  the 
statute  of  the  Six  Articles,  to  be  burnt  at  Windsor,  had  not  his 
pardon  been  procured,  divers  assigning  divers  causes  thereof: 
1.  That  bishop  Gardiner  bare  him  a  special  affection  for  his  skill 
in  the  mystery  of  music.  2.  That  such  who  condemned  him 
procured  his  pardon  out  of  remorse  of  conscience,  because  so 
slender  the  evidence  against  him;  it  being  questionable  whether 
his  Concordance  was  made  after  the  statute  of  the  Six  Articles 
or  before  it ;  and  if  before,  he  was  freed  by  the  king's  general 
pardon.  3.  That  it  was  done  out  of  design  to  reserve  him  for 
a  discovery  of  the  rest  of  his  party.  If  so,  their  plot  failed  them  : 
for  being  as  true  as  steel  (whereof  his  fetters  were  made  which 
he  wore  in  prison  for  a  good  time),  he  could  not  be  frighted 
or  flattered  to  make  any  detection. 

Here  a  mistake  was  committed  by  Mr.  Fox  in  his  first  edition, 
whereon  the  Papists  much  insult,  making  this  Marbeck  burnt 
at  Windsor  for  his  religion,  with  Anthony  Persons,  Robert  Test- 
wood,  and  Henry  Fillmer.  No  doubt  Mr.  Fox  rejoiced  at  his 
own  mistake,  thus  far  forth  ;  both  for  Marbeck^  s  sake  who  es- 

*  Fox,  Acts  and  Monuments,  p.  1934. 


caped  with  his  life,  and  his  enemies,  who  thereby  drew  the  less 
guilt  of  blood  on  their  own  consciences.  But  hear  what  he 
pleads  for  his  mistake  : 

1.  Marbeck  was  dead  in  law,  as  condemned;  whereon  his 
error  was  probably  grounded.  2.  He  confessing  that  one  of 
the  four  condemned  was  pardoned  his  life,  misnaming  him,  Fill- 
mer  instead  of  Marbeck.  3.  Let  Papists  first  purge  their  lying 
legend  from  manifest  and  intentional  untruths,  before  they  cen- 
sure others  for  casual  slips  and  unmeant  mistakes.  4.  Recog- 
nizing his  book  in  the  next  edition,  he  with  blushing  amended 
his  error.  And  is  not  this  penance  enough,  according  to  the 
principles  of  his  accusers,  confession,  contrition,  and  satisfac- 

All  this  will  not  content  some  morose  cavillers,  whom  I  have 
heard  jeeringly  say,  "  that  many  who  were  burnt  in  Fox  in  the 
reign  of  queen  Mary,  drank  sack  in  the  days  of  queen  Elizabeth. 
But  enough  is  said  to  any  ingenuous  person.  And  it  is  impos- 
sible for  any  author  of  a  voluminous  book,  consisting  of  several 
persons  and  circumstances  (Reader,  in  pleading  for  Master  Fox, 
I  plead  for  myself)  to  have  such  ubiquitary  intelligence,  as  to 
apply  the  same  infallibly  to  every  particular.  When  this  Mar- 
beck  died,  is  to  me  unknown ;  he  was  alive  at  the  second  En- 
glish edition  of  the  Book  of  Martyrs,  1583 :  thirty  and  nine 
years  after  the  time  of  his  condemnation. 

ROBERT  BENET  was  a  lawyer,  living  in  Windsor,  and  a  zea- 
lous professor  of  the  true  religion.  He  drank  as  deep  as  any 
of  the  cup  of  affliction,  and  no  doubt  had  been  condemned  with 
Testwood,  Persons,  and  the  rest,  had  he  not  at  the  same  time 
been  sick  of  the  plague  sore,  in  the  prison  of  the  Bishop  of 
London,  which  proved  the  means  of  preservation.*  Thus,  ff  it 
is  better  to  fall  into  the  hands  of  God,  than  into  the  hands  of 
men."  And  thus,  as  "  out  of  the  devourer  came  food,  out  of 
the  destroyer  came  life  ;  "  yea  the  plague  sore  proved  a  cordial 
unto  him ;  for,  by  the  time  that  he  was  recovered  thereof,  a 
pardon  was  freely  granted  to  him  ;  as  also  to  Sir  Thomas  Car- 
dine,  Sir  Philip  Hobby,  (both  of  the  king's  privy  chamber)  with 
their  ladies,  and  many  more  designed  to  death  by  crafty  bishop 
Gardner,  had  not  his  majesty's  mercy  thus  miraculously  inter- 


I  have  read  of  many,  who  would  have  been  Cardinals,  but 
might  not.  This  county  afforded  one,  who  might  have  been 
one,  but  would  not,  viz.  William  Laud ;  the  place  being  no 
less  freely  proffered  to  than  disdainfully  refused  by  him,  with 
words  to  this  effect :  "  That  the  church  of  Rome  must  be  much 

*  Fox,  Acts  and  Monuments,  p.  1220. 


mended,  before  he  would  accept  any  such  dignity."  An  ex- 
pression which  in  my  mind  amounted  to  the  emphatical  peri- 
phrasis of  Never.  But  we  shall  meet  with  him  hereafter  under 
a  more  proper  topic. 


WILLIAM  of  READING,  a  learned  Benedictine,  employed  by 
king  Henry  the  Second  in  many  embassies,  and  by  him  pre- 
ferred Archbishop  of  Bourdeaux,  where  he  died  in  the  reign  of 
king  Richard  the  First.* 

[AMP.]  JOHN  DE  BRADFIELD,  sive  de  Lato-campo.  Find- 
ing fifteen  villages  of  the  name,  I  fixed  his  nativity  at  Bradfield 
in  Berks,  as  (in  my  measuring)  the  nearest  to  Rochester,  where 
he  was  chanter  and  bishop,t  1274.  If  mistaken,  the  matter  is 
not  much,  seeing  his  surname  is  controverted,  and  otherwise 
written,  JOHN  DE  HOE.  However,  being  charactered  "  vir 
conversationis  honestse,  decenter  literatus,  et  in  omnibus  mori- 
geratus,"  I  was  desirous  to  crowd  him  into  our  book  where  I 
might  with  most  probability. 

RICHARD  BEAUCHAMP  was  brother,  saith  Bishop  Godwin, 
to  Walter  Beauchamp  (mistaken  for  William,  as  may  appear 
by  Mr.  Camden  J)  Baron  of  St.  Amand,  whose  chief  habitation 
was  at  Wydehay  in  this  county.  He  was  bred  Doctor  in  the 
Laws,  and  became  bishop  first  of  Hereford,  then  of  Salisbury. 
He  was  Chancellor  of  the  Garter,  which  office  descended  to  his 
successors ;  Windsor  Castle,  the  seat  of  that  order,  being  in 
the  diocese  of  Salisbury.  He  built  a  most  beautiful  chapel  (on 
the  south  side  of  St.  Mary's  Chapel)  in  his  own  Cathedral, 
wherein  he  lieth  buried.  His  death  happened  anno  Dom.  1482. 


THOMAS  GODWIN  was  born  at  Oakingham  in  this  county, 
and  first  bred  in  the  free  school  therein. §  Hence  he  was  sent 
to  Magdalen  College  in  Oxford,  maintained  there  for  a  time  by 
the  bounty  of  Doctor  Layton,  Dean  of  York,  till  at  last  he  was 
chosen  fellow  of  the  college.  This  he  exchanged  on  some  terms 
for  the  school-master's  place  of  Berkley  in  Gloucestershire,  where 
he  also  studied  physic,  which  afterwards  proved  beneficial  unto 
him,  when  forbidden  to  teach  school,  in  the  reign  of  queen 
Mary.  Yea,  Bonner  threatened  him  with  fire  and  faggot,  which 
caused  him  often  to  obscure  himself  and  remove  his  habitation. 
He  was  an  eloquent  preacher,  tall  and  comely  in  person  ;  quali- 
ties which  much  endeared  him  to  queen  Elizabeth,  who  loved 

*  Matth.  Westm.  in  Flor.  Hist. 

•  Bishop  Godwin,  in  his  Bishops  of  Rochester. 

:  In  his  Britannia,  in  this  county. 
§  Francis  Godwin,  his  son,  in  his  catalogue  of  the  Bishops  of  Bath  and  Wells. 


good  parts  well, but  better  when  in  a  goodly  person.  For  18  years 
together  he  never  failed  to  be  one  of  the  select  chaplains  which 
preached  in  the  Lent  before  her  Majesty.  He  was  first  dean 
of  Christ  Church  in  Oxford,,  then  dean  of  Canterbury,  and  at 
last  bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells. 

Being  infirm  with  age,  and  diseased  with  the  gout,  he  was 
necessitated,  for  a  nurse,  to  marry  a  second  wife,  a  matron  of 
years  proportionable  to  himself.  But  this  was  by  his  court  ene- 
mies (which  no  bishop  wanted  in  that  age)  represented  to  the 
queen,  to  his  great  disgrace.  Yea,  they  traduced  him  to  have 
married  a  girl  of  twenty  years  of  age,  until  the  good  earl  of 
Bedford,  casually  present  at  such  discourse ;  "  Madam/'  said  he 
to  her  Majesty,  "  I  know  not  how  much  the  woman  is  above 
twenty ;  but  I  know  a  son  of  hers  is  but  little  under  forty/5* 

Being  afflicted  with  a  quartern  fever,  he  was  advised  by  his 
physicians  to  retire  into  this  county,  to  Oakingham,  the  place 
of  his  birth,  seeing  in  such  cases  native  air  may  prove  cordial 
to  patients,  as  mothers'  milk  to  (and  old  men  are  twice)  children. 
Here  he  died  (breathing  his  first  and  last  in  the  same  place,) 
November  19,  1590 ;  and  lieth  buried  under  a  monument  in  the 
south  side  of  the  chancel. 

THOMAS  RAMME  was  born  at  Windsor  in  this  county,  and 
admitted  in  King's  College  in  Cambridge,  anno  Dom.  1588 : 
whence  he  was  made  chaplain  first  to  Robert  earl  of  Essex, 
then  to  Charles  Lord  Mountjoy,  both  lord  lieutenants  in  Ire- 
land. After  many  mediate  preferments,  he  was  made  bishop 
of  Femes  and  Laghlin  in  that  kingdom,  both  which  he  peace- 
ably enjoyed  in  the  year  1628.f 

WILLIAM  LAUD  was  born  at  Reading  in  this  county,  of  ho- 
nest parentage,  bred  in  St.  John's  College  in  Oxford,  whereof 
he  became  president :  successively  bishop  of  St.  David's,  Bath 
and  Wells,  London,  and  at  last  archbishop  of  Canterbury. 
One  of  low  stature,  but  high  parts  ;  piercing  eyes,  cheerful  coun- 
tenance, wherein  gravity  and  pleasantness  were  well  compound- 
ed ;  admirable  in  his  naturals,  unblameable  in  his  morals,  be- 
ing very  strict  in  his  conversation.  Of  him  I  have  written  in 
my  "  Ecclesiastical  History : "  though  I  confess  it  was  some- 
what too  soon  for  one  with  safety  and  truth  to  treat  of  such  a 
subject.  Indeed  I  could  instance  in  some  kind  of  coarse  veni- 
son, not  fit  for  food  when  first  killed ;  and  therefore  cunning 
cooks  bury  it  for  some  hours  in  the  earth,  till  the  rankness 
thereof  being  mortified  thereby,  it  makes  most  palatable  meat. 
So  the  memory  of  some  persons  newly  deceased  are  neither  fit 
for  a  writer's  or  reader's  repast,  until  some  competent  time 

*  Sir  John  Harrington,  in  his  additional  supply  to  Bishop  Godwin,  p.  115, 
f  Sir  James  Ware,  de  Prsesulibus  Lageniae. 

VOL.  I.  K 


after  their  interment.  However,  I  am  confident  that  impartial 
posterity,  on  a  serious  review  of  all  passages,  will  allow  his  name 
to  be  reposed  amongst  the  heroes  of  our  nation,  seeing  such  as 
behold  his  expense  on  St.  PauPs  as  but  a  cipher,  will  assign 
his  other  benefactions  a  very  valuable  signification ;  viz.  his 
erecting  and  endowing  an  almshouse  in  Reading,  his  increasing 
of  Oxford  library  with  books,  and  St.  John's  College  with  beau- 
tiful buildings.*  He  was  beheaded  Jan.  10,  1644. 


Sir  JOHN  MASON,  knight,  was  born  at  Abingdon  (where  he 
is  remembered  among  the  benefactors  to  the  beautiful  alms- 
houses  therein),  bred  in  All-souls  in  Oxford.  King  Henry  the 
Eighth,  coming  thither,  was  so  highly  pleased  with  an  oration 
Mr.  Mason  made  unto  him,  that  he  instantly  gave  order  for  his 
education  beyond  the  seas,  as  confident  he  would  prove  an  able 
minister  of  state.  This  was  the  politic  discipline  of  those  days, 
to  select  the  pregnancies  of  either  universities,  and  breed  them 
in  foreign  parts  for  public  employments.  He  was  privy  coun- 
cillor to  king  Henry  the  Eighth  and  king  Edward  the  Sixth. 
One  maketh  him  his  secretary  of  state,t  which  some  suspect  too 
high ;  another,  but  master  of  the  requests,  J  which  I  believe  as 
much  beneath  him.  He  continued  councillor  to  queen  Mary, 
and  queen  Elizabeth,  to  whom  he  was  treasurer  of  the  house- 
hold, and  chancellor  of  the  University  of  Oxford.  Mr.  Camden§ 
gives  him  this  true  character,  "  Vir  fuit  gravis,  atque  eruditus :" 
which  I  like  much  better  than  that  which  followeth,  so  far  as 
I  can  understand  it :  ee  Ecclesiasticorum  ||  beneficiorum  incuba- 
tor maximus."  Surely  he  could  be  no  canonical  incumbent  in 
any  benefice,  not  being  in  orders,  which  leaveth  him  under  the 
suspicion  of  being  a  great  engrosser  of  long  leases  in  church- 
livings,  which  then  used  to  be  let  for  many  years,  a  pitiful  pen- 
sion being  reserved  for  the  poor  curate :  though  possibly  in  his 
younger  time  he  might  have  tonsuram  primam,  or  be  a  deacon, 
which  (improved  by  his  great  power)  might  qualify,  at  least 
countenance,  him  for  the  holding  of  his  spiritual  promotions. 
He  died  1566,  and  lieth  buried  in  the  choir  of  St.  Paul's  (over 
against  William  Herbert,  first  earl  of  Pembroke) ;  and  I  re- 
member this  distich  of  his  long  epitaph : 

Tempore  quinque  suo  regnantes  ordine  vidit, 
Horum  a  consiliis  quatuor  illejuit. 

"  He  saw  five  princes,  which  the  sceptre  bore  ; 
Of  them,  was  privy-councillor  to  four." 

*  Mr.  Gutch,  in  his  History  of  the  Colleges  in  Oxford,  mentions  Laud's  legacy  to 
this  College  of  "  500/.  to  be  laid  out  in  lands  ;  besides  what  he  had  before  laid  out 
in  building,  and  other  matters." — ED. 

f  Sir  John  Hay  ward,  in  his  Edward  the  Sixth,  p.  105. 

J  Stow's  Annals.  Edward  VI.  p.  612. 

§  Camden,  Elizabeth,  anno  1566,  subfinem. 

||  These  words  are  absurdly  rendered  by  Abraham  Darcy  (who  understood  not 


It  appears  by  his  epitaph,  that  he  left  no  child  of  his  own 
body,  but  adopted  his  nephew  to  be  his  son  and  heir. 

Sir  THOMAS  SMITH,,  knight,  was  born  at  Abingdon,  bred  in 
the  university  of  Oxford.  God  and  himself  raised  him  to  the 
eminency  he  attained  unto,  unbefriended  with  any  extraction. 
He  may  seem  to  have  had  an  ingenuous  emulation  of  Sir  Tho- 
mas Smith,  senior,  secretary  of  state,  whom  he  imitated  in  many 
good  qualities  $  and  had  no  doubt  equalled  him  in  preferment, 
if  not  prevented  by  death.  He  attained  only  to  be  master  of 
the  Requests,  and  secretary  to  king  James  for  his  Latin  letters ; 
higher  places  expecting  him,  when  a  period  was  put  to  his  life, 
November  28,  1609.  He  lieth  buried  in  the  church  of  Fulham, 
in  Middlesex,  under  a  monument  erected  by  his  lady,  Frances, 
daughter  to  William  Lord  Chandos,  and  afterwards  countess  of 


HENRY  UMPTON,  knight,  was  born  (as  by  all  indications  in 
the  Heralds5  Office  doth  appear)  at  Wadley,  in  this  county.  He 
was  son  to  Sir  Edward  Umpton,  by  Anne  (the  relic  of  John 
Dudley,  earl  of  Warwick,  and)  the  eldest  daughter  of  Edward 
Seymour,  duke  of  Somerset.  He  was  employed  by  queen 
Elizabeth  ambassador  into  France,  where  he  so  behaved  himself 
right  stoutly  in  her  behalf,  as  may  appear  by  this  particular. 

In  the  month  of  March,  anno  1592,  being  sensible  of  some 
injury  offered  by  the  duke  of  Guise  to  the  honour  of  the  queen 
of  England,  he  sent  him  this  ensuing  challenge.* 

"  Forasmuch  as  lately,  in  the  lodging  of  my  lord  Du  Mayne, 
and  in  public  elsewhere,  impudently,  indiscreetly,  and  over- 
boldly,  you  spoke  badly  of  my  sovereign,  whose  sacred  person 
here  in  this  country  I  represent :  to  maintain  both  by  word  and 
weapon  her  honour  (which  never  was  called  in  question  among 
people  of  honesty  and  virtue) ;  I  say  you  have  wickedly  lied,  in 
speaking  so  basely  of  my  sovereign ;  and  you  shall  do  nothing 
else  but  lie,  whensoever  you  shall  dare  to  tax  her  honour. 
Moreover  that  her  sacred  person  (being  one  of  the  most  com- 
plete and  virtuous  princesses  that  lives  in  this  world)  ought  not 
to  be  evil-spoken  of  by  the  tongue  of  such  a  perfidious  traitor 
to  her  law  and  country  as  you  are.  And  hereupon  I  do  defy 
you,  and  challenge  your  person  to  mine,  with  such  manner  of 
arms  as  you  shall  like  or  choose,  be  it  either  on  horseback  or  oh 
foot.  Nor  would  I  have  you  to  think  any  inequality  of  person 
between  us,  I  being  issued  of  as  great  a  race  and  noble  house 
(every  way)  as  yourself.  So,  assigning  me  an  indifferent  place, 
I  will  there  maintain  my  words,  and  the  lie  which  I  gave  you, 

Latin,  and  translated  Camden  out  of  the  French  translation),  "  He  was  diligent 
and  careful  to  the  preservation  of  benefits." 

*  Exemplified  in  Mills's  "  Catalogue  of  Honour,"  in  the  edition  of  royal  paper, 
in  the  list  of  the  Earls  of  Warwick. 

K    2 


and  which  you  should  not  endure  if  you  have  any  courage  at  all 
in  you.  If  you  consent  not  to  meet  me  hereupon,  I  will  hold 
you,  and  cause  you  to  be  generally  held,  for  the  arrantest  coward 
and  most  slanderous  slave  that  lives  in  all  France.  I  expect 
your  answer." 

I  find  not  what  answer  was  returned.  This  Sir  Henry,  dying 
in  the  French  king's  camp  before  Lofear,  had  his  corpse  brought 
over  to  London,  and  carried  in  a  coach  to  Wadley,  thence  to 
Faringdon,  where  he  was  buried  in  the  church  on  Tuesday  the 
8th  of  July,  1596.  He  had  allowed  him  a  baron's  hearse,  be- 
cause dying  ambassador  leigier.* 


[S.N.]  HUGH  of  READING  quitted  his  expectancies  of  a 
fair  estate,  and,  sequestering  himself  from  worldly  delights,  em- 
braced a  monastical  life,  till  at  last  he  became  abbot  of  Reading. 
Such  who  suspect  his  sufficiency  will  soon  be  satisfied,  when 
they  read  the  high  commendation  which  Petrus  Blesensis,  arch- 
deacon of  Bath  (one  of  the  greatest  scholars  of  that  age) 
bestoweth  upon  him.  He  wrote  a  book  (of  "  No  Trivial  Ques- 
tions") fetched  out  of  the  Scripture  itself;  the  reason  why 
J.  Balef  (generally  a  back-friend  to  monks)  hath  so  good  a  cha- 
racter for  him,  who  flourished  anno  Dom.  1180. 

ROGER  of  WINDSOR^  was  undoubtedly  born  in  this  town ; 
otherwise  he  would  have  been  called  Roger  of  St.  Alban's,  be- 
ing chanter  in  that  convent.  Now  in  that  age  monks  were 
reputed  men  of  best  learning  and  most  leisure  ;  the  cause  why 
our  English  kings  always  chose  one  of  their  order  (who  passed 
by  the  name  of  Historicus  Regius,  the  king's  historian)  to  write 
the  remarkable  passages  of  his  time.  Our  Roger  was  by  king 
Henry  the  Third  selected  for  that  service,  and  performed  it  to 
his  own  great  credit  and  the  contentment  of  others.  He  flou- 
rished in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1235. 

ROBERT  RICH,  son  to  Edward  and  Mabell  his  wife,  brother 
of  St.  Edmund,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  was  born  at  Abing- 
don  in  this  county.  He  'followed  his  brother  at  very  great 
distance  both  in  parts  and  learning  (though  accompanying 
him  in  his  travels  beyond  the  seas),  and  wrote  a  book  of  the 
Life,  Death,  and  Miracles  of  his  brother,  being  much  to  blame 
if  he  did  not  do  all  right  to  so  near  a  relation.  He  died  about 
the  year  of  our  Lord  1250. 

RICHARD  of  WALLINGFORD  was  born  in  that  market-town, 

*  Funerals  by  Lee,  Clarencieux,  marked  fol.  45. 
•  De  Script.  Brit.  Cent.  3.  num.  20. 

J  I  vehemently  suspect  this  man,  merely  made  by  the  mistake  of  Pitseus  (anno 
1235),  for  Roger  Wendover. 

WRITERS.  133 

pleasantly  seated  on  the  river  Thames,  wherein  his  father  was  a 
blacksmith.  He  went  afterwards  to  Oxford,  -and  was  bred  in 
Merton  College ;  then  a  monk  ;  and  at  last  abbot  of  St.  Alban's, 
where  he  became  a  most  expert  mathematician,  especially  for 
the  mechanical  part  thereof,  and  (retaining  somewhat  of  his 
father's  trade)  was  dexterous  at  making  pretty  engines  and  in- 

His  masterpiece  was  a  most  artificial  clock,  made  (saith  my 
author*)  magno  laborey  majore  sumptu,  arte  vero  maxima.,  (with 
much  pain,  more  cost,  and  most  art.)  It  remained  in  that  mo- 
nastery in  the  time  of  John  Bale  (whom  by  his  words  I  collect  an 
eye-witness  thereof)  ;  affirming  that  Europe  had  not  the  like  ; 
so  that  it  seemed  as  good  as  the  famous  clock  at  Strasburg  in 
Germany ;  and  in  this  respect  better,  because  ancienter.  It  was 
a  calendar  as  well  as  a  clock,  shewing  the  fixed  stars  and  pla- 
nets; the  ebbing  and  flowing  of  the  sea,  minutes  of  the  hours 
and  what  not? 

I  have  heard  that  when  monopolies  began  to  grow  common 
in  the  court  of  France,  the  king's  jester  moved  to  have  this 
monopoly  for  himself,  viz.  a  gardesque  of  every  one  who  carried 
a  watch  about  him,  and  cared  not  how  he  employed  his  time. 
Surely  the  monks  of  Saint  Alban's  were  concerned  to  be  careful 
how  they  spent  their  hours,  seeing  no  convent  in  England  had 
the  like  curiosity ;  this  their  clock  gathering  up  the  least  crumb 
of  time,  presenting  the  minutary  fractions  thereof ;  on  which 
account,  I  conceive  Richard  the  maker  thereof  well  prepared  for 
the  time  of  his  dissolution,  when  he  died  of  the  leprosy,  anno 
Dom.  1326. 


[AMP.]  HENRY  BULLOCK  was  most  probably  born  in  this 
county,  where  his  ancient  name  appears  in  a  worshipful  estate. 
He  wras  bred  fellow  and  doctor  of  divinity  in  Queen's  College  in 
Cambridge,  a  good  linguist,  and  general  scholar,  familiar  with 
Erasmus  (an  evidence  of  his  learning,  it  being  as  hard  to  halt 
before  a  cripple,  as  to  deceive  his  judgment)  calling  him  Bo- 
villum  in  his  epistles  unto  him. 

By  the  way,  our  English  writers,  when  rendering  a  surname  in 
Latin,  which  hath  an  appellative  signification,  content  them  to 
retain  the  body  of  the  name,  and  only  disguise  the  termination ; 
as  Cross,  Peacok,  Crossus,  Peacocus,  &c.  But  the  Germans, 
in  such  a  case,  do  use  to  mould  the  meaning  of  the  name,  either 
into  Latin ;  as  J.  Fierce  they  translate  J.  Ferus ;  Bullock,  Bo- 
villus;  or  into  Greek,  as  Swarts  they  render  Melancthon; 
Peecklin,  Capnio. 

'Tis  confessed  our  Bullock,  compelled  by  Cardinal  Wolsey, 
wrote  against  Luther  ;f  but  otherwise  his  affections  were  biassed 
to  the  Protestant  party.  The  date  of  his  death  is  unknown. 

*  Bale,  de  Script.  Brit.  Cent.  5.  num.  19.  f  Idem.  9.  num.  7. 


WILLIAM  Twis  was  born  at  Spene  in  this  county,  which 
was  an  ancient  Roman  city,  mentioned  by  Antonine  in  his 
Itinerary  by  the  name  of  Spina.*  This  mindeth  me  of  a  passage 
in  Clemens  Alexandrinus,t  speaking  of  sanctified  afflictions  ; 
"  Nos  quidem  e  spinis  uvas  colligimus."  And  here,  in  another 
sense,  God's  church  gathered  grapes  ;  this  good  man  out  of  this 
thorny  place.  Hence  he  was  sent  by  Winchester  School  to 
New  College  in  Oxford,  and  there  became  a  general  scholar. 
His  plain  preaching  was  good,  solid  disputing  better,  pious  living 
best  of  all.  He  afterwards  became  preacher  in  the  place  of  his 
nativity  (Spinham  lands  is  part  of  Newberry)  ;  and  though  ge- 
nerally our  Saviour's  observation  is  verified,  "  A  prophet  is  not 
without  honour  save  in  his  own  country  "  (chiefly  because  "  mi- 
nutiae omnes  pueritite  ejus  ibi  sunt  cognitse,")  yet  here  he  met 
with  deserved  respect.  Here  he  laid  a  good  foundation  ;  and 
the  more  the  pity,  if  since  some  of  his  fanciful  auditors  have 
built  hay  and  stubble  thereupon.  And  no  wonder  if  this  good 
doctor  toward  his  death  was  slighted  by  secretaries,  it  being 
usual  for  new-lights  to  neglect  those  who  have  borne  the  heat  of 
the  day.  His  Latin  works  give  great  evidence  of  his  abilities 
in  controversial  matters.  He  was  chosen  prolocutor  in  the 
late  assembly  of  divines,  wherein  his  moderation  was  very  much 
commended;  and  dying  in  Holborn,  he  was  buried  at  West- 
minster,, anno  Dom,  164  —  . 

WILLIAM  LYFORD  was  born  at  Peysmer  in  this  county,  and 
bred  in  Magdalen  College,  in  Oxford,  where  he  proceeded  bache- 
lor of  divinity  1631.  He  was  also  a  fellow  of  that  foundation, 
on  the  same  token  that  his  conscience  post  factum  was  much 
troubled  about  his  resigning  his  place  for  money  to  his  succes- 
sor, but  (as  his  friends  have  informed  me)  he  before  his  death 
took  order  for  the  restitution  thereof. 

The  modesty  of  his  mind  was  legible  in  the  comeliness  of  his 
countenance,  arid  the  meekness  of  his  spirit  visible  in  his  courteous 
carriage.  He  was  afterwards  fixed  at  Shcrborne,  in  Dorset- 
shire, where  his  large  vineyard  required  such  an  able  and  pain- 
ful vine  dresser.  Here  he  laid  a  good  foundation  (before  the 
beginning  of  our  civil  wars)  with  his  learned  preaching  and 
catechising;  and  indeed,  though  sermons  give  most  sail  to 
men's  souls,  catechising  layeth  the  best  ballast  in  them,  keeping 
them  steady  from  "  being  carried  away  with  every  wind  of  doc- 
trine," Yet  he  drank  a  deep  draught  of  the  bitter  cup  with  the 
rest  of  his  brethren,  and  had  his  share  of  obloquy  from  such 
factious  persons  as  could  not  abide  the  wholesome  words  of 
sound  doctrine.  But  their  candle  (without  their  repentance) 
shall  be  put  out  in  darkness,  whilst  his  memory  shall  shine  in 

Britannia,  in  Berkshire. 
f  Lib.  2.  Padagogi  ;  tiptff  ^  ,'£ 


his  learned  works  he  hath  left  behind  him.     He  died  about  the 
year  of  our  Lord  1652. 


THOMAS  HYDE  was  born  at  Newberry,  in  this  county,  and 
bred  a  Master  of  Arts  in  New  College  in  Oxford  :*  he  was  after- 
wards canon  of  Winchester,  and  chief  master  of  the  school 
therein.  He,  with  John  Martial,  the  second  master,  about  the 
beginning  of  the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  left  both  their  school 
and  their  land,  living  long  beyond  the  seas.  This  Hyde  is 
charactered  by  one  of  his  own  persuasion  "  to  be  a  man  of 
upright  life,  of  great  gravity  and  severity ."f  He  wrote  a  book 
of  consolation  to  his  fellow-exile  ;  and  died  anno  Dom.  159/. 


ALFRED,  the  fourth  son  to  king  Athelwolf,  was  born  at 
Wantage,  a  market-town  in  this  county ;J  an  excellent  scholar, 
though  he  was  past  twelve  years  of  age  before  he  knew  one 
letter  in  the  book.§  And  did  not  he  run  fast,  who  starting  so 
late  came  soon  to  the  mark  ?  He  was  a  curious  poet,  excellent 
musician,  a  valiant  and  successful  soldier,  who  fought  seven 
battles  against  the  Danes  in  one  year,  and  at  last  made  them 
his  subjects  by  conquest,  and  God's  servants  by  Christianity. 
He  gave  the  first  institution,  or  (as  others  will  have  it)  the  best 
instauration,  to  the  university  of  Oxford.  A  prince  who  can- 
not be  painted  to  the  life  without  his  loss,  no  words  reaching 
his  worth. 

He  divided,  1.  Every  natural  day  (as  to  himself )  into  three 
parts ;  eight  hours  for  his  devotion,  eight  hours  for  his  employ- 
ment, eight  hours  for  his  sleep  and  refection.  2.  His  revenues 
into  three  parts ;  one  for  his  expences  in  war,  a  second  for  the 
maintenance  of  his  court,  and  a  third  to  be  spent  on  pious 
uses.  3.  His  land  into  thirty-two  shires,  which  number  since 
is  altered  and  increased.  4.  His  subjects  into  hundreds  and 
tithings,  consisting  of  ten  persons,  mutually  pledges  for  their 
good  behaviour ;  such  being  accounted  suspicious  for  their  life 
and  loyalty  that  could  not  give  such  security. 

He  left  learning,  where  he  found  ignorance ;  justice,  where 
he  found  oppression  ;  peace,  where  he  found  distraction.  And, 
having  reigned  about  four  and  thirty  years,  he  died,  and  was 
buried  at  Winchester,  anno  901.  He  loved  religion  more  than 
superstition,  favoured  learned  men  more  than  lazy  monks ; 
which,  perchance,  was  the  cause  that  his  memory  is  not  loaden 
with  miracles,  and  he  not  solemnly  sainted  with  other  Saxon 
kings  who  far  less  deserved  it. 

*  Register  of  New  College,  anno  1543.  f  Pits-  de  Script.  Brit,  anno  1597. 

J  Camden,  Britannia,  in  Berkshire. 

§»Mr.  Selden,  in  his  notes  on  Polyolbyon,  page  192. 



PETER  CHAPMAN  was  born  at  Cokeham,  in  this  county,  bred 
an  ironmonger  in  London,  and  at  his  death  bequeathed  five 
pounds  a  year  to  two  scholars  in  Oxford ;  as  much  to  two  in 
Cambridge ;  and  five  pounds  a  year  to  the  poor  in  the  town  of 
his  nativity ;  besides  threescore  pounds  to  the  prisons  in  Lon- 
don, and  other  benefactions.*  The  certain  date  of  his  death 
is  to  me  unknown. 

JOHN  KENDRICK  was  born  at  Reading  in  this  county,  and 
bred  a  draper  in  the  city  of  London.     His  state  com- 
pared to  the  mustard-seed,  very  little   at  the  beginning,    but 
f  rowing  so  great,  that  the  birds  made  nests  therein  ;t  or  rather 
e  therein  made  nests  for  many  birds,  which  otherwise,  being 
either  unfledged  or  maimed,  must  have  been  exposed  to  wind 
and  weather. 

The  worthiest  of  David's  Worthies  were  digested*  into  ter- 
nlonSy  and  they  again  subdivided  into  two  ranks.  J  If  this  dou- 
ble dichotomy  were  used  to  methodize  our  Protestant  benefactors 
since  the  Reformation,  sure  I  am  that  Mr.  Kendrick  will  be  (if 
not  the  last  of  the  first)  the  first  of  the  second  three.  His  cha- 
rity began  at  his  kindred ;  proceeded  to  his  friends  and  servants 
(to  whom  he  left  large  legacies) ;  concluded  with  the  poor,  on 
whom  he  bestowed  above  twenty  thousand  pounds :  Reading 
and  Newberry  sharing  the  deepest  therein. §  And  if  any 
envious  and  distrustful  miser  (measuring  other  men's  hearts  by 
the  narrowness  of  his  own)  suspecteth  the  truth  hereof,  and  if  he 
dare  hazard  the  smarting  of  his  bleared  eyes  to  behold  so  bright 
a  sun  of  bounty,  let  him  consult  his  will  publicly  in  print.  He 
departed  this  life  on  the  30th  day  of  September,  1624  ;  and 
lies  buried  in  St.  Christopher's,  London ;  to  the  curate  of  which 
parish  he  gave  twenty  pounds  per  annum  for  ever. 

[S.  N.]  RICHARD  WIGHTWICK,  bachelor  of  divinity,  was  rec- 
tor of  East  Ilsley  in  this  county.  What  the  yearly  value  of  his 
living  was  I  know  not,  and  have  cause  to  believe  it  not  very 
great.  However,  one  would  conjecture  his  benefice  a  bishopric, 
by  his  bounty  to  Pembroke  College  in  Oxford,  to  which  he  gave 
one  hundred  pounds  per  annum,  to  the  maintenance  of  three 
fellows  and  four  scholars.  When  he  departed  this  life,  is  to  me 


THOMAS  COLE,  commonly  called  the  rich  clothier  of  Reading. 
Tradition  and  an  authorless  pamphlet  make  him  a  man  of  vast 

*  Stow's  Survey  of  London,  page  98.  f  Matth.  xiii.  32. 

J  2  Sam.  xxiii.  19.  §  Stow's  Survey  of  London,  p.  193. 


wealth,  maintaining  an  hundred  and  forty  menial  servants  in  his 
house,  besides  three  hundred  poor  people  whom  he  set  on 
work ;  insomuch  that  his  wains  with  cloth  filled  the  highway 
betwixt  Reading  and  London,  to  the  stopping  of  king  Henry 
the  First  in  his  progress ;  who  notwithstanding  (for  the  encou- 
raging of  his  subjects5  industry)  gratified  the  said  Cole,  and  all 
of  his  profession,  with  the  set  measure  of  a  yard,  the  said  king 
making  his  own  arm  the  standard  thereof,  whereby  drapery  was 
reduced  in  the  meting  thereof  to  a  greater  certainty. 

The  truth  is  this;  monks  began  to  lard  the  lives  of  their 
saints  with  lies,  whence  they  proceeded  in  like  manner  to 
flourish  out  the  facts  of  famous  knights  (king  Arthur,  Guy  of 
Warwick,  &c.)  ;  in  imitation  whereof  some  meaner  wits  in  the 
same  sort  made  description  of  mechanics,  powdering  their  lives 
with  improbable  passages,  to  the  great  prejudice  of  truth ;  seeing 
the  making  of  broad-cloth  in  England  could  not  be  so  ancient, 
and  it  was  the  arm  (not  of  king  Henry)  but  king  Edward  the 
First,  which  is  notoriously  known  to  have  been  the  adequation 
of  a  yard. 

However,  because  omnis  fabula  fundatur  in  Historia,  let  this 
Cole  be  accounted  eminent  in  this  kind ;  though  I  vehemently 
suspect  very  little  of  truth  would  remain  in  the  midst  of  this 
story,  if  the  gross  falsehoods  were  pared  from  both  sides  thereof. 

JOHN  WINSCOMBE,  called  commonly  Jack  of  Newberry, 
was  the  most  considerable  clothier  (without  fancy  and  fiction) 
England  ever  beheld.  His  looms  were  his  lands,  •  whereof  he 
kept  one  hundred  in  his  house,  each  managed  by  a  man  and 
a  boy.  In  the  expedition  to  Flodden-field,  against  James  king 
of  Scotland,  he  marched  with  an  hundred  of  his  own  men  (as 
well  armed  and  better  clothed  than  any),  to  shew  that  the  pain- 
ful to  use  their  hands  in  peace,  could  be  valiant,  and  employ 
their  arms  in  war.  He  feasted  king  Henry  the  Eighth  and  his 
first  queen  Katharine  at  his  own  house,  extant  at  Newberry  at 
this  day,  but  divided  into  many  tenements.  Well  may  his 
house  now  make  sixteen  clothiers5  houses,  whose  wealth  would 
amount  to  six  hundred  of  their  estates.  He  built  the  church  of 
Newberry  from  the  pulpit  westward  to  the  tower  inclusively ; 
and  died  about  the  year  1520;  some  of  his  name  and  kindred 
of  great  wealth  still  remaining  in  this  county. 


1.  John   Parveis,   son    of  John   Parveis,    of     Erlgeston,  fish- 
monger, 1432. 

2.  Nicholas  Wyfold,    son    of    Thomas   Wyfold,    of    Hertley, 
grocer,  1450. 

3.  William   Webbe,    son  of  John  Webbe,  of  Reading,  salter, 



4.  Thomas  Bennet,   son  of  Thomas  Bennet,   of  Wallingford, 
mercer,  1603. 


THE    SIXTH,   1433. 

LoveL,  Chivaler,  Corn- 

Robert  bishop  of  Sarum,  and  William 

missioners  to  take  the  oaths. 
Robert   Shotsbroke,    and   William    Fyndern, 


knights    for  the 

Johan.  Prendegest,  Prseceptor 
Hospitalis  St.  Johan.  Jerus. 
in  Anglia,  de  Grenham. 

Johannis  Golefre,  armigeri. 

Williemi  Warbelton,  arm. 

Willielmi  Danvers,  arm. 

Johannis  Shotesbrooke,  arm. 

Thomse  Foxle,  arm. 

Philippi  Inglefeld,  arm. 

Thomse  Rothewell,  arm. 

Willielmi  Perkyns,  arm. 

Thomse  Drewe,  arm. 

Richardi  Ristwold,  arm. 

Richardi  Makeney,  arm. 

Johannis  Rogers,  arm. 

Willielmi  Stanerton,  arm. 

Willielmi  Floyer,  arm. 

Thomse  Bullok,  arm. 

Richardi  Bullok,  arm. 

Johannis  Estbury,  arm. 

Johannis  Kentwode,  arm. 

Richardi  Hulcote,  arm. 

Johannis  Gargrave,  arm. 

Johannis  Chaumpe^  arm. 

Willielmi  Baron,  arm. 

Willielmi  Fitzwaryn,  arm. 

Johannis  Stowe. 

Willielmi  Hales. 

Johannis  Hyde. 

Johan.  Stokys  de  Brympton. 

Willielmi  Fachell. 

Roberti  Vobe. 

Thomae  Pynchepole. 

Johannis  Yorke. 

Johannis  Ildesle. 

Thomse  Ildesle. 

Johannis  Colle. 

Richardi  Wydeford. 

Richardi  Abberburv. 

Thomse  Lanyngton. 

Thomse  Denton. 

Nicholai  Whaddon. 

Petri  Delamare. 

Johannis  Martyn. 

Thomse  Frankeleyn. 

Willielmi  Felyce. 

Richardi  Haniwell. 

Roberti  Wodecok. 

Johannis  Warvyle. 

Johannis  Rokys. 

Johannis  Seward. 

Willielmi  Walrond. 

Johannis  Medeford. 

Rogeri  Merlawe. 

Willielmi  Latton. 

Richardi  Shayle. 

Thomse  Coterell.  " 

Johannis  George. 

Johannis  Sewalle. 

Johannis  Sturmy. 

Thomee  Hammes. 

Johannis  Wering. 

Roberti  Beche. 

Johannis  Coventre. 

Johannis  Lokwode. 

Johannis  Fitzwarwin. 

Henri ci  Samon. 

Thomse  Plesance. 

Edwardi  Gybbes. 

Will.  Coke  de  Kingeston  Lyle, 

Johannis  Firry. 

Nicholai  Hunt. 

Hugonis  Mayne. 

Willielmi  Newman  senioris. 

Davidis  Gower. 

Johannis  Dienys. 

Richardi  Dancastre. 

Willielmi  Drew  de  Hungford. 



Johannis  Parker  de  Doington. 

Willielmi  Standard. 

Richard!  Collis. 

Nicholai  Long. 

Robert!  Chevayn. 

Richard!  Walker. 

Walter!  Canonn,  de  Crokeham 


Robert!  Rove  de  Abendon. 
Johannis  Richby  de  Reding. 
Johannis  Stokes  de  Abendon. 
Johannis  Whitwey. 
Willielmi  Umfray. 
Simonis  Kent. 
Johannis  Hatter. 
WTillielmi  Brusele. 
Richard!  Irmonger. 
Richard!  Vayre. 
Gilbert!  Holeway. 
Johannis  London. 
Willielmi  Pleystow. 
Johannis  Bancbury. 
Thomae  Liford. 
Henrici  Ildesle. 
Johannis  Chebeyn. 
Johannis  Mortymer. 
Johannis  Spynache. 
Johannis  Moyn  de  Faryndon. 
Johannis  Ely. 
Johannis  Goddard. 
Willielmi  Ditton. 
Walter!  Sutton. 
Nicholai  Barbour. 
Willielmi  Jacob. 
Johannis  Benet  de  Newberry. 
Johannis  Magot. 
Willielmi  Croke  de  Newberry. 
Willielmi  Clement. 
Johannis  Moyn  de  Moryton. 
Robert!  Freman. 
Johannis  Lewes. 
Thomae  Steward. 
Willielmi  Sydmanton. 
Richard!  Waltham. 
Johannis  Babeham. 
Johannis  Clere. 
Johannis  Botele  de  Newberry. 
Richard!  Meryvale. 
Willielmi  Walevs. 

Johannis  Beneton. 
Willielmi  Croke  de  Welford. 
Willielmi  Charectour. 
Willielmi  Hertrugge. 
Johannis  Kybe. 
Willielmi  Wylton. 
Richard!  Coterell. 
Lauren tii  Alisandre. 
Thomae  Bevar. 
Vincentii  Bertilmewe. 
Johannis  Pynkeney. 
Thomae  Attevyne. 
Johannis  Crouchfeld. 
Johannis  Smewyn. 
Johannis  Sifrewast. 

Johannis  Batell. 

Johannis  Bythewode. 

Thomae  Bowell. 

Thomae  Hony. 

Walteri  Waryn. 

Johannis  Yernemouth. 

Henrici  Russell. 

Roberti  Ivenden. 

Henrici  Berkesdale. 

Johannis  Absolon. 

Johannis  Berkesdale. 

Johannis  Clerk  de  Inkpenny. 

Richard!  Bertlot. 

Gilbert!  Cohenhull. 

Gilbert!  Vyell. 

Gilbert!  Attewyke. 

Richard!  Attepitte. 

Thomae  Padbury. 

Hugonis  Rose. 

Johannis  Woderove. 

Thomae  Pert. 

Johannis  Merston. 

Richard!  Grove. 

Rogeri  Burymill. 

Thomae  Grece., 

Richard!  Pekke. 

Richard!  Mullyng. 

Johan.  Parker  de  Wokingham. 

Johannis  Whitede. 

Johan.  Sherman  de  Wyndesor. 

Willielmi  Wodyngton. 

Rogeri  Felter. 

Willielmi  Felcle. 

Johannis  Billesby. 


Johannis  Gunter.  Richard!  Rissul. 

Johannis  Glover.  Johannis  Yatynderi. 

Richardi  Atteforde.  Johannis  Kete. 

Johannis  Stacy.  Johannis  Pernecote. 

Johannis  Baron  de  Wytenhara.  Rogeri  Gunter. 

Johannis  Horwode.  Thomee  Swyer. 

Willielmi  More.  Richardi  Bocher  de  Thacham. 

Willielmi  At-mille.  Johannis  Elys  de  Thacham. 

Henrici  de  la  River.  Thomee  Mepy. 

Johannis  Poting.  Richardi  Phelipp. 

Henrici  Brown.  Johannis  Thoursey,  and 

Johannis  Brown.  Johannis  Bassemore. 

Gardeners  complain  that  some  kind  of  flowers  and  fruits  will 
not  grow  prosperously  and  thrive  kindly  in  the  suburbs  of  Lon- 
don. This  they  impute  to  the  smoke  of  the  City,  offensive  there- 
unto. Sure  I  am  that  ancient  gentry  in  this  county,  sown  thick 
in  former,  come  up  thin  in  our,  age. 

Anliqua  e  multis  nomina  pauca  manent. 

"  Of  names  which  were  in  days  of  yore, 
Few  remain  here  of  a  great  store." 

I  behold  the  vicinity  of  London  as  the  cause  thereof:  for  though 
Berkshire  be  conveniently  distanced  thence  (the  nearest  place 
sixteen,  the  farthest  sixty  miles  from  the  same),  yet  the  goodness 
of  the  ways  thither,  and  sweetness  of  the  seats  there  (not  to  speak 
of  the  river  Thames,  which  uniteth  both  in  commerce)  setteth 
Berkshire  really  nearer  than  it  is  locally  to  London ;  the  cause, 
I  believe,  that  so  few  families  remain  of  the  forenamed  cata- 

The  paucity  of  them  maketh  such  as  are  extant  the  more  re- 
markable ;  amongst  whom  William  Fachel,  or  Vachel  (the  29th 
in  number),  was  right  ancient,  having  an  estate  in  and  about 
Reading,  as  by  the  ensuing  deed  will  appear  : 

"  Sciant  presentes  et  futuri,  quod  ego  Joannes  Vachel  dedi, 
concessi,  et  hac  presenti  charta  mea  confirmavi  Rogero  le  Dub- 
bare,  pro  servicio  suo,  et  pro  quadam  summa  pecunie  quam 
mini  dedit  primo  in  manibus,  totum  et  integrum  illud  tenemen- 
tum/cum  pertinentiis  suis,  quod  habui  in  veteri  vico  Rading,  inter 
tenementum  quod  quondam  fuit  Thome  Goum  in  parte  Boreali, 
et  tenementum  quod  quondam  fuit  Jordani  le  Dubbar  in  parte 
Australi,  habend.  et  tenend.  dicto  Rogero,  et  heredibus  suis  vel 
assignatis,  libere,  quiete,  integre,  in  bona  pace,  in  perpetuum, 
de  capitalibus  dominis  illius  feodi,  per  servicium  inde  debitum 
et  consuetum;  reddendo  inde  annuatim  mihi,  et  heredibus  vel 
assignatis  meis,  duos  solidos  et  sex  denarios,  ad  festum  Sancti 
Michaelis,  pro  omni  servicio  seculari,  exactione,  et  demanda. 
Et  ergo  predictus  Johannes,  et  heredes  mei,  vel  mei  assignati, 
totum  predictum  tenementum,  cum  omnibus  suis  pertinentiis, 
dicto  Rogero,  et  heredibus  vel  assignatis  suis,  warrantizabimus, 
et  contra  omnes  gentes  defendemus  in  perpetuum,  per  servitium 



predictum.  In  cujus  rei  testimonium,  present!  charte  sigillum 
meum  apposui.  Hiis  testibus ;  Radulpho  de  la  Batili,  Thoma 
de  Lecester,  Nicholao  Bastat,  Waltero  Gerard,  Roberto  le  Taylur, 
Johanne  le  Foghel,  Bardolpho  le  Foghellar,  Gilberto  de  Heg- 
feiM,  et  aliis.  Dat.  apud  Rading,  duodecimo  die  Februarii,  anno 
regni  regis  Edwardi  filii  regis  Henrici  vicesimo  nono." 

The  descendants  of  this  name  are  still  extant  in  this  county, 
at  Coley,  in  a  worshipful  condition. 


Anciently  this  county  had  sometimes  the  same,  sometimes  a 
distinct  sheriff  from  Oxfordshire,  as  by  the  ensuing  catalogue 
will  appear,  so  well  as  we  can  distinguish  them. 



Of  Berkshire.                         Of  both. 

Of  Oxfordshire. 



1   Willielm.  de  Pontearch 

1   Restoldus. 

2  Richardus  de  Charvill. 

2  Henr.  de  Oille. 

3  Gilbertus  de  Pinchigen. 

3  Henricus  de  Oille. 



5  Gulielmus  Pinchigen. 

5   Henricus  de  Oile. 



7  Richard.  Lucv. 

7  Manassar  Arsic. 

8  Adam,  le  Cadmus. 

8       Idem. 

9  Adam,  de  Catmer. 

9       Idem. 

10       Idem. 

10  Thomas  Basset. 

11  Adam,  de 


12       Idem. 

13       Idem. 

14       Idem. 

15       Idem. 

16  Hugo  de  Bockland. 

IG  Adam.  Banaster. 

17       Idem. 

I/        Idem. 

18       Idem. 

18        Idem. 

19       Idem.  &  H.  de  Bockland. 

19       Idem. 

20  Hugo  de  Bockland. 

20  Alard.  Banaster. 

21        Idem. 

21        Idem. 

22       Idem. 

22  Rob.  de  Turvill. 

23  Hugo. 

23       Idem. 

24       Idem. 

24       Idem. 

25  Hugo  de  Sto  Germane. 

25       Idem. 

26       Idem. 

26  Galf.  Hose. 

27       Idem. 

27  Galf.  Hosatts. 

28       Idem. 

28       Idem. 

29       Idem. 

29  Rob.  Witefield. 

30       Idem. 

30       Idem. 


Of  Berkshire.  Of  both.  Of  Oxfordshire. 


31  Hugo  de  Sto  Germano.  31  Alan,  de  Furnell. 

32  32       Idem. 

33  Rogerus  films  Renfr.  33       Idem. 


1   Rob.  fil.  Renfr.  1   Rob.  de  la  Mara. 

2  Robertus  de  la  Mara. 

3  Willielmus  Briewere. 

4  Idem. 

5  Idem. 

6  Idem. 

7  Willielmus  filius  Rad.  7   Henricus  de  Oille. 

8  Philippus  filius  Rob.  8   Henr.  de  Oille,,  and 
Alan,  de  Marton.  Pag.  de  Chaderington. 

9  Philip,  filius  Rob.  9  Hugo  de  Nevill. 
Alan,  de  Manton.  Galf.  de  Savage. 

10  Stephan.  de  Turnham.  10  Hugo,  de  Nevill. 

Johannes  de  Ferles.  Galfr.  de  Salvage. 


1  Stephan.  de  Turnham.  1   Hugo  de  Nevill. 
Johannes  de  Ferles.  Galfr.  Slavagius, 

2  Gilbert.  Basset.  2  Rob.  de  Cantelu. 
Richard.  Caverton.  Fulk.  de  Contelu. 

Nich.  de  Kent. 

3  Will.  Briewere.  3  Will.  Briewere,,  and 

Rich,  de  Parco. 

5  Hubert,  de  Burgo.  5  Jo.  de  Wickeneholt,  jun. 

6  6  Thorn.  Banaster. 

7  Rich,  de  Tus. 

8  Tho.  Basset. 

9  Rob.  de  Amnari. 

10  Richardus  de  Tus.  10  Tho.  Basset. 

11  Robert  de  Magre.  11       Idem. 

12  Joan,  de  Wikenholton.  12    Idem,  and  Rob.  de  Magre. 

13  Idem.  13       Idem. 

14  Johan.  de  Wikenholton. 

15  Johan.  de  Wikenholton.  15  Tho.  Basset. 

Rob.  e  Magre. 

16  Idem.  16  Tho.  Basset. 

Rich.  Letus. 
17  Johan.  de  Wikenholton. 


1  1 

2  Richardus  filius  Reg.  2  Fulco  de  Breantee. 
Hen.  de  Saio.  Rad.  de  Bray. 

3  Idem.  3       Idem. 


Of  Berkshire,  Of  both.  Of  Oxfordshire. 


4  Henry  de  Saio.  4  Rad.  de  Bray. 

5   Idem,  cum  filiis  Radulph.  de  Bray. 

6  Hen.  de  Saio.  6  Rad.  de  Bray. 

7  Idem.  7  Falkesius  de  Breantee. 

Ric.  de  Brakele. 

8  Fakesius  de  Breantee.  8  Ric.  de  Ripariis. 

9  Hen.  de  Saio.  9  Ric.  de  Brakele. 

10  Henricus  de  Saio. 

11   Hugo  de  Batonia.  11   Galfr.  de  Craucombe. 

Rob.  de  Haya. 

12  Hugo  de  Bada. 

12  Phillippus  de  Albrit 

13  Rob.  de  Haya. 

13  Galfr.  de  Craucomb 

14  Hen.  de  Saio. 

14  Idem. 

Rob.  de  Haya. 

15       Idem. 

15        Idem. 

16       Idem. 

16       Idem. 

17  Johan. 

de  Hulcot. 

18  Rob.  de  Maplederham. 

19  Engelard  de  Cicomaco, 

19  Johan.  Brims. 

Nich.  de  Hedington. 

20       Idem. 

20       Idem. 

21   Rob.  Bren. 

21  Johan.  de  Tiwe. 

22  Simon  de  Lauchmore. 

22       Idem. 

23       Idem. 

23       Idem. 

24  Sim.  de  Lauchmore. 

24  Johan.  de  Plesseto. 

Will.  Hay. 

25        Idem. 

25  Will.  Hay. 

26       Idem. 

26       Idem. 

27       Idem. 

27       Idem. 

28  Alanus  de  Farnham. 

28  Will.  Hay. 

29       Idem. 

29       Idem.  " 



30  Aland,  de  Farnham.  50  John  de  St°  Walenco. 

31  Idem.  ^1       Idem. 

32  Widom.'  nlius  Robert!.  52  Nich-  de  Wiffrewash. 

33  Idem.  53  Tho.  de  S*  Wigore. 

34  Idem.  54       Idem-  T 

35  Nich.  de  Henred,  for  nine    55  Will,  de  Insula. 

years  together.  R°g-  EP1S-  Cov-  and  Llch' 

44  Walter,  de  la  Knivere.  56       Idem- 

45  Idem.  EDWARD  i. 

46  Idem.  1   Gilb.  Kirkby. 

47  Fulco  de  Kucot.  2       Idem. 

48  Idem.  3       Idem. 

49  John  de  Sto  Walerico.  4  Hen.  de  Shoctebroke. 




5  Hen.  de  Shoctebroke. 

6  Jacob,  de  Patebery. 

7  Hen.  de  Shoctebroke. 
Alanus  films  Rol. 

8  Idem. 

9  Jac.  Croke. 

Joh.  de  Ciidemers. 

10  Johan.  de  Cridemers. 

11  Idem. 

12  Idem. 

13  Johan.  de  Tudemers. 
Radul.  de  Beauyes. 

14  Radul.  de  Beauyes. 

15  Thorn,  de  Duners. 

16  Idem. 

17  Idem. 

18  Willielmus  de  Gresmull. 

19  Richar.  de  Wilniescote. 

20  Will,   de   Bremchele,  for 

four  years  together. 
24  Hen.  de  Thistelden,  for 

five  years  together. 
29  Nich.  de  Spershete,  for 

seven  years  together. 

EDWARD    II   . 

1  Tho.  Danvers. 

2  Rich,  de  Ameray. 

3  Idem. 

4  Tho.  Danvers. 

5  Idem. 

6  Idem.  &  Phil,  de  la  Beach. 

7  Phil,  de  la  Beach, 

8  Richar.  de  Windsor. 

9  Richar.  de  Poltiampton. 

10  Idem. 

1 1  Otvelus  Pursell,  &  Richar. 

de  la  Bere. 

12  Richar.  de  la  Bere,  &  Joh. 

de  Brumpton. 

13  Johan.  de  Brumpton. 

14  Idem. 

15  Drogo  Barentine,  for  five 

years  together. 



1  Johan.  de  Brumpton. 

2  Idem. 

3  Johan.  de  Bockland. 

4  Philip,  de  la  Beach. 

5  Rich,  de  Colshul. 

6  Idem. 

7  Johan.  de  Brumpton. 

8  Willielm.  de  Spershalt. 

9  Johan.  de  Alveton. 

10  Willielm.  de  Speshalt. 

11  Johan.  de  Alveton,  for  four 

years  together. 

15  Edward,  de  Morlins. 

16  Robert.  Fitz-Ellis. 

17  Johan.  de  Alveton,  for  five 

years  together. 

22  Johannes  Laundeles,  for  six 
years  together. 

28  Johan.  de  Alveton. 
Richar.  de  Nowers. 

29  Johan.  de  Willamscot. 

30  Johan.  Laundeles. 

31  Idem. 

32  Idem. 

33  Robert,  de  Moreton, 

34  Idem. 

35  Roger,  de  Elmerugg. 

36  Idem. 

37  Roger,  de  Cottesford. 

38  Idem. 

39  Idem. 

40  Roger,  de  Elmerugg,for  three 

years  together. 

43  Roger,  de  Cottesford. 

44  Tho.  de  la  Mare. 

45  Idem. 

46  Gilbert.  Wace. 

47  Roger  de  Elmerugg. 

48  Johan.  James. 

49  Gilbert.  Wace. 

50  Regind.  de  Maliris. 

51  Johan.  de  Roth  well. 

Reader,  let  me  freely  confess  myself  to  thee,  had  I  met  with 
equal  difficulty  in  the  sheriffs  of  other  counties  as  in  this  the 
first  shire,  it  had  utterly  disheartened  me  from  proceeding. 


The  sheriffs  of  Berkshire  and  Oxfordshire  are  so  indented,  or 
(pardon  the  metaphor)  so  entangled  with  elflocks,  I  cannot  comb 
them  out. 

I  will  not  say  that  I  have  done  always  right  in  dividing  the 
sheriffs  respectively;  but  have  endeavoured  my  utmost;  and 
may  be  the  better  believed,  who  in  such"  a  subject  could  meet 
with  nothing  to  bribe  or  bias  my  judgment  to  partiality. 

Be  it  premised,  that  though  the  list  of  sheriffs  be  the  most 
comprehensive  catalogue  of  the  English  gentry,  yet  it  is  not 
exactly  adequate  thereunto  :  for  I  find  in  this  county  the  family 
of  the  Pusays  so  ancient,  that  they  were  lords  of  Pusay  (a  vil- 
lage nigh  Faringdon)  long  before  the  Conquest,  in  the  time  of 
king  Canutus,  holding  their  lands  by  the  tenure  of  cornage  (as 
I  take  it) ;  viz.  by  winding  the  horn  which  the  king  aforesaid 
gave  their  family,  and  which  their  posterity,  still  extant,  at  this 
day  do  produce.*  Yet  none  of  their  name  (though  persons  of 
regard  in  their  respective  generations)  appear  ever  sheriffs  of 
this  county. 

I  am  glad  of  so  pregnant  an  instance,  and  more  glad  that  it 
so  seasonably  presenteth  itself  in  the  front  of  our  work,  to  con- 
fute their  false  logic,  who  will  be  ready  to  conclude  negatively, 
for  this  our  catalogue  of  sheriffs  excluding  them  the  lines  of 
ancient  gentry  whose  ancestors  never  served  in  this  office.  On 
the  other  side,  no  ingenuous  gentleman  can  be  offended  with 
me  if  he  find  not  his  name  registered  in  this  roll,  seeing  it  can- 
not be  in  me  any  omission  whilst  I  follow  my  commission, 
faithfully  transcribing  what  I  find  in  the  Records. 


3.  WILLIELMUS  BRIEWERE. — He  was  so  called  (saith  my 
author t)  because  his  father  was  born  upon  an  heath;  though  by 
the  similitude  of  the  name,  one  would  have  suspected  him  born 
among  briers.  But  see  what  a  poor  man's  child  may  come  to. 
He  was  such  a  minion  to  this  king  Richard  the  First,  that  he 
created  him  Baron  of  Odcomb,  in  Somersetshire.  Yea,  when 
one  Fulk  Paynell  was  fallen  into  the  king's  displeasure,  he  gave 
this  William  Briewere  the  town  of  Bridgewater,  to  procure  his 
reingratiating.  His  large  inheritance  (his  son  dying  without 
issue)  was  divided  amongst  his  daughters,  married  into  the 
honourable  families  of  Breos,  Wake,  Mohun,  Lafert,  and  Percy. 

8.  PHLLIPPUS  films  ROBERTI.  MARTON. — It  is 
without  precedent,  that  ever  two  persons  held  the  shrievalty  of 
one  county  jointly,  or  in  co-partnership,  London  and  Middlesex 
alone  excepted,  whereof  hereafter.  However,  if  two  sheriffs 
appear  in  one  year,  as  at  this  time  and  frequently  hereafter, 

*  Camden's  Britannia,  in  this  county.  f  Ibid,  in  Somersetshire. 

VOL.    I.  L 


such  duplication  cometh  to  pass  by  one  of  these  accidents  :— 
1.  Amotion  of  the  first,  put  out  or  his  place  for  misdemeanor 
(whereof  very  rare  precedents),  and  another  placed  in  his  room. 
— 2.  Promotion.  When  the  first  is  advanced  to  be  a  baron  in 
the  year  of  his  shrievalty,  and  another  substituted  in  his  office. — 
3.  Mort.  The  former  dying  in  his  shrievalty,  not  privileged 
from  such  arrests  to  pay  his  debt  to  Nature. 

In  these  cases  two,  and  sometimes  three,  are  found  in  the 
same  year,  who  successively  discharged  the  office.  But,  if  no 
such  mutation  happened,  and  yet  two  sheriffs  be  found  in  one 
year,  then  the  second  must  be  understood  Sub-vice-comes  (whom 
we  commonly  also  call  Mr.  Sheriff,  in  courtesy),  his  deputy 
acting  the  affairs  of  the  county  under  his  authority.  However, 
if  he  who  is  named  in  this  our  catalogue  in  the  second  place- 
appear  the  far  more  eminent  person,  there  the  intelligent  reader 
will  justly  suspect  a  transposition,  and  that  by  some  mistake 
the  deputy  is  made  to  precede  him  whom  he  only  represented. 

Be  it  here  observed,  that  the  place  of  under-sheriffs  in  this 
age  was  very  honourable,  not  hackneyed  out  for  profit.  And 
although  some  uncharitable  people  (unjustly  I  hope)  have  now- 
a-days  fixed  an  ill  character  on  those  who  twice  together  dis- 
charged the  place,  yet  anciently  the  office  befitted  the  best 
persons;  little  difference  betwixt  the  high-sheriff  and  under- 
sheriff,  save  that  he  was  under  him,  being  otherwise  a  man  of 
great  credit  and  estate. 


2.  FULCO  de  BREANTEE,  Oxf. — This  Fulco,  or  Falkerius, 
or  Falkesius  de  Breantee,  or  Breantel,  or  Brent,  (so  many  seve- 
ral ways  is  he  written),  was,  for  the  first  six  years  of  this  king, 
high-sheriff  of  Oxford,  Cambridge,  Huntingdon,  Bedford,  Buck- 
ingham, and  Northampton  shires  (counties  continued  together) ; 
as  by  perusing  the  catalogues  will  appear.  What  this  Vir  tot 
locorum,  fe  man  of  so  many  places,"  was,  will  be  cleared  in  Mid- 
dlesex,* the  place  of  his  nativity. 

56.  ROG.  EPIS.  COVENT.  et  LICH. — That  bishops  in  this 
age  were  sheriffs  of  counties  in  their  own  dioceses,  it  was  usual 
and  obvious.  But  Berkshire  lying  in  the  dioceses  of  Sarum, 
Oxfordshire,  and  Lincoln,  that  the  far  distant  bishop  of  Coven- 
try and  Lichfield  should  be  their  sheriff,  may  seem  extraordinary 
and  irregular. 

This  first  put  us  on  the  inquiry  who  this  Roger  should  be ; 
and,  on  search,  we  found  him  surnamed  De  Molerid,  alias  Long- 
espe,  who  was  nephew  unto  king  Henry  the  Third,  f  though 
how  the  kindred  came  in  I  cannot  discover.  No  wonder  then 
if  his  royal  relation  promoted  him  to  this  place,  contrary  to  the 

*  In  the  title  SOLDIERS.        f  Godwin,  on  the  Bishops  of  Coventry  and  Lichfield. 


common  course ;  the  king,,  in  his  own  great  age,  and  absence  of 
his  son  prince  Edward  in  Palestine,  desiring  to  place  his  confi- 
dants in  offices  of  so  high  trust. 


6.  PHIL,  de  la  BEACH. — Their  seat  was  at  Aldworth  in  this 
county,  where  their  statues  on  their  tombs  are  extant  at  this 
day,*  but  of  stature  surely  exceeding  their  due  dimension.  It 
seems  the  Grecian  officers  have  not  been  here,  who  had  it  in 
their  charge  to  order  tombs,  and  proportion  monuments  to  the 
persons  represented.  I  confess,  corpse  do  stretch  and  extend 
after  their  death  ;  but  these  figures  extend  beyond  their  corpse  ; 
and  the  people  there  living  extend  their  fame  beyond  their 
figures,  fancying  them  giants,  and  fitting  them  with  propor- 
tionable performances.  They  were  indeed  most  valiant  men  ; 
and  their  male  issue  was  extinct  in  the  next  king's  reign,  whose 
heir  general  (as  appeareth  by  the  herald's  visitation)  was  mar- 
ried to  the  ancient  family  of  Whitlock. 




Anno  Name.  Place. 

1  Edmund  Stoner. 

Arms :  Az.  two  bars  dancettee  O.  a  chief  G, 

2  Thomas  Barentyn. 

S.  two  eaglets  displayed  Arg.  armed  (X 

3  Gilbertus  Wace. 

4  Johannes  Jeanes. 

5  Richardus  Brines. 

6  Thomas  Barentyn  .     ut  prius. 

7  Johan.  Hulcotts 

Fusilee  O.  and  G.  a  border  Az. 

8  Robertus  Bullocke         .     Arborfield. 

G.  a  chevron  twixt  three  bulls'  heads  Arg.  armed  O, 

9  Johannes  Holgate. 

10  Thomas  Barentyn  .     ut  prius. 

11  Gilb.  Wace,  mil. 

12  Thomas  Pool. 

13  Williel.  Attwood, 

14  Hugo  Wolfes. 

15  Robertus  Bullock  ,     ut  prius. 

16  Williel,  Wilcote. 

17  Thomas  Farington. 

S.  three  unicorns  in  pale,  current,  Arg.  armed  O. 

18  Thomas  Barentyn  .     ut  prius. 

19  Edrum.  Spersholt. 

*  "  Effigies  justo  majores  irapositse." — Camden's  Britannia,  m  Berkshire. 

L    2 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

20  Williel.  Attwood. 

21  Johannes  Golafre. 

22  Idem. 


1  Willielm.  Wilcote. 

2  Thomas  Chaucer  .     Ewelme,  Oxf. 

Parted  per  pale  Arg.  and  G.  a  bend  counterchanged. 
Johannes  Wilcote. 

3  Robertas  James. 

4  Idem. 

5  Thomas  Chaucer  .     ut  prius. 

6  Williel.  Langford. 

7  Rob.  Corbet,  mil. 

O.  a  raven  proper. 

8  Johannes  Wilcote. 

9  Th.  Harecourt,  mil.         .     Stanton,  Oxf. 

G.  two  bars  O. 

10  Petrus  Besiles        .         .     Lee,  Berkshire. 

Arg.  three  torteauxes. 

11  Rob.  Corbet,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 

12  Williel.  Lisle/ mil. 

O.  a  fess  betwixt  two  chevrons  S. 


1  Thomas  Wykham 

Arg.  two  chevrons  S.  betwixt  three  roses  G. 

2  Johannes  Golofre. 

3  Johannes  Wilcote 

4  Robertus  Jeames. 

5  Tho.  Wilkham,  mil.        .     ut  prius. 

6  Robertus  Andrews. 

7  Johannes  Wilcote. 

8  Willielmus^Lysle  .     ut  prius. 

9  Idem  .  .     ut  prius. 


1  Willielmus  Lisle  .     ut  prius. 

2  Thomas  Stonore  .     ut  prius. 

3  Joh.  Gowfre,  at. 

4  Ric.  Walkested,  mil. 

5  Thomas  Wykham  .     ut  prius. 

6  Thomas  Stonar      .         .     ut  prius. 

7  Robertus  James. 

8  Philip.  Englefield  .     Inglefield. 

Barry  of  six,  G.  and  Arg.  on  a  chief  O.  a  lion  passant  Az, 

9  Tho.  Wikham,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 

10  Williel.  Finderne. 

11  Willielmus  Darrell. 

Az.  a  lion  rampant  Arg.  crowned  O. 


Aimo  Names.  Place. 

12  Steph.  Haytfield. 

13  Rich.  Restwold. 

Arg.  three  bends  S. 

14  Thomse  Fetiplace  .     Childre. 

G.  two  chevrons  Arg. 

15  Ric.  Gtuatermayns  .     OXFORD. 

G.  a  fess  betwixt  four  hands  O. 

16  Johannes  Norys. 

Quarterly,  Arg.  and  G.  a  fret  O.  with  a  fess  Az. 

17  Edwardus  Rede. 

G.  a  saltire  twixt  four  garbs  O. 

18  Walter  SkuU. 

Arg.  a  bend  between  six  lions'-head  erased  of  the  field. 

19  Johan.  Stokes. 

20  Petrus  Fetiplace  .     ut  prius. 

21  Johannes  Norys  .     ut  prius. 

22  Johan.  Charles. 

23  Johan.  Lidyard  .     Benham 

Arg.  on  a  chief  O.  a  flower  de  luce  G. 

24  Joh.  Roger,  juri. 
35  Edw.  Langford. 

26  Idem. 

27  Johannes  Penicock 

28  Williel.  Wikham  .     ut  prius. 

29  Edwardus  Rede  .     ut  prius. 

30  Joha.  dialers,  mil. 

31  Johan.  Roger,  arm.  .     ut  prius. 

32  Thomas  Stonore  .     ut  prius. 

33  Ric.  Quatermayns  .     ut  prius. 

34  Rob.  Harecourte  .     ut  prius. 

35  Wai.  Mantell. 

36  Johannes  Noris,  arm.  .     ut  prius. 

37  Williel.  Brocas,  arm. 

38  Tho.  de  la  More,  arm. 

Arg.  six  martlets  three  two  and  one  S. 


1  Rich.  Harecourte  .     ut  prius. 

2  Ric.  Restwood,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

3  Idem.         .         .         .     ut  prius. 

4  Thomas  Roger,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

5  Jo.  Barantyn,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

6  Tho.  Stonore,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

7  Ric.  Harecourt,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

8  JohAHoward,  mil.  .  NORFOLK, 

G.  a  bend  inter  six  crosslets  fitchee  Arg. 

9  Will.  Norys,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 
10  Thomas  Prout,  arm. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

11  Edw.  Langford,  arm. 

12  Williel.  Staverton. 

13  Will.  Bekynham. 

14  Johann.  Langston. 

15  Hump.  Forster,  arm.   .     Aldermaston. 

S.  a  chevron  between  three  arrows  Arg, 

16  Thomas  de  la  Moremi      ut  prius. 
J7  Thomas  Restwold         .     ut  prius. 

18  James  Vyall. 

19  Johan.  Norys,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

20  Hum.  Talbot,  mil. 

G.  a  lion  rampant,  within  a  border  engrailed  Q, 

21  Tho.  de  la  More  .     ut  prius. 

22  Will.  Norys,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 


1  Thomas  Kingeston. 

2  Johannes  Barantyn         ,     ut  prius. 

3  Edwardus  Franke,  ^ 

ANNO  HENRY    VII.  .," 

1  Edw.  Mountford.  .  ^  " 

2  Will.  Norys,  mil.  .     ut  prius, 

3  Thomas  Say. 

4  Willielm.  Besilles  .     ut  prius. 

5  Th.  Delamore,  mi.  .     ut  prius. 

6  Johan.  Home,  mil. 

7  Williel.  Harecourt  ".     ut  prius. 

8  Ro.  Harecourt,  arm.  .     ut  prius. 

9  Geo.  Gainford,  arm. 
JO      Idem. 

11  Joh.  Ashfield,  arm. 
J2  Hugo  Shirley,  arm. 

Paly  of  six,  O.  and  Az.  a  canton  Erin, 

13  Ant.  Fetiplace,  arm        .     ut  prius. 

14  Ge.  Gainsford,  arm. 

15  Johannes  Basket. 

Az,  a  chevron  E.  betwixt  three  leopards'  heads  O. 

16  Willi.  Besilles,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

17  Rich.  Flower,  mil. 

18  Jo.  Williams,  mil.          ,     Tame,  Oxford. 

Az.  an  organ-pipe  in  bend  sinister  saltirewise  surmounted 
of  another  dexter  betwixt  four  crosses  patee  Arg. 

19  Williel.  Harecourt          ,     ut  prius. 

20  Edw.  Grevill,  arm, 

21  E.  Chamberlain 

G.  a  chevron  Arg.  betwixt  three  escallops  O. 

22  Jo,  Home,  arm. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

23  Jo.  Home,  arm. 

24  Jo.  Langford.  mil. 


1  Williel.  Es'sex,  arm.       .     Lambom. 

Az.  a  chevron  Erm.  betwixt  three  eagles  displayed  Arg. 

2  Williel.  Harecourt         .     utprius. 

3  Will.  Barantin,  arm.      .     ut  prius. 

4  Thos.  Hay  dock,  arm. 

5  Wai.  Raducy,  mil. 

6  Simon.  Harecourt,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 

7  Jo.  Dauncy,  mil. 

Az.  a  dragon  O.  and  lion  combatant  Arg. 

8  Geor.  Foster,  mil.          .     ut  prius. 

9  Ed.  Chamberlain,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 

10  Williel.  Essex,  mil.         .     utprius. 

11  Tho.  Englefeld,  arm.      .     ut  prius. 

12  Hen.  Brugges,  arm. 

Arg.  on  a  cross  S.  a  leopard's  head  O. 

13  Jo.  Oswalston,  arm. 

14  Simon  Harecourt  .  ut  prius. 

15  Jo.  Fetiplace,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

16  Williel.  Essex,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

17  Will.  Barantin,  mil.  .  utprius. 

18  Thos.  Den  ton,  arm. 

G.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  crescents  Arg. 

19  Thorn.  Ellyot,  arm. 

20  Si.  Harecourt,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 

21  Will.  Stafford,  arm.        .     Bradfield. 

O.  a  chevron  G.  and  a  canton  Erm. 

22  Hen.  Brugges,  arm.        .     ut  prius. 

23  Thomas  Umpton,  arm.       Wadley. 

Az.  on  a  fess  engrailed  O.  between  three  spear-heads  Arg. 
a  greyhound  cursant  S, 

24  Hum.  Forster,  mil. 

25  Will.  Farmar,  arm. 

Arg.  a  fess  S.  betwixt  three  leopards5  heads  erased  G. 

26  Walt.  Stoner,  mil.          .     utprius. 

27  Thomas  Carter,  arm. 

28  Anth.  Hungerford 

S.  two  bars  Arg.  in  chief  three  plates. 

29  Si.  Harecourt,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

30  Joh.  Williams, mil.  .  utprius. 

31  Rich.  Brigges,arm.  .  utprius. 

32  Williel.  Essex,  mil.  .  utprius. 

33  Walt.  Stoner,  mil.  .  utprius. 

34  Wil.  Barantin,  mil.  .  utprius. 

35  Williel.  Farmor,  arm.  .  utprius, 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

36  Job.  Williams,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

37  Hum.  Foster,  mil.          .     ut  prius. 

38  Le.  Chamberlain  .     ut  prius. 


1  Fra.  Englefeld,  mil.        .     ut  prius. 

2  Anth.  Cope,  mil.  .     Hanwel 

Arg.  on  a  chevron  Az.  between  three  roses   G.  slipp  d 
and  leav'd  V.  three  flowers  de  luce  O. 

3  Will.  Rainsf.  mil. 

4  Richard  Fines,  arm.      .     Broughton 

Az.  three  lions  rampant  O. 

5  Willielm.  Hide,  arm.     .     S.  Denchw. 

G.  two  chevrons  Arg.         .     ut  prius. 

REX    PHILIP,  Ct    MAR.    REGINA. 

J  Jo.  Williams,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

let  Jo.  Brome,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

1. 2  Ric.  Brigges,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

2. 3  Will.  Rainsford. 

3. 4  Thomas  Brigges,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

4. 5  Johan.  Denton,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

5. 6  Richard.  Fines,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 


1  Edw.  Ashfeld,  arm. 

2  Edw.  Fabian,  arm. 

3  Johan.  Doyle,  arm. 

O.  two  bendlets  Az. 

4  Henric.  Norys,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

5  Ric.  Wenman,  arm. 

Quarterly  G.  and  Az.  a  cross  patonce  O. 

6  Job.  Croker,  arm.  .     Tame  P.  Ox. 

Arg.  on  a  chevron  engrailed  G.  between  three  crows,  as 
many  mullets  O.  pierced. 

7  Tho.  Stafford,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

8  Christ.  Brome. 


2.  THOMAS  CHAUCER. —  He  was  sole  son  to  Geffery  Chau- 
cer, that  famous  poet,  from  whom  he  inherited  fair  lands  at 
Dunnington  Castle  in  this  county,  and  at  Ewelme  in  Oxford- 
shire. He  married  Maude,  daughter  and  co-heir  of  Sir  John 
Burwash,  by  whom  he  had  one  only  daughter  named  Alice,  mar- 
ried unto  William  de  la  Pole,  duke  of  Suffolk.  He  lieth  buried 
under  a  fair  tomb  in  Ewelme  church,  with  this  inscription  : 
ee  Hie  jacet  Thomas  Chaucer,  Armiger,  quondam  dominus  istius 


villse  et  Patronus  istius  Ecclesiae,  qui  obiit  18  die  mensis  Novem- 
bris,  anno  Dom.  1434  ;  et  Matilda  uxor  ejus,  quee  obiit  28  men- 
sis  Aprilis,  anno  Domini  1436." 

HENRY    V. 

1.  THOMAS  WIKHAM. — I  behold  him  as  kinsman  and  next 
heir  to  William  Wykham,  that  famous  Bishop  of  Winchester, 
to  whom  the  Bishop  left,  notwithstanding  above  *  six  thousand 
pounds  bequeathed  by  him  in  legacies  (for  the  discharge  whereof 
he  left  ready  money),  one  hundred  pound  lands  a  year.  As  for 
his  arms,  viz.  Argent,  two  chevrons  Sable  between  three  roses 
Gules,  a  most  ingenious  Oxfordian  f  conceiveth  those  che- 
vrons (alias  couples  in  architecture)  given  him  in  relation  to  the 
two  colleges  he  built,  the  one  in  Oxford,  the  other  in  Winches- 
ter. It  will  be  no  sin  to  suspect  this  no  original  of  but  a  post- 
nate  allusion  to  his  arms,  who  was  (whatever  is  told  to  the  con- 
trary) though  his  parents  were  impoverished,  of  a  knightly  ex- 
traction. J  But  if  it  was  his  assigned  and  not  hereditary  coat, 
it  will  be  long  enough  ere  the  Herald's  office  grant  another  to 
any  upon  the  like  occasion. 


3.  JOHANNES  GOWFRE,  Arm. — No  doubt  the  same  with  him 
who  2  Henry  V.  was  written  John  Golofre.  He  is  the  first  per- 
son who  is  styled  Esquire,  though  surely  all  who  were  before 
him  were  (if  not  Knights)  Esquires  at  the  least,  and 
afterwards  this  addition  grew  more  and  more  fashionable  in 
the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Sixth :  for,  after  that  Jack  Straw 
(one  of  the  grand  founders  of  the  Levellers)  was  defeated,  the 
English  gentry,  to  appear  above  the  common  sort  of  people, 
did,  in  all  public  instruments,  insert  their  native  or  acquired  qua- 


8.  JOHN  HOWARD,  Miles. — He  was  son  to  Sir  Robert  How- 
ard, and  soon  after  was  created  a  Baron  by  this  king,  and  Duke 
of  Norfolk  by  king  Richard  the  Third,  as  kinsman  and  one  of 
the  heirs  of  Anne,  Duchess  of  York  and  Norfolk,  whose  mother 
was  one  of  the  daughters  of  Thomas  Mowbray,  Duke  of  Nor- 
folk. Soon  after  he  lost  his  life  in  his  quarrel  who  gave  him 
his  honour,  in  Bosworth  field. 

From  him  descended  the  noble  and  numerous  family  of  the 
Howards,  of  whom  I  told  four  earls  and  two  barons  sitting  in 
the  last  parliament  of  king  Charles. §  I  have  nothing  else  for 
the  present  to  observe  of  this  name,  save  that  a  great  antiquary 

*  Bishop  Godwin,  in  Bishops  of  Winchester. 

f  Sir  Isaac  Wake,  in  his  Musse  Regnantes. 

j  Harpfield,  Ecclesiastical  History,  p.  550. 

§  Earls  Arundel,  Nottingham,  Suffolk,  Berkshire.  Barons  Moubray,  Estrick. 


will  have  it  originally  to  be  Hold  ward  ;  *  (L  and  D  being  omit- 
ted for  the  easier  pronunciation)  which  signifieth  the  keeper  of 
any  castle,  hold,  or  trust  committed  unto  them,  wherein  they 
have  well  answered  unto  their  name.  Did  not  Thomas  Howard 
Earl  of  Surrey  well  hold  his  ward  by  land,  when  in  the  reign 
of  king  Henry  the  Eighth  he  conquered  the  Scots  in  Flodden 
field,  and  took  James  the  Fourth  their  king  prisoner  ?  And  did 
not  Charles  Howard  (afterwards  Earl  of  Nottingham)  hold  his 
ward  by  sea  in  88,  when  the  armada  was  defeated  ?  But  hereof 
(God  willing)  hereafter. 

5  15.  HUMPHRY  FOSTER,  Arm. — This  must  be  he  (consent  of 
times  avowing  it)  who  was  afterwards  knighted,  and  lieth  buried 
in  St.  Martin's  in  the  Fields,  London,  with  the  following  in- 
scription :  t  if  Of  your  charity,  pray  for  the  soul  of  Sir  Hum- 
phrey Foster,  knight,  whose  body  lieth  buried  here  in  earth  un- 
der this  marble  stone:  which  deceased  the  18th  day  of  the 
month  of  September,  1500;  on  whose  soul  Jesu  have  mercy." 


8.  ROBERT  HARECOURT,  Miles. — Right  ancient  is  this  fa- 
mily in  France,  having  read  in  a  French  herald, J  who  wrote  in 
the  reign  of  king  Edward  the  Sixth,  that  it  flourished  therein 
eight  hundred  years,  as  by  a  genealogy  drawn  by  him  should  ap- 

Of  this  family  (for  both  give  the  same  coat  at  this  day,  viz. 
Gules  two  barrs  Or,)  a  younger  branch,  coming  over  at  the  Con- 
quest, fixed  itself  in  the  Norman  infancy  at  Staunton  Hare- 
court  in  Oxfordshire.  And  I  find  that  in  the  reign  of  king 
John,  Richard  de  Harecourt  of  Staunton  aforesaid,  marrying 
Orabella  daughter  of  Saer  de  Quincy  Earl  of  Winchester,  had 
the  rich  manor  of  Bos  worth  in  Leicestershire  .bestowed  on  him 
for  his  wife's  portion. 

I  cannot  exactly  distinguish  the  several  Harecourts  contem- 
poraries in  this  county,  and  sheriffs  thereof,  so  as  to  assign  them 
their  several  habitations ;  but  am  confident  that  this  Robert 
Harecourt  (sheriff  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Seventh)  was 
the  same  person  whom  king  Edward  the  Fourth  made  knight 
of  the  Garter.  From  him  lineally  descended  the  valiant  knight 
Sir  Simon  Harecourt,  lately  slain  in  the  wars  against  the  rebels 
in  Ireland,  whose  son,  a  hopeful  gentleman,  enjoys  the  manor 
of  Staunton  at  this  day. 

15.  JOHN  BASKET. — He  was  an  esquire  of  remark  and  mar- 
tial activity  in  his  younger  days,  who  in  some  years  after  re- 

*  Verstegan,  of  Decayed  Intelligence,  p.  320. 

t  Weaver's  Funeral  Monuments,  p.  447. 

+  Jean  Le  Feron,  en  le  Chapter  des  Mareschaviz,  de  France. 


moved  to  Devenish  in  Dorsetshire,  to  whom  king  Henry  the 
Eighth,  going  over  into  France,  committed  the  care  of  that 
county,  as  by  his  following  letter  will  appear. 

"  By  the  King. 

"  Trusty  and  well-beloved,  We  greet  you  well.     And  whereas 
we  at  this  time  have  written  as  well  to  the  sheriff  of  that  our 
shire,  as  also  to  the  justices  of  our  peace  within  our  said   shire, 
commanding  and  straightly  charging,  that  as  well  the  said  she- 
riff as  the  said  justices,  endeavour  them   for  the  keeping  of  our 
peace  and  the  entertainment  of  our  subjects,  in  good  quiet  and 
restfulness,  during  the  time  of  our  journey  into    the  parties  of 
beyond  the  sea ;  to  the  which  we  entend  to  dispose  us  about 
the  latter  end  of  this  present  month  of  May  :  and   forasmuch 
also  as  we  have  for  your  great  ease  spared  you  of  your  attend- 
ance upon  us  in  our  said  journey,  and  left  you  at  home  to  do  us 
service  in  keeping  of  our  peace,  and  good  rule  amongst  our  said 
subjects :  We  will  therefore  and  command  you,  that  during  the 
time  of  our  said  absence  out  of  this  our  realme,  ye  have   a  spe- 
cial oversight,  regard,  and  respect,  as  well  to  the  sheriff  as  to  the 
said  justices,  how  and  in  what  diligence  they  do  and  execute 
our  commandement,  comprised  in  our  said  letters.     And  that 
ye  also  from  time  to  time,  as  ye  shall  see  meet,  quickly  and  sharply 
call  upon  them  in  our  name,  for  the  execution  of  our  said  com- 
mandement ;  and  if  you  shall  find  any  of  them  remiss  or  negli- 
gent in  that  behalf,  we  will  that  ye  lay  it  sharply  to  their  charge  ; 
advertising,  that  in  case  they  amend  not  their  defaults,  ye  will 
thereof  advertise  our  councell  remaining  with  our  dearest  daugh- 
ter the  princess,  and  so  we  charge  you  to  do  indeed.     And  if 
our  said  sheriff  or  justice,  or  any  other  sheriff  or  justice  of  any 
shire  next  to  you,  upon  any  side  adjoining,  shall  need  or  require 
your  assistance,  for  the  execution  of  our  said  commandements, 
we  will  and  desire  you  that  what  the  best  power  ye  can  make  of 
our  subjects  in  Harneys,  ye  be  to  them  aiding  and  assisting  from 
time  to  time  as  the  case  shall  require-     Not  failing  hereof  as 
you  intend  to  please  us,  and  as  we  specially  trust  you.     Given 
under  our  signet,  at  our  manor  of  Greenwich,  the  18   day  of 


1.  WILLIAM  ESSEX,  Arm. — He  was  a  worthy  man  in  his  ge- 
neration, of  great  command  in  this  county  (whereof  he  was  four 
times  sheriff),  and  the  first  of  his  family  who  fixed  at  Lambourn 
therein,  on  this  welcome  occasion.  He  had  married  Elizabeth, 
daughter  and  sole  heir  of  Thomas  Rogers  of  Benham,  whose 
grandfather,  John  Rogers,  had  married  Elizabeth,  daughter  and 
heir  of  John  Shotesbroke  of  Bercote  in  this  county  (whose  an- 
cestors had  been  sheriffs  of  Berkshire  in  the  fourth,  fifth,  and 
sixth  of  king  Edward  the  third),  by  whom  he  received  a  large 



Nor  was  the  birth  of  this  Sir  William  (for  afterwards  he  was 
knighted)  beneath  his  estate,,  being  son  unto  Thomas  Essex, 
Esquire,  Remembrancer  and  Vice-Treasurer  unto  king  Edward 
the  Fourth;  who  died  November  1,  1500;  lieth  buried  with  a 
plain  epitaph  in  the  church  of  Kensington,  Middlesex.  He  de- 
rived himself  from  Henry  de  Essex,  Baron  of  Rawley  in  Essex, 
and  standard-bearer  of  England  (as  I  have  seen  in  an  exact 

Eedigree  attested  by  Master  Camden) ;  and  his  posterity  have 
itely  assumed  his  coat,  viz.  Argent,  an  orle  Gules.     There  was 
lately  a  baronet  of  this  family,  with  the  revenues  of  a  baron ; 
but (( riches  endure  not  for  ever,"*  if  providence  be  not  as  well 
used  in  preserving  as  attaining  them, 

24.  HUMPHRY  FORSTER,  Knight. — He  bare  a  good  affection 
to  Protestants,  even  in  the  most  dangerous  times,  and  spake  to  the 
quest  in  the  behalf  of  Master  Marbeck,  that  good  confessor  :f 
yea,  he  confessed  to  king  Henry  the  Third,  that  never  any  thing 
went  so  much  against  his  conscience,  which  under  his  Graced 
authority  he  had  done,  as  his  attending  the  execution  of  three 
poor  men  martyred  at  Windsor.}: 


1.  FRANCIS  INGLEFIELD,  Mil. — He  afterwards  was  Privy- 
councillor  unto  queen  Mary,  and  so  zealous  a  Romanist,  that  after 
her  death  he  left  the  land,  with  a  most  large  inheritance,  and 
lived  for  the  most  part  in  Spain.  He  was  a  most  industrious 
agent  to  solicit  the  cause  of  the  queen  of  Scots,  both  to  his  Holi- 
ness and  the  Catholic  king ;  as  also  he  was  a  great  promoter  of 
and  benefactor  to  the  English  college  at  Valladolid  in  Spain, 
where  he  lieth  interred :  and  a  family  of  his  alliance  is  still 
worshipfully  extant  in  this  county. 


1.  JOHN  WILLIAMS,  Miles. — Before  the  year  of  his  shrievalty 
was  expired,  queen  Mary  made  him  Lord  Williams  of  Tame  in 
Oxfordshire  ;  in  which  town  he  built  a  small  hospital  and  a  very 
fair  school  ;§  he  with  Sir  Henry  Bennyfield  were  joint  keepers 
of  the  lady  Elizabeth,  whilst  under  restraint,  being  as  civil  as  the 
other  was  cruel  unto  her.  Bishop  Ridley,  when  martyred,  re- 
quested this  lord  to  stand  his  friend  to  the  queen,  that  those 
leases  might  be  confirmed  which  he  had  made  to  poor  tenants ; 
which  he  promised,  and  performed  accordingly.  ||  His  great 
estate  was  divided  betwixt  his  two  daughters  and  co-heirs, 
one  married  to  Sir  Henry  Norrice,  the  other  to  Sir  Richard 


4.  HENRY  NORRICE,  Arm. — Son-in-law  to  the  Lord  Williams 

Prov.  xxvii.  24.  f  Fox,  Acts  and  Monuments,  p.  1219. 

I  Idem.  p.  1221.  §  Camden's  Britannia,  in  Oxfordshire. 

II  See  the  picture  of  Bishop  Ridley's  burning,  in  Mr.  Fox. 


aforesaid.  He  was  by  queen  Elizabeth  created  Baron  Norrice 
of  Ricot  in  Oxfordshire.  It  is  hard  to  say  whether  this  tree  of 
honour  was  more  remarkable  for  the  root  from  whence  it  sprang, 
or  for  the  branches  that  sprang  from  him.  He  was  son  to  Sir 
Henry  Norrice,  who  ^uffered  in  the  cause  of  queen  Anne  Bullen, 
grandchild  to  Sir  Edward  Norrice,  who  married  Fridswide,  sister 
and  coheir  to  the  last  Lord  Lovell.  He  was  father  (though  him- 
self of  a  meek  and  mild  disposition)  to  the  martial  brood  of  the 
Norrices,  of  whom  hereafter.* 

Elizabeth,  his  great  grandchild,  sole  daughter  and  heir  unto 
Francis  Norrice,  Earl  of  Berkshire,  and  Baroness  Norrice, 
was  married  unto  Edward  Wray,  Esquire,  whose  only  daughter, 
Elizabeth  Wray,  Baroness  Norrice,  lately  deceased,  was  married 
unto  Montague  Bertie,  Earl  of  Lindsey ;  whose  son,  a  minor, 
is  Lord  Norrice  at  this  day. 



Anno  Name.  Place. 

9  Edw.  Unton,  mil.  .     Wadley. 

Arms :  Az.  on  a  fess  eng.  O.  twixt  three  spear-heads  Arg. 
a  hound  cursant  S.  collared  G. 

10  Jo.  Fetiplace,  arm.         .     Chilrey. 

G.  two  chev.  Arg. 

11  Will.  Forster,  arm.         .     Aldermerston. 

Sable,  a  chev.  betwixt  three  arrows  Arg. 

12  Will.  Dunch,  arm.         .     Litlewitham. 

O.  a  chev.  betwixt  two  towers  in  chief  and  a  fleur-de-lis  in 
base  Arg. 

13  Joha.  Winchcomb         .     Budebury. 

14  Hen.  Nevill,  mil.  .     Billingber. 

15  Tho.  Essex,  arm.  .    >Limborn. 

Az.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  eagles  Arg. 

16  Ric.  Lovelace,  arm.        ,     Hurley. 

G.  on  a  chief  indented  S.  three  marvets  O. 

17  Anth.  Bridges,  arm.        .     Hemsted-Marshal. 

18  Thorn.  Parry,  arm. 

19  Jo.  Fetiplace,  mil.          '.     ut  prius. 

20  Tho.  Stafford,  arm.         .     Bradfield. 

O.  a  chev.  and  canton  E. 

21  Tho.  Stephans,  arm. 

22  Hum.  Foster,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

23  Tho.  Bullock,  arm.         .     Arborfield. 

G.  a  chev.  twixt  three  bulls5  heads  Ar.  armed  O. 

24  Tho.  Read,  arm.  .     Abingdon. 

G.  a  saltire  twixt  four  garbs  O. 

25  Mich.  Molens,  arm.       .     Clapgate. 

*  In  the  description  of  Oxfordshire,  title  SOLDIERS. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

26  Be.  Fetiplace,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

27  Edw.  Fetiplace,  arm.      .     ut  prius, 

28  Chris.  Lillcot,  arm.         .     Rushcomb. 

O.  two  bars  vairy  Arg.  and  S. 

29  Edm.  Dunch,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

30  Thomas  Parry,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

31  Tho.  Dolman,  arm.         .     Shaw. 

Az.  a  fess  dancette  inter  six  garbes  Or. 

32  Johan.  Latton,  arm. 

33  Rich.  Ward,  arm. 

34  Fr.  Winchcombe  .     ut  prius. 

35  Hum.  Forster,  arm.        .     ut  prius. 

36  Ricar.  Hide,  arm.  .     S.  Denchw. 

G.  two  chevrons  Arg. 

37  Hen.  Nevill,  arm.  .     ut  prius. 

38  Edm.  Wiseman,  arm.     .     Stephenton. 

S.  a  chev.  twixt  three  bars  of  spears  Arg.. 

39  Chri.  Lidcotte,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 

40  Hen.  Pool,  mil. 

41  Tho.  Reede,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 

42  Sa.  Backhouse,  arm.       .     Swallofield, 

43  Johan.  Norris,  mil. 

44  Ed.  Fettiplace,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 

45  Ed.  Dunch,  arm.  and  1  Ja.  ut  prius, 


1  Edm.  Dunch,  arm. 

S.  a  chev.  betwixt  three  towers  Arg. 

2  Ant.  Blagrave,  arm. 

O.  on  a  bend  S.  three  greaves  erased  at  the  ancle  Ar. 

3  Thomas  Read,  arm.        .     ut  prius. 

4  Will.  Stonhou.  arm.      .     Radley. 

Arg.  on  a  fess  S.  between  three  falcons  volant  Az.  a  leo- 
pard's head  and  two  mullets  O. 

5  Fr.  Winchcombe.  .     ut  prius. 

6  Will.  Foster,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 

7  Anth.  Barker,  mil.          .     Suning. 

8  Ric.  Lovelace,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 

9  Tho.  Vachell,   mil.         .     Colly. 

Bendy  of  six  pieces,  Erm.  and  Az. 

10  Tho.  Hinton,  arm. 

11  Car.  Wiseman,  arm.      .     ut  prius. 

12  Jo.  Ayshcombe,  arm. 

13  Will.  Young,  mil. 

14  Will.  Standin,  arm.         .     Arborfield. 

15  Val.  Knightley,  mil. 

Quarterly,  Erm,  and  O.  three  pales  G. 

16  Joh.  Catcher,  arm. 

17  Hum.  Foster,  arm.         .     tit  prius. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

18  Gabriel  Pyle,  mil.          <     Compton. 

19  Jo.  Winchcombe.  .     ut  prius. 

20  Jo.  Marry  cot,  arm. 

21  William  Hide,  arm. 

22  Jo.  Blagrave,  mil. 


CAR.  I.    REX. 

1  Joh.  Darrel,  Bar.  .     W.  Woodh. 

Az.  a  lion  rampant  O.  crowned  Arg. 

2  Edr.  Clark,  mil.  .     Ardigton. 

3  Gor.  Willmot,  arm.        .     Charlton. 

4  Edw.  Yates,  Barr.          .     Buckland. 

5  Sam.  Dunch,  arm.          .     ut  prius. 

Per  fess  embattled  Arg.  and  S.  three  yates  counterchanged. 

6  Jo.  Fetiplace,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

7  Hen.  Samborn,  mil.       .     Moulsford. 

8  Henry  Powle,  arm. 

9  Edm.  Dunch,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

10  Hum.  Dolman,  arm.      .     ut  prius. 

11  Will.  Barker,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

12  Ric.  Harrison,  mil.          .     Hurst. 

O.  on  a  chief  S.  three  eagles  displayed  of  the  first. 

13  Geo.  Stonhouse,  bar.     .     ut  prius. 

14  Humph.  Hide,  arm.      .     ut  prius. 

15  Gea.  Puresy,  arm.         .     Wadley. 

S.  three  pair  of  gauntlets  dipping,  Arg. 

16  Peregrine  Hobby.  .     Bisham. 

Arg.  three  fusiles  upon  slippers  G. 

17  Tanfield  Vachel.  .     ut  prius. 

22  Jo.  Southleg,  arm. 


9.  EDWARD  UNTON,  or  UMPTON,  Miles. — This  ancient  and 
worshipful  name  was  extinct  in  the  days  of  our  fathers  for  want 
of 'issue  male,  and  a  great  part  of  their  lands  devolved  by  an 
heir-general  to  George  Purfey,  of  Wadley,  Esquire,  whose  care 
is  commendable  in  preserving  the  monuments  of  the  Umptons 
in  Faringdon  church,  and  restoring  such  as  were  defaced  in  the 
war  to  a  good  degree  of  their  former  fairness. 

26.  BESILIUS  FETIPLACE. —  Some  may  colourably  mistake 
it  for  Basilius,  or  Basil,  a  Christian  name  frequent  in  some  fami- 


lies,  whereas  indeed  it  is  Besil,  a  surname.  These  lived  in 
great  regard  at  Lee,  thence  called  Besiles-Lee,  in  this  county, 
until  Elizabeth,  daughter  and  heir  of  William  Besiles,  last  of 
that  name,  was  married  unto  Richard  Fetiplace,  whose  great- 

freat-grandchild  was  named   Besile,  to   continue  the  remem- 
rance  of  their  ancestors. 

Reader,  I  am  confident  an  instance  can  hardly  be  produced 
of  a  surname  made  Christian  in  England,  save  since  the  Refor- 
mation ;  before  which  time  the  priests  were  scrupulous  to  admit 
any  at  font,  except  they  were  baptized  with  the  name  of  a 
Scripture  or  legendary  saint.  Since,  it  hath  been  common ; 
and  although  the  Lord  Coke  was  pleased  to  say  he  had  noted 
many  of  them  prove  unfortunate,  yet  the  good  success  in  others 
confutes  the  general  truth  of  the  observation. 


.8.  RICHARD  LOVELACE,  Knight.— He  was  a  gentleman  of 
metal;  and  in  the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  making  use  of 
letters  of  mart,  had  the  success  to  light  on  a  large  remnant  of 
the  king  of  Spain's  cloth  of  silver,  I  mean  his  West-Indian 
fleet ;  wherewith  he  and  his  posterity  are  the  warmer  to  this 
day.  King  Charles  created  him  Lord  Lovelace,  of  Hurley. 


1.  SIR  JOHN  DARELL,  Baronet. — He  being  the  first  who, 
in  the  catalogue  of  sheriffs,  occurreth  of  that  order,  a  word  of 
the  institution  thereof.  We  meddle  not  with  ancient  baronets, 
finding  that  word  formerly  promiscuously  blended  with  Ban- 
nerets (Sir  Ralph  Fane,  in  a  patent  passed  unto  him,  is  expressly 
termed  a  baronet) ;  but  insist  on  their  new  erection  in  the  ninth 
of  king  James. 

Their  Qualifications.  —  1.  They  were  to  be  persons  morum 
probitate  spectati.  2.  Descended  at  least  of  grandfather,  by  the 
father's  side,  that  bare  arms.  3.  Having  a  clear  estate  of  one 
thousand  pounds  per  annum ;  two-thirds  thereof  at  least  in 
possesion,  the  rest  in  reversion  expectant  on  one  life  only, 
holding  in  dower  or  in  jointure. 

Their  Service. — 1.  Each  of  them  was  to  advance,  towards  the 
planting  of  the  province  of  Ulster  in  Ireland,  with  colonies 
and  castles  to  defend  them,  money  enough  to  maintain  thirty 
foot  for  three  years,  after  the  rate  of  eight-pence  a  day  for  every 
one  of  them.  2.  The  first'year's  wages  was  to  be  paid  down  on 
the  passing  of  their  patent ;  the  remainder,  as  they  contracted 
with  the  king's  commissioners  authorized  to  treat  and  conclude 

Their  Dignity. — 1.  They  were  to  take  place,  with  their  wives 
and  children  respectively,  immediately  after  the  sons  of  barons  ; 

*  Rot.  Pat.  quarto  Edwardi  Sexti. 

BATTLES.  161 

and  before  all  Knights-bachelors  of  the  Bath,  and  Bannerets  ; 
save  such  solemn  ones  as  hereafter  should  be  created  in  the 
field  by  the  king  there  present,  under  the  standard  royal  dis- 
played. 2.  The  addition  of  Sir  was  to  be  prefixed  before  theirs  ; 
of  Madam,  their  wives'  names.  3.  The  honour  was  to  be  here- 
ditary ;  and  knighthood  not  to  be  denied  to  their  eldest  sons  of 
full  age,  if  desiring  it.  4.  For  an  augmentation  in  their  arms, 
they  might  bear  a  bloody  hand,  in  a  canton  or  escutcheon,  at 
their  pleasure. 

The  king  did  undertake  that  they  should  never  exceed  two 
hundred ;  which  number  completed,  if  any  chanced  to  die  with- 
out issue  male,  none  were  to  be  substituted  in  their  place ;  that 
so  their  number  might  daily  diminish,  and  honour  increase. 
He  did  also  promise,  for  himself  and  his  heirs,  that  no  new  order 
under  another  name  should  be  superinduced. 


NEWBUBY;  the  first ,1643,  Sept.  20.— The  Earl  of  Essex, 
having  raised  the  siege  of  Gloucester,  and  returning  towards  Lon- 
don, was  rather  followed  than  overtaken  by  the  king's  army. 
Both  sides  might  be  traced  by  a  track  of  bloody  footsteps,  espe- 
cially at  Auborn  in  Wilts,  where  they  had  a  smart  encounter. 
At  Newberry  the  earl  made  a  stand.  Here  happened  a  fierce 
fight  on  the  east  side  of  the  town,  wherein  the  Londoners  did 
shew  that  they  could  as  well  use  a  sword  in  the  field  as  a  met- 
ward  in  a  shop.  The  Parliament  was  conceived  to  lose  the 
most,  the  king  the  most  considerable,  persons :  amongst  whom 
the  Earls  of  Carnarvon  and  Sunderland,  the  Viscount  Falkland, 
colonel  Morgan,  &c.  Both  armies  may  be  said  to  beat  and 
be  beaten,  neither  winning  the  day,  and  both  the  twilight. 
Hence  it  was  that  both  sides  were  so  sadly  filled  with  their  sup- 
per over  night,  neither  next  morning  had  any  stomach  to  break- 
fast ;  but,  keeping  their  stations,  were  rather  contented  to  face, 
than  willing  to  fight,  one  another. 

NEWBURY  ;  the  second,  1644,  Oct.  27. — One  would  wonder 
where  the  Earl  of  Essex,  so  lately  stripped  out  of  all  his  infan- 
try in  Cornwall,  so  soon  reinvested  himself  with  more  foot,  save 
that  London  is  the  shop  general  of  all  commodities.  Recruited 
with  fresh  (but  not  fresh-water)  soldiers,  he  gave  the  king  battle. 
This  fight  was  as  long  and  fierce  as  the  former  ;  but  the  conquest 
more  clear  on  the  Parliament's  side.  The  Cornish  (though  be- 
having themselves  valiantly)  were  conceived  not  to  do  so  well, 
because  expected  to  have  done  better. 

The  Royalists  were  at  night  fain  to  hang  lighted  matches  on 
the  hedges  (so  to  similate  their  abode  thereabouts) ;  whilst  they 
drew  off,  securing  their  cannon  in  Dunnington  castle  (the  gover- 
nor whereof,  Sir  J.  Bois,  did  the  king  knight's  service)  ;  and  so, 
in  a  pace  slower  than  a  flight  and  faster  than  a  retreat,  returned 
in  as  good  order  as  their  condition  was  capable  of.  Many  here 

VOL.  i.  M 


lost  their  lives,  as  if  Newbury  were  so  named  by  a  sad  prolepsis, 
fore-signifying  that  that  town  should  afford  a  new  burying  place 
to  many  slain  in  two  bloody  battles. 


Being  to  take  my  leave  of  this  shire,  I  seriously  considered 
what  want  there  was  therein,  that  so  I  might  wish  the  supply 
thereof.  But  I  can  discover  no  natural  defect ;  and  I  therefore 
wish  the  inhabitants  a  thankful  heart  to  that  God  who  hath  given 
them  a  country  so  perfect  in  profit  and  pleasure.  Withal  it  is 
observed,  that  the  lands  in  Berkshire  are  very  skittish,  and  often 
cast  their  owners;  which  yet  I  impute  not  so  much  to  the  un- 
ruliness  of  the  beasts,  as  to  the  unskilfulness  of  the  riders.  I 
desire  heartily  that  hereafter  the  Berkshire  gentry  may  be  better 
settled  in  their  saddles,  so  that  the  sweet  places  in  this  county 
may  not  be  subject  to  so  many  mutations. 


Charles  ABBOT,  first  Lord   Colchester,  Speaker  of  the  House 
of  Commons  :  born  at  Abingdon  1757  ;  died  1829. 

James  Pettit  ANDREWS,  .a  learned  miscellaneous  writer ;  born 
at  Newbury  1737;  died  179?. 

Dr.  Phannel  BACON,  a  dramatic  poet;  born  at  Reading  1737; 
died  1783. 

Sir  John  BARNARD,  patriotic  alderman  of  London ;  born  at 
Reading  1685  ;  died  1764. 

Dr.  Joseph  BUTLER,  Bishop  of  Durham,  and  author  of  "  Ana- 
logy of  Religion  ;"  born  at  Wantage  1692  ;  died  1752. 

Charles  COATES,  historian  of  his  native  town  of  Reading ;  died 

Henry  Edward  DAVIS,  author  of  the  "  Defender  of  Christianity/' 
against  the  historian  Gibbon;  born  at  Windsor  1756. 

William  DOD WELL,  a  learned  divine  and  author  ;  born  at  Shaftes- 
broke  1710;  died  1785. 

John  FELL,  Bishop  of  Oxford;  born  at  Langworth  1625;  died 

John  FOSTER,  Master  of  Eton,  the  great  classical  scholar ;  born 
at  Windsor  1731 ;  died  1773. 

Thomas  GODWIN,  Bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells  ;  born  at  Woking- 
ham  1517;  died  1590. 

James  GRANGER,  a  divine,  collector  of  engraved  portraits,  au- 
thor of  a  "  Biographical  History  of  England/'  and  some  ser- 
mons ;  died  1776,  aged  about  60. 

Thomas  HEARNE,  an  antiquary,  historian,  and  classical  editor; 
born  at  Littleford  Green  in  White  Waltham ;  died  1735. 


Sir  Thomas  HOLT,  a  lawyer,  and  recorder  of  his  native  town  of 

Issac  KIMBER,   historian   and   biographer ;  born   at   Wantage 

1692;  died  1758. 
William  LLOYD,  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph,  one  of  the  seven  bishops 

imprisoned  by  James  II. ;  born  at  Tilehurst  1627  ;  died  1717* 
James  MERRICK,  a  divine,  poet,  and  translator  of  the  Psalms  ; 

born  at  Reading  1?19;  died  1769. 
Edward  MOORE,  a  dramatic  poet,    author  of  "The  World," 

"  Gamester,"   and  "  Fables  for  the   Female  Sex ; "  born  at 

Abingdon  1712  ;  died  1757. 
Henry  NEVILL,  a  republican,  and  author  of  "  Plato  Redivivus ;" 

born  at  Billingbeare  1620;  died  1694. 
WTilliam  NEWCOME,  Archbishop  of  Armagh,  of  great  learning 

and  exemplary  manners;  born  at  Buxton-le-Clay  1729;  died 

Sir  Constantine  PHIPPS,  Lord  Chancellor  of  Ireland;  born  at 

Reading;  died  1723. 
Henry  James    PYE,  Poet-laureat ;  born   at    Farringdon   1745; 

died  1813. 
George  SEWELL,  a  physician,  poet,  and  miscellaneous  writer j 

born  at  Windsor  ;  died  1726. 
Sir  John  SOANE,  F.R.S.,  S.A.,  &c.  Professor  of  Architecture  in 

the  Royal  Academy,  architect  to  the  Bank  of  England,  &c. ; 

born  at  Reading  1752;  died  1837. 
Sir  Thomas  ST AMPLE,  Lord  Mayor  of  London  in  1692 ;  born 

at  Reading. 

William  Bagshaw  STEVENS,  a  poet  and  divine ;  born  at  Abing- 
don about  1755  ;  died  1800. 

Sir  John  STONEHOUSE,  a  physician  and  divine;  born  1716. 
The  Rev.  Dr.  VALPY,  classical  scholar  and  divine,    master  of* 

Reading  School;  born  1774;  died  1836. 

John  WORRAL,  author  of  "  Bibliotheca  Legum ;"  born  at  Read- 
ing; died  I77l» 
Edward  YOUNG,  Dean  of  Salisbury,  a  theologian,  and  father  of 

the  poet,  born  at  Woodhay  ;  died  1705. 

*„*  The  principal  Works  published  since  Dr. Fuller's  time,  relative  to  this  county, 
are  the  History  of  Berkshire,  by  Elias  Ashmole  (1736)  ;  History  of  Windsor  Castle, 
by  J.  Pote  (1749);  History  of  the  Beauties  of  England  (1801)  ;  Lyson's  Britan- 
nia (1813)  ;  Histories  of  Reading,  by  the  Rev.  C.  Coates  (1802),  and  by  J.  Maa 
(1816)  ;  and  the  History  of  Windsor,  by  J.  Hakewell  (1813).— ED, 



BEDFORDSHIRE  hath  Northamptonshire  on  the  north,  Hun- 
tingdon and  Cambridgeshires  on  the  east,  Hertfordshire  on  the 
south;  Buckinghamshire  on  the  west  thereof.  It  lieth  from 
north  to  south  in  an  oval  form,  and  may  be  allowed  two  and 
twenty  miles  in  length,  though  the  general  breadth  thereof  ex- 
tendeth  not  to  full  fifteen. 

The  soil  consisteth  of  a  deep  clay,  yet  so  that  this  county  may 
be  said  to  wear  a  belt,  or  girdle  of  sand,  about,  or  rather  athwart 
the  body  thereof  (from  Woburn  to  Potton),  affording  fair  and 
pleasant,  as  the  other  part  doth  fruitful  and  profitable,  places  for 
habitation,  which  partakes  plentifully  in  the  partage  of  all  Eng- 
lish conveniences. 

Here  let  this  caveat  be  entered,  to  preserve  its  due  [but 
invaded]  right  to  much  grain  growing  in  this  county  :  for  corn- 
chandlers  (the  most  avouchable  authors  in  this  point)  will  in- 
form you,  that  when  Hertfordshire  wheat  and  barley  carries  the 
credit  in  London,  thereby  much  is  meant  (though  miscalled) 
which  is  immediately  bought  in  and  brought  out  of  Hertfordshire, 
but  originally  growing  in  Bedfordshire,  about  Dunstable  and 
elsewhere.  But  let  not  the  dry  nurse,  which  only  carried  the 
child  in  her  arms  and  dandled  it  in  her  lap,  lay  claim  to  that 
babe  which  the  true  mother  did  breed  and  bear  in  her  body. 



White,  large,  plump,  and  full  of  flower.  The  countryman  will 
tell  you,  that  of  all  our  grains  this  is  most  nice,  and  must  be 
most  observed  in  the  several  seasons  thereof.  It  doth  not  only 
allay  hunger,  but  also  in  a  manner  quencheth  thirst,  when  or- 
dered into  malt.  It  is  (though  not  so  toothsome)  as  wholesome 
as  wheat  itself,  and  was  all  the  staff  of  bread,  which  Christ's 
body  leaned  on  in  this  life;  eating,  to  attest  his  humanity, 
barley  loaves  to  evidence  his  humility.* 

*  John  vi.  9. 



This  is  barley  with  the  property  thereof  much  altered,  hav- 
ing passed  both  water  and  fire,  steeped  and  dried  on  a  kiln.  That 
the  use  hereof  was  known  to  the  Greeks,  plainly  appears  by  the 
proper  word  wherewith  they  express  it,  Rvvij  •  and  no  maltster 
of  Bedford  can  better  describe  the  manner  thereof  than  is  done 
by  Aetius ;  "  Est  hordeum  madefactum,  quod  germen  emisit, 
deinde  cum  ligulis  enatis  tostum  est."*  Besides,  we  read  of 
OIVOQ  KptOivoz,  and  Athenseus  maketh  mention  of  such  who  were 
Kpidtvov  TTETTWKOTCC  otj/oj',f  "  drinkers  of  barley  wine,"  —  a  liquor 
probably  more  wholesome  for  northern  bodies  than  that  which 
groweth  in  grapes. 

What  great  estates  malsters  got  formerly  in  this  county,  may  be 
collected  from  the  wealth  of  the  ale-brewers  therein,  there  being 
so  near  a  relation  betwixt  the  two  callings.  For  I  read  in  the  reign 
of  king  Henry  the  Fifth,  of  William  Murfley,  an  ale  brewer  of 
Dunstable  (accounted,  I  confess,  a  Lollard,  and  follower  of  the 
Lord  Cobham,)  who  when  taken  had  two  horses  trapped  with 
gilt  armour  led  after  him,  and  had  a  pair  of  gilt  spurs  in  his  bo- 
som, expecting  (say  they)  knighthood  from  the  Lord  Cobham.  J 
And  although  I  believe  not  the  report  in  full  habitude,  it  is 
enough  to  intimate  unto  us  that  in  that  age  it  was  a  wealthy  em- 


Great  store  of  this  is  digged  up  not  far  from  Woburn  in  this 
county,  whence  it  is  commonly  called  Woburn  earth.  Such 
the  use  thereof  in  drapery,  that  good  cloth  can  hardly  be  made 
without  it,  foreign  parts  affording  neither  so  much,  nor  so  good 
of  this  kind.§  No  wonder  then  if  our  statutes  strictly  forbid 
the  transportation  thereof,  to  preserve  the  perfection  of  clothing 
amongst  ourselves.  But  were  this  fullers-earth  like  terra  lemnia, 
or  sigillata,  and  all  the  parcels  thereof  locked  up  under  a  seal, 
yet  the  Dutch  (so  long  as  they  are  so  cunning,  and  we  so  care- 
less) will  stock  themselves  hence  with  plentiful  proportions 


The  most  and  best  of  these  are  caught  and  well  dressed  about 
Dunstable  in  this  shire.  A  harmless  bird  whilst  living,  not 
trespassing  on  grain ;  and  wholesome  when  dead,  then  filling 
the  stomach  with  meat,  as  formerly  the  ear  with  music.  In 
winter  they  fly  in  flocks,  probably  the  reason  why  Alauda  signi- 
fieth  in  Latin  both  a  lark  and  a  legion  of  soldiers ;  except  any 
will  say  a  legion  is  so  called  because  helmeted  on  their  heads 
and  crested  like  a  lark,  therefore  also  called  in  Latin  Gakrita, 

*  Lib.  x.  c.  29.  t  Lib.  i.  et  x. 

i  Harpfield,  History  of  Wickliffe,  p.  708  ;  and  Hollinshed,  p.  544, 

§  See  more  hereof  in  Surrey,  title  Natural  Commodities. 


If  men  would  imitate  the  early  rising  of  this  bird,  it  would  con- 
duce much  unto  their  healthfulness. 


Fat  folk  (whose  collops  stick  to  their  sides)  are  generally  lazy, 
whilst  leaner  people  are  of  more  activity.  Thus  fruitful  coun- 
tries (as  this  is  for  the  generality  thereof)  take  to  themselves  a 
writ  of  ease ;  the  principal  cause  why  Bedfordshire  affords  not 
any  trades  peculiar  to  itself. 


This  county  affordeth  no  cathedral,  and  the  parochial  churches 
entitle  not  themselves  to  any  eminency.  Only  I  hear  such  high 
commendations  of  a  chapel  and  monument  erected  at  Maldon 
by  Thomas  Earl  of  Elgin  to  the  memory  of  his  deceased  lady 
Diana  Cecil,  that  I  am  impatient  till  I  have  beheld  it,  to  satisfy 
myself  whether  it  answereth  that  character  of  curiosity  which 
credible  persons  have  given  thereof. 

Taddington,  Amphtill,  and  Woburn  carrv  away  the  credit 
amongst  the  houses  of  the  nobility  in  this  county. 


At  Harleswood,  commonly  called  Harold,  in  this  county,  the 
river  of  Ouse,  anno  1399,  parted  asunder ;  the  water  from  the 
fountain  standing  still,  and  those  towards  the  sea  giving  way,  so 
that  it  was  passable  over  on  foot  for  three  miles  together,  not 
without  the  astonishment  of  the  beholders.*  It  was  an  ominous 
presage  of  the  sad  civil  wars  betwixt  the  two  houses  of  York  and 

There  js  a  rivulet  in  this  county  (though  confining  on  Buck- 
inghamshire) near  a  village  called  Aspeley ;  and  take  the  strange 
operation  thereof  from  his  pen,  who  (though  a  poet)  is  a  credi- 
ble author : 

• '  The  Brook  which  on  her  bank  doth  boast  that  earth  alone, 
Which,  noted  of  this  isle,  converteth  wood  to  stone. 
That  little  Aspeley's  earth  we  anciently  instyle, 
'Mongst  sundry  other  things,  A  Wonder  of  the  Isle."| 

But,  by  his  leave,  there  is  another  of  the  same  nature  in  North- 
amptonshire ;  which  because  less  known  I  will  there  enlarge 
myself  on  that  subject. 


"As  plain  as  Dunstable  road.''] 

It  is  applied  to  things  plain  and  simple,  without  either  welt 
or  guard  to  adorn  them,  as  also  to  matters  easy  and  obvious  to 
be  found  without  any  difficulty  or  direction.  Such  this  road  ; 

*  Hypodagma,  p.  163.  f  Drayton's  Poly-olbion,  the  22nd  Song. 


being  broad  and  beaten,  as  the  confluence  of  many  leading  to 
London  from  the  north  and  north-west  parts  of  this  land. 

"  As  crooked  as  Crawley  brook."] 

This  is  a  nameless  brook  arising  about  Woburn,  running  by 
Crawley,  and  falling  immediately  into  the  Ouse.  But  this  pro^ 
verb  may  better  be  verified  of  Ouse  itself  in  this  shire,  more 
mceandrous  than  Mceander,  which  runneth  above  eighty  miles  in 
eighteen  by  land.  Blame  it  not,  if,  sensible  of  its  sad  condition, 
and  presaging  its  fall  into  the  foggy  fens  in  the  next  county,  it 
be  loath  to  leave  this  pleasant  place ;  as  who  would  not  prolong 
their  own  happiness  ? 

"  The  Bailiff  of  Bedford  is  coming."] 

This  proverb  hath  its  original  in  this,  but  use  in  the  next, 
county  of  Cambridge.  The  river  Ouse  running  by  is  called  the 
Bailiff  of  Bedford,  who,  swelling  with  rain,  snow-water,  and  tri- 
butary brooks  in  the  winter,  and  coming  down  on  a  sudden,  ar- 
resteth  the  Isle  of  Ely  with  an  inundation.  But  I  am  informed 
that  the  drainers  of  the  Fens  have  of  late,  with  incredible  care, 
cost,  art,  and  industry,  wrested  the  mace  out  of  this  BailifFs 
hand,  and  have  secured  the  country  against  his  power  for  the 


MARGARET  BEAUFORT,  Countess  Richmond  and  Derby. 
No  person  of  judgment  or  ingenuity  will  find  fault  with  her 
posture  under  this  title,  who  was  great-great-grandchild  to  king 
Edward  the  Third,  and  mother  to  king  Henry  the  Seventh, 
besides  her  (almost  incredible)  alliance  to  so  many  foreign 

Thus,  reader,  I  am  confident  I  have  pleased  thee  as  well  as 
myself,  in  disposing  her  in  this  place.  And  yet  I  am  well  as- 
sured that,  were  she  alive,  she  would  (half-offended  hereat)  be 
more  contented  to  be  ranked  under  another  and  lower  topic  of 
benefactors  to  the  public  ;  yea,  (if  left  to  her  own  liberty)  would 
choose  that  reposing-place  for  her  memory.  This  is  not  only  most 
consonant  to  her  humility  and  charity  (desiring  rather  to  be 
good  than  great) :  but  also  conformable  to  her  remarkable 
expression  (according  to  the  devotion  of  those  darker  days) 
"  that,  if  the  Christian  princes  would  agree  to  march  with  an  army 
for  the  recovery  of  Palestine,  she  would  be  their  landress." 

This  is  she  who,  besides  a  professor  of  divinity  placed  in  both 
universities,  founded  the  two  fair  colleges  of  Christ  and  Saint 
John  in  Cambridge.  By  the  way  be  it  observed,  that  Cam- 
bridge hath  been  much  beholden  to  the  strength  of  bounty  in 
the  weaker  sex.  Of  the  four  Halls  therein,  two,  viz.  Clare  and 
Pembroke,  were  (as  I  may  say)  feminine  foundations ;  and  of 
the  twelve  colleges,  one  third,  Queen's,  Christ's  Saint  John's, 

*  .See  their  number  in  her  Funeral  Sermon,  preached  by  Bishop  Fisher, 


and  Sidney,  owe  their  original  to  worthy  women  :  whereas  no 
female  ever  founded  college  in  Oxford  (though  bountiful  bene- 
factors to  many) ;  seeing  queen's  college  therein,  though  com- 
mended to  the  queens  of  England  for  its  successive  patronesses, 
had  Robert  Eglesfield  for  the  effectual  founder  thereof. 

And  Cambridge  is  so  far  from  being  ashamed  of,  she  is  joy- 
ful at,  and  thankful  for,  such  charity ;  having  read  of  our  Saviour 
himself,  that  "  Mary  Magdalen,  and  Joanna,  and  Susanna,  and 
many  other  women,  ministered  unto  him  of  their  substance/'* 
But  this  worthy  Lady  Margaret,  being  too  high  for  a  mean  man 
to  commend,  is  long  since  gone  to  the  great  God  to  reward,  dy- 
ing in  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  her  grand-child  king  Henry 
the  Eighth. 


AINULPHUS,  of  royal  British  blood,  was  an  holy  hermit,  who, 
waving  the  vanities  of  this  wicked  world,  betook  himself  in  this 
county  to  a  solitary  life,  renowned  for  the  sanctity  (or  rather 
sanctimony)  thereof.  The  age  he  lived  in  is  not  exactly 
known ;  but  sure  it  is,  that  Ainulphsbury  (a  town  in  the  con- 
fines of  this  and  Huntingdonshire),  was  erected  in  his  memory, 
pait  whereof  (corruptly  called  Ainsbury)  is  extant  at  this  day, 
and  the  rest  is  disguised  under  the  new  name  of  Saint  Neot's. 


THOMAS  CHASE,  an  ancient  and  faithful  labourer  in  GodV 
vineyard,  led  his  life  most  in  Buckinghamshire,  but  found  his 
death  in  this  county,  long  kept  in  durance,  and  hanged  at  last, 
in  the  bishop's  prison  at  Woburn.  His  executioners,  to  palli- 
ate their  murder,  and  asperse  his  memory,  gave  it  out  that  he 
had  destroyed  himself;  a  loud  lie,  seeing  he  was  so  loaden  with 
chains,  that  he.  could  not  lift  up  his  own  body.f  But  the  clear- 
ing hereof  must  be  remitted  to  that  day  wherein  all  things  done 
in  secret  shall  be  made  manifest.  His  martyrdom  happened  in 
the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Seventh,  anno  Domini  1506. 


SILVESTER  de  EVERTON,  for  so  is  he  written  in  the  Records 
of  Carlisle  £  (though  Eversden  and  Everseen  in  other  books) 
which  are  most  to  be  credited,  as  passing  under  the  pens  of  the 
best  (and  to  his  particular  the  most  knowing)  clerks,  no  doubt, 
took  his  name  from  Everton,  a  village  in  this  (but  the  confines 
of  Cambridge)  shire.  He  was  a  man  memorable  for  his  pre- 
ferment, and  very  able  to  discharge  the  lay  part  thereof,  re- 
ceiving the  great  seal,  anno  the  29th  of  king  Henry  the  Third, 
1 246,  and  is  commended  for  one  most  cunning  in  customs  of 
Chancery.  §  The  same  year  he  was  chosen  bishop  of  Carlisle, 

*  Luke  viii.  3.  f  Fox,  Acts  and  Monuments,  p.  775. 

J  Whence  Bishop  Godwin  transcribed  his  Catalogue  of  Bishops. 
§  John  Philipot,  in  his  Chancellors  of  England,  p.  20. 



though  demurring  on  the  acceptance  thereof  (conscious  to  him- 
self, perchance,  as  unqualified)  his  consecration  was  deferred 
until  the  next  year. 

He,  with  the  rest  of  the  English  bishops,  addressed  them- 
selves to  king  Henry  the  Third,  and  boldly  enough  requested- 
required  of  him,  that  all  foreigners  and  insufficient  persons 
might  be  put  out  of  their  bishoprics.  Now,  as  to  the  point  of 
insufficiency,  the  king,  singling  out  this  Silvester,  thus  bespake 

"  Et  tu,  Silvester  Carliolensis,  qui  dm  lambens  Cancellariam, 
clericorum  meorum  clericulus  extitisti,  qualiter  post-positis  mul- 
tis  theologis,  et  personis  reverendis  te  in  episcopum  sublimavi, 
omnibus  satis  notum  est."  (( And  thou,  Silvester  of  Carlile, 
who,  so  long  licking  the  Chancery,  was  the  little  clerk  of 
my  clergyman,  it  is  sufficiently  known  to  all,  how  I  advanced 
thee  to  be  a  bishop,  before  many  reverend  persons,  and  able 

His  expression  "  licking  the  Chancery  "  hath  left  posterity  to 
interpret  it,  whether  taxing  him  for  ambition,  liquorishly  longing 
for  that  place ;  or  for  adulation,  by  the  soft  smoothing  of  flat- 
tery making  his  way  thereunto ;  or  for  avarice,  licking  it  so, 
that  he  gained  great  (if  good)  profit  thereby.  As  for  his  ex- 
pression "  little  clerk,"  it  is  plain  it  referred  not  to  his  stature, 
but  dwarfness  in  learning.  However,  all  this  would  not  per- 
suade him  into  a  resignation  of  his  bishopric,  though  it  was  not 
long  before  he  lost  both  it  and  his  life,  by  a  fall  from  a  skittish 
horse,  anno  Domini  1254. 

I  find  no  bishop  born  in  this  county  since  the  Reformation ; 
and  therefore  we  may  go  on  in  our  propounded  method. 


SIR  JOHN  COKEYN,  Knight,  Chief  Baron  of  the  Exchequer 
in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Fourth,  founded  a  worshipful 
family  at,  and  imparted  his  surname  to,  Cokeyn  Hatley,  in  this 
county.  But,  being  convinced  that  he  was  born  at  Ashbourn, 
in  Derbyshire,  I  have  reserved  his  character  for  that  county. 

EDMOND  WINGATE,  Esq.  was  a  native  of  this  county,  whose 
family  flourisheth  at  Hartington  therein.  He  was  bred  in  Grey's 
Inn  in  the  study  of  our  common  law,  whereof  he  wrote,  besides 
others,  a  book  entitled,  "  The  Reason  of  the  Common  Law ;"  and 
is  lately  deceased. 


JOHN  of  D UNSTABLE,  so  called  from  a  market-town  in  this 
county,  wherein  he  was  born.  If  hitherto  the  reader  hath  not, 
it  is  high  time  for  him  now,  to  take  notice  of  a  person  of  such 
perfection.  Indeed  at  first  my  pen  feared  famishing,  finding  so 

*  Matthew  Paris,  anno  1253. 


little ;  since  surfeiting,  meeting  so  much  of  this  man.  For  this 
John  of  Dunstable  was  John  of  all  arts,  as  appeareth  by  his 
double  epitaph,  one  inscribed  on  his  monument,  the  other  writ- 
ten on  his  memory.  But  be  it  premised  of  both,  that  we  will 
not  avouch  the  truth  of  the  Latin,  or  quantity  in  these  verses ; 
but  present  them  here  as  we  find  them,  with  all  their  faults, 
and  his  virtues  on  whom  they  were  made. 

On  his  tomb  in  St.  Stephen's,  Wallbrook,  London. 

"  Clauditur  hoc  tumulo  qui  coelum  pectore  clausit, 
Dunstable  I.,  juris  astrorum  conscius  ille, 
.     .     .     novit    .     .     .     abscondita  pondere  coeli ; 
Hie  vir  erat  tua  laus,  tua  lux,  tua  musica  princeps 
Quique  tuas  fulces  per  mundum  sparserat  artes. 

Suscipiant  proprium  civem  coeli  sibi  cives." 

The  second,  made  by  John  IVheathamsted,  Abbott  of  Saint  Albant.* 

"  Musicus  hie  Michalus  alter,  novus  et  Ptolomseus, 
Junior  ac  Atlas  supportans  robore  ccelos. 
Pausat  sub  cinere  ;  melior  vir  de  muliere 
Nunquam  natus  erat,  vitii  quia  labe  carebat. 
Et  virtutis  opes  possedit  unicus  omnes. 
Perpetuis  annis  celebretur  fama  Johannis 
Dunstable  ;  in  pace  requiescat  et  hie  sine  fine." 

What  is  true  of  the  bills  of  some  unconscionable  tradesmen, 
"  if  ever  paid,  over  paid  ;'*  may  be  said  of  this  hyperbolical 
epitaph,  "  if  ever  believed,  over  believed/5  Yea,  one  may  safely 
cut  off  a  third  in  any  part  of  it,  and  the  remainder  will  amount 
to  make  him  a  most  admirable  person.  Let  none  say  that  these 
might  be  two  distinct  persons,  seeing  (besides  the  concurrence 
of  time  and  place)  it  would  bankrupt  the  exchequer  of  Nature 
to  afford  two  such  persons,  one  phoenix  at  once  being  as  much 
as  any  will  believe.  This  Dunstable  died  anno  1455. 


GEORGE  JOY  was  born  in  this  county,  though  the  exact 
place  be  not  expressed.!  He  was  a  great  friend  to  Master 
Tindall,{  and  therefore  perfectly  hated  by  Wolsey,  Fisher,  and 
Sir  Thomas  More.  The  particulars  of  his  sufferings,  if  known, 
would  justly  advance  him  into  the  reputation  of  a  confessor. 
He  translated  some  parts  of  the  Bible  into  English,  and  wrote 
many  books  reckoned  up  by  Bale ;  notwithstanding  many  ma- 
chinations against  his  life,  he  found  his  coffin  where  he  fetched 
his  cradle,  "in  su£  patrid  sepultus,"  being  peaceably  buried 
in  his  native  country  1553,  the  last  year  of  king  Edward  the 

FRANCIS  DILLINGHAM  was  born  at  Dean  in  this  county, 
and  bred  fellow  in  Christ  College  in  Cambridge.  He  was  an 

*  Extant  in  Weaver's  Funeral  Monuments,  p.  577. 

Bale,  de  Script.  Brit.  Cent.  9. 
$  Fox,  Acts  and  Monument?,  p.  1027. 

WRITERS.  171 

excellent  linguist,  and  subtle  disputant.  My  father  was  present 
in  the  Bachelors5  schools,  when  a  Greek  Act  was  kept,  between 
him  and  William  Alabaster,  of  Trinity  College,  to  their  mutual 
commendation ;  a  disputation  so  famous  that  it  served  for  an 
era  or  epoch  for  the  scholars  in  that  age  thence  to  date  their 

He  was  afterwards  chosen,  anno  1607,  to  be  one  of  the  trans- 
lators of  the  Bible  ;  and,  being  richly  beneficed  at  Wilden  in 
this  county,  died  a  single  man,  leaving  a  fair  estate  to  his  bro- 
ther Master  Thomas  Dillingham,  who  was  chosen  one  of  the 
late  assembly ;  (though,  for  age,  indisposition,  and  other  rea- 
sons, not  appearing  therein) ;  and  for  many  years  was  the  hum- 
ble, painful,  and  faithful  pastor  of  Dean,  the  place  of  his  nati- 

WILLIAM  Sc  LATER  was  born  at  Lay  ton-buzzard  in  this 
county,*  son  to  Anthony  Sclater,  the  minister  thereof  for  fifty 
years  together,  who  died  well  nigh  an  hundred  years  of  age. 
This  William  his  son  was  bred  in  Eaton,  then  in  King's  Col- 
lege in  Cambridge,  where  he  commenced  Bachelor,  and  (after 
many  years'  discontinuance)  Poctor  of  Divinity.  Hence  he  was 
invited  to  be  preacher  at  Wralsall  in  Staffordshire,  where  he  be- 
gan his  sermons  (afterwards  printed)  on  the  three  first  chapters 
of  the  Romans.  Afterwards,  John  Coles,  Esquire,  of  Somerset- 
shire, over-entreated  him  into  the  Western  parts,  where  he  pre- 
sented him  vicar  of  Pitmister.  Here  he  met  with  manifold  and 
expensive  vexations,  even  to  the  jeopardy  of  his  life ;  but,  by 
the  goodness  of  God,  his  own  innocency  and  courage,  with  the 
favour  of  his  diocesan,  he  came  off  with  no  less  honour  to  him- 
self, than  confusion  to  his  adversaries. 

He  was  at  first  not  well  affected  to  the  ceremonies  of  the 
Church  :  but  afterwards,  on  his  profound  studying  of  the  point, 
he  was  reconciled  to  them^  as  for  order  and  decency ;  and,  by 
his  example,  others  were  persuaded  to  conform. 

Constancy  of  studying  contracted  the  stone  upon  him,  which 
he  used  to  csiX\.  flagellum  studiosorum.  Nor  was  his  health  im- 
proved by  being  removed  to  a  wealthier  living,  when  John  Lord 
Paulet  of  Hinton  (at  the  instance  of  Elizabeth  his  lady,,  in  whose 
inheritance  it  was,  a  worthy  favourer  of  piety  and  pious  men) 
preferred  him  to  the  rich  parsonage  of  Limpsam  in  Somerset- 
shire, where  indeed  there  was  scarce  any  element  good,  save 
the  earth  therein.  Whereupon,  for  his  own  preservation, 
he  was  re-persuaded  to  return  to  Pitmister,  there  con- 
tinuing till  the  day  of  his  death,  which  happened  in 
the  year  of  our  Lord  1627,  in  the  fifty-first  year  of  his  age, 
leaving  many  learned  works  behind  him ;  as,  his  "  Comment 

*  So  was  I  informed  by  his  son  Doctor  Sclater,  late  minister  of  Peter's  Poor, 
London. — F, 


on  the  Romans/'  and  on  (e  the  Thessalonians,"  "  Sermons  at 
PauPs  Cross,"  and  the  Treatise  of  Tithes,  styled  "  the  Minister's 
Portion/'  with  other  posthume  works,,  some  since  set  forth  by, 
more  remaining  in.,  the  hand  of  his  son,  William  Sclater,  Doctor 
of  Divinity,  and  minister  at  London,  lately  deceased. 


Sir  WILLIAM,  son  to  William  HARPER,  was  born  in  the 
town  of  Bedford,  but  bred  a  Merchant  Tailor  in  the  city  of 
London  ;  where  God  so  blessed  his  endeavours,  that,  anno  1561, 
he  was  chosen  Lord  Mayor  thereof.  In  gratitude  to  God  and 
the  place  of  his  nativity,  he  erected  and  endowed  a  free  school 
in  Bedford,  in  which  town  he  lieth  buried.* 

HENRY  GRKY,  son  to  Henry  Grey,  was  born  at  Wrest  in 
this  county.  Something  must  be  premised  of  his  extraction. 
Richard  Grey,  third  earl  of  Kent  of  that  family,  was  so  profuse 
a  person,  that  he  wilfully  wasted  his  estate  ;  giving  away  what 
he  could  not  spend,  to  the  king  and  others  ;  so  little  he  reflected 
on  Sir  Henry  Grey  his  brother  (but  by  a  second  venter)  of 
Wrest  in  this  county.  Hereupon  the  said  Sir  Henry,  though 
heir  to  his  brother  Richard  after  his  death,  yet  perceiving  him- 
self over-titled,  or  rather  under-stated,  for  so  high  an  honour 
(the  undoubted  right  whereof  rested  in  him)  declined  the  assum- 
ing thereof.  Thus  the  earldom  of  Kent  lay  (though  not  dead) 
asleep  in  the  family  of  the  Greys  almost  50  years :  viz.  from 
the  15th  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth  till  the  13th  of  queen  Eliza- 
beth, when  she  advanced  Reginald  Grey,  grandchild  to  Sir 
Henry  Grey  aforesaid  (who  had  thriftily  recruited  himself  with 
competence  of  revenues)  to  be  Earl  of  Kent,  anno  1571. 

This  Reginald  dying  issueless  within  the  year,  Henry  his 
brother  (the  subject  of  our  present  description)  succeeded  to 
his  honour;  a  person  truly  noble,  expending  the  income  of  his 
own  estate  and  of  his  lady's  fair  jointer  (Mary  the  relic  of  Ed- 
ward Earl  of  Derby)  in  hospitality, 

He  was  a  most  cordial  Protestant,  on  the  same  token  that, 
being  present  at  the  execution  of  the  queen  of  Scots,  when  she 
requested  the  nobility  there  to  stand  by  and  see  her  death,  he 
(fearing  something  of  superstition)  hardly  assented  thereunto. 
Yet  was  he  as  far  from  the  faction  as  superstition,f  deserving 
the  character  given  unto  him,  e(  Omnibus  verse  nobilitatis  orna- 
mentis  vir  longe  honoratissimus/'J  He  left  no  issue,  except 
some  will  behold  him  in  some  sort  parent  of  Sidney  College  in 
Cambridge,  as  one  of  the  executors  to  the  foundress  thereof, 
who  did  both  prove  and  improve  her  will,  besides  his  personal 
benefaction  thereunto ;  and  being  the  surviving  executor,  he 

Stow's  Survey  of  London,  p.  62.  f  Camden's  Elizabeth,  anno  1587. 

I  Idem,  in  his  Britannia,  in  Kent. 


did  perpetuate  the  fellowships  (formerly  temporary)  according 
to  the  implicit  trust  deposited  in  him,  to  the  advantages  of  that 
foundation.  He  died  anno  Domini  1613. 

FRANCIS  CLEARK,  Knight,  was  born  at  Eaton-socoii  in  this 
shire,  near  to  Saint  Neot's,  in  the  lordship  there  commonly 
called  The  Parsonage.  He  was  a  noble  benefactor  to  Sidney' 
College,  augmenting  all  the  scholarships  of  the  foundation,  and 
erecting  a  fair  and  firm  range  of  building.  Such  his  skill  in 
arithmetic  and  architecture,  that,  staying  at  home,  he  did  pro- 
vide to  a  brick  what  was  necessary  for  the  finishing  thereof. 
He  founded  four  new  fellowships :  and,  had  he  been  pleased  to 
consult  with  the  College,  the  settlement  with  the  same  expence 
might  have  proved  more  advantageous  :  for  though,  in  gifts  to 
private  persons,  it  be  improper  that  the  receiver  should  be  the 
director  thereof,  a  corporation  may  give  the  best  advice  to  im- 
prove the  favours  conferred  upon  it.  But  it  is  a  general  prac- 
tice that  men  desire  rather  to  be  broad  than  thick  benefactors. 

However,  seeing  every  one  may  do  with  his  own  as  he  pleas- 
ethj  blessed  be  the  memory  of  this  worthy  knight,  whose  gift 
in  effect  was  felt  by  the  College  before  the  giver  thereof  was 
seen,  being  himself  a  mere  stranger  unto  it.  Some  say,  that 
because  this  was  the  youngest  foundation  in  the  University  (ge- 
nerally the  last  child  hath  the  least  left  it),  his  charity  pitched 
upon  it.  But  I  have  been  informed,  that  Sir  Francis  coming 
privately  to  Cambridge,  to  see  unseen,  took  notice  of  Doctor 
Ward's  daily  presence  in  the  hall,  with  the  scholars5  conformity 
in  caps,  and  diligent  performance  of  exercises ;  which  endeared 
this  place  unto  him.  Thus  the  observing  of  old  statutes  is  the 
best  loadstone  to  attract  new  benefactors.  His  death  happened 
anno  Domini  163. .. 


A  woman,  whose  name  I  cannot  recover,  lived,  died,  and  is 
buried  at  Dunstable  in  this  county.  It  appeareth  by  her  epitaph* 
in  the  church,  that  she  had  nineteen  children  at  five  births : 
viz.  three  several  times  three  children  at  a  birth,  and  five  at 
a  birth  two  other  times.  How  many  of  them  survived 
to  man's  estate  is  unknown.f  Here  I  must  dissent  from 

*  Hakewill's  Apology,  p.  253. 

t  The  Epitaph  to  which  Dr.  Fuller  here  alludes  (first  published  by  Hakewill, 
and  since  by  Brown  Willis)  is  simply  that  of  Mr.  Mulso,  who,  by  two  wives,  was 
father  of  nineteen  children.  The  words  are  these  : 

"  Hie  William  Mulso  sibi  quern  sociavit  et  Alice, 
Marmore  sub  duro  conclusit  mors  geiieralis. 
Ter  tres,  bis  quinos  hie  natos  fertur  habere 
Per  sponsas  binas.     Deus  his  clemens  miserere." 

This,  Dr.   Fuller  by  mistake  ascribes  to   one  woman  having  19  children  at  five 
births  ;  and  the  tradition  of  the  place  confirms  the  error.     Bishop  Gibson  also,  in 
his  Additions    to  Camden,  repeats  it  implicitly,  gravely  adding  "  that  after  the  co 
ronation  of  King  Charles  IT.  the  wives  of  two  blacksmiths  were  at  the  same  time  de- 


an  author  maintaining  that  more  twins  were  born  in  the  first  age 
of  the  world,  than  now-a-days  ;  *  whereas  we  meet  with  none 
but  single  births  in  the  patriarchs  before  the  flood ;  and,  more 
than  six  hundred  years  after  the  Deluge,  Esau  and  Jacob  were 
the  first  twins  mentioned  in  Scripture. 


1.  Thomas  Chalton,  son  of  Thomas  Chalton,  of  Dunstable,  Mer- 
cer, 1449. 

2.  William  Stoker,  son  of  Thomas  Stoker,  of  Eaton,  Draper, 

3.  William  Butler,  son  of  Rich. Butler,  of  Bidenham,  Grocer,1515. 

4.  William  Harper,  son  of  William  Harper,  of  Bedford,  Mer- 
chant Taylor,  1561. 




William  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  and  John    de  Fanhope,  chevalier, 

John  Wenlock,  arm.,  and  John  Gascoigne,  arm.,  knights  for  the 

shire,  Commissioners. 
Abbatis  de  Woborn,  et  sui  ce-  Johannis  Fitzgeffrey. 

lerarii  Johannis  Radwell. 

Abbatis  de  Warden.  Johannis  Fyse. 

Prioris  de  Dunstable.  Johannis  Coldington. 

Prioris  de  Chekesond.  Christophori  Preston. 

Prioris  de  Xunham.  Stephani  Cruker. 

Prioris  de  Chaldwell.  Thomae  Roxston. 

Prioris  de  Buschemede.  Willielmi  Lancelin. 

Simonis  Filbrigge,  chevalier.  Henrici  de  Lye. 

Henrici  Bronnflete,  chevalier.  Joh.  Conquest  de  Houghton. 

Thomse  Wauton,  chevalier.  Thomce  Lonnde. 

Thomce  Maningham.  Walter!  Lonnde. 

Thomae  Hoo.  Johannis  Lonnde. 

Johannis  Broughton.  Richardi  Merston. 

Johannis  Enderby.  Johannis  Peeke,  j  unioris. 

Roberti  Mordant.  Thomse  Peeke. 

Johannis  Hertusherne.  Willielmi  Peeke. 

Henrici  Godfrey.  Johannis  Glove,  j  unioris. 

Johan.  Boteler  de  Xorthzele.  Johannis  Turvey  de  Turvey. 

Humphrei  Acworth.  Johannis  Ferroiir  de  Bedford. 

Johannis  Ragon.  Johannis  Gerveys  de  Maldon. 

Thomae  Ragon.  Henrici  Etewelf. 

livered  of  three  children  each,  one  of  three  boys,  the  other  of  three  girl?.:<      See  tLe 
"History  of   Dunstable,"  in  Bibliotheca  Tonoeraphica  Britannic*,    Xo.  VIII.  n. 

173 ED. 

t  Huartes,  in  the  "  Trial  of  Wits." 



Robert!  Bollock. 
Willielmi  Wale. 
Nicholai  Ravenhull. 
Xicholai  Low. 
Valentin!  Bailli  de  Luton. 
Willielmi  White  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Boughton. 
Hugonis  Hasselden. 
Thomae  Bailli  de  Houghton. 
Willielmi  Trought. 
Henrici  Manntell. 
Roberti  Valence. 
Johannis  Attehay. 
Willielmi  Ypping. 
Johannis  Petifer. 
Thomae  Purvey. 
Willielmi  Purvey. 
Willielmi  Shotfold. 
Willielmi  Wingate. 
Willielmi  Kene. 
Thomae  Stokker. 
Ade  Alford. 
Johannis  Morton. 
Thomae  Morton. 
Thomae  Stratton. 
Thomae  Chamberlain. 
Radulphi  Cleark. 
Math.  Stepeing. 
Xicholai  Harding. 
Willielmi  Marham. 
Richardi  Sampson. 
Roberti  Warner. 
Johannis  Coke  de  Crawley. 
Willielmi  Sileham. 
Willielmi  Purvey. 
Willielmi  Rede.' 
Thomce  Blondell. 
Willielmi  Milward. 
Roberti  Ratele. 
Johannis  Kiggill  de  Todinton. 
Johannis  Pesfell  de  Xunham. 
Thomae  Chopper  de  Turvey. 

Hungry  time  hath  made  a  glutton's  meal  on  this  catalogue  of 
gentry,  and  hath  left  but  a  very  little  morsel  for  manners  remain- 
ng ;  so  few  of  these  are  found  extant  in  this  shire,  and  fewer 
continuing  in  a  genteel  equipage.  Amongst  whom  I  must  not 
forget  the  family  of  the  Blundels,  whereof  Sir  Edward  Blundell 
behaved  himself  right  valiantly,  in  the  unfortunate  expedition 
to  the  Isle  of  Ree. 

Johannis  Marram. 

Thomae  Jakes. 

Johannis  Pikot. 

Willielmi  Molso. 

Johannis  Sewell. 

Henrici  Sewell. 

Radulphi  Falwell. 

Hugonis  Billingdon. 

Johannis  Baldoe. 

Willielmi  Palmer. 

Roberti  Davy,  junioris. 

Johannis  Stanlow. 

Richardi  Lincoln. 

Walter!  Taillard. 

Thomae  Spencer  de  Geton. 

Johannis  Spencer. 

Johannis  King  de  Harrowdon, 

Johannis  Wait. 

Willielmi  Bochell. 

Thomae  William. 

Roberti  Ratull. 

Roberti  Warner  de  la  Hethe. 

Johannis  Potter. 

Johannis  Grecell. 

Willielmi  tocher  de  Henlow. 

Will.  Halle  de  Chitingdon. 

Johannis  Halle. 

Willielmi  Ludsopp. 

Job.  Conquest  de  Houghton. 

Stephani  Cruker. 

Thomae  Rokeston. 

Willielmi  Lancelein. 

Henrici  de  Lye. 

Thomae  Ragon. 

Johannis  Mepurshale. 

Johannis  Eitz. 

Johannis  Pekke,  junioris. 

Hugonis  Billingdon. 

Thomee  Pekke. 

Willielmi  Pekke. 

Johannis  Glove,  junioris. 





1  Rich.  Basset  and  Albertus 

de  Veer,  Rob.  Carun. 

2  Henric.  de  Essex  consti- 

tuit  Simonem  Fitz  Petre 
Vicecomitem,  for  four 

6  Gal.  filius  Radulph. 

7  Rich,  filius    Osberti,   for 

three  years. 

10  Hug.  de  la  Lega,  et  Rich, 
filius  Osberti,  for  six 

16  David.  Archdea.  and  Will. 

filius  Rich. 

17  Will,  filius  Rich,  and  Dav. 

Arch,  for  three  years. 
20  Will,  filius  Rich,  for  six 

26  Williel.  Rufus,  for  seven 

33  Will.     Rufus,     et    Oger. 

filius  Ogeri,  p(p  dimid. 



1  Will.  Rufus,  for  six  years. 
7  Simon,  de  Belchampe,  for 

three  years. 

10  Will,  de  Albeny,  et  Rob. 


1  WiU.  de  Albeny. 

2  Galf.  filius  Petri,  et  Rob. 

de  Braybrook,  for  four 

6  Rob.    de    Braybrook,   et 

Rob.  filius  Hemer. 

7  Rob.  et  Rober. 

8  Rob.  filius  Hemeri. 
9.         Idem. 

10  Rob.  de    Braybrook,    for 

three  years. 
13  Rob.    de    Braybrook,   et 

Hen.  filius  ejus. 

14  Hen.    Braybrook,    et    Rob. 

pater  ejus. 

15  Idem. 

16  Hen.  Braybrook. 

17  Idem. 



2  Fulco  de  Breantel. 

3  Idem. 

4  Ful.  de    Breantel,  et    Rad. 

de  Bray,  for  four  years. 

8  Ful.  de  Breantel. 

9  Walt,  de  Pateshull   de  Ac- 

cestane,  for  four  years. 

13  Steph.    de    Wegrave,     and 

Will,  de  Martiwaste. 

14  Steph.  de  Segne. 

15  Steph.  de   Segne,   et    Rich. 

de  Atteneston,   for  three 

18  Steph.  de   Segne,  and  Joh. 


19  Radus.  filius  Reginald. 

20  Will,  de   Bello  Campo,  and 

Ric.  de  Porchhalt. 

21  Will,  de  Bello  Campo. 

22  Reginald,    de  Albo   Monas- 


23  Rob.  de  Hega. 

24  Paulus  Penire. 

25  Idem. 

26  Joh.  Grumband. 

27  Will.  Holdwell,  for  seven 


34  Alex,    de    Hammeden,    for 
three  years. 

37  Nul.Titl.  Com.  in  Rotulo, 

38  Simon  de  Glendon. 

39  Idem. 

40  Rov.   le    Savage,    Rich,    le 

Savage,  filius  Johan. 

41  Rob.  de  Tottenhall. 

42  Idem. 

43  Alex,  de  Hamden,  for   four 




47  Alex,  de  Hamden,  et 
Simon  de  Pateshill,  for 
five  years. 

52  Edw.  films  Regis  primo- 


53  Idem. 

54  Edw.  filius  primo-genitus, 

et  Barthol.  de  Towen 
Subvic.  ejus,  for  three 


1  Thomas  de  Bray. 

2  Idem. 

3  Hugo  de    Stapleford,   for 

four  years. 
7  Johan.    de  Chedney,   for 

four  years. 
11  Radul.  de  Goldington,  for 

three  years. 
14  Will,  de  Boyvill,  for  three 

1?  Will,  de  Tarrevill. 

18  Joh.  de  Popham. 

19  Idem. 

20  Will,  de  Turrevill,  for  five 


25  Sim.  de  Bradenham. 

26  Molesworth,  for 

ten  years. 


1  Gil.  de    Holme,   et  Wai. 

de  Molesworth. 

2  Will.Merre,  for  four  years. 
6  Walt,  de  Molesworth,  et 

Joh.  de  Pabenham,  for 
three  years, 
9  Joh.  de  la  Hay. 

10  Idem. 

11  Joh.   de  la  Hay,  et  Rog. 

de  Tirringham. 

12  Phil,     de    Aylesbury,    et 

Rich,  de  Cave. 

13  Rich,    de  Cave,  et  Ingil- 

ran  de  Berenger. 

14  Idem. 

15  Ingelramus  Berenger. 

VOL.    I, 


17  Rog.  de  Tiringham. 

18  Rog.      de      Tiringham,     et 

Joh.  de  la  Hay. 

19  Johan.  de  la   Hay,  et  Phil. 

de  Aylesbury. 


1  Johan.    de    la    Mareschall, 

et    Phil,     de    Aylesbury. 

2  Idem. 

3  Joh.  de  Mareschall. 

4  Phil,     de     Aylesbury,     for 

three  years. 

7  Nul.  Titl.  Com.  in  Rotulo. 

8  Rad.  de  Wedon. 

9  Idem. 

10  Rich.  Ward. 

11  Rad.  de  Wedon. 

12  Nich.      de      Passelow,      et 

Will.  Aloton. 

13  Idem. 

14  Nich.  Passelow. 

15  Ger.  de  Bray  brook. 

16  Henric.  Chalfhunt,  et  Ger- 

rard.    de    Braybrook. 
1?  Joh.      Aygnell,      et      Hen. 

18  Hen.     Chalfhunt,    et    Joh. 


19  Tho.  de  Swinford. 

20  Idem. 

21  Will.  Croyser. 

22  Idem. 

23  Tho.  Fernibrand. 

24  Idem. 

25  Joh.     Chastilion,    et    Tho. 


26  Joh.  Chastilion. 

27  Ger.  de  Braybrook. 

28  Idem. 

29  Pet.    de  Salford,    et     Ger. 


30  Pet.  de  Salford. 

31  Joh.  de  Hampden,  et  Hug. 


32  Joh.  de  Hampden. 

33  Idem. 

34  Pet.  de  Salford. 



Anno  Anno 

16  35  Joh.  de  Hampden. 

36  Pet.  de   Salford,  for  four  47  Johan.  Ragoun. 

years.  48  Johan.  Aylesbury. 

40  Joh.  de  Aylesbury,  for  six  49  Johan.  cle  Arden. 

years.  50  Johan.  de  B  rough  ton. 

46  Johan.  Chyne.  51  Johan.  de  Ollueyge. 


catalogue  of  the  sheriffs  of  Cambridge  and  Huntington-shires,  as 
also   of  Essex   and  Hertfordshire,   beginneth   with   the   same 
names  ;  so  that  six  counties  (but  all  lying  together)  were  under 
their  inspection.     None  need  to  question,  but  that  this  Alberi- 
cus  de  Veer  was  the  very  same  with  him  who  by  Maud  the  em- 
press was  made  the  first  earl  of  Oxford,  of  whom  hereafter  this 
year  in  Cambridgeshire.       Meantime  we  take  notice  of  an  Us- 
terosis,  beholding  Richard  Basset  (though  first  named)  as  his 

2.  HENRY  de  ESSEX. — He  is  too  well  known  in  our  English 
chronicles,  being  Baron  of  Raleigh  in  Essex,  and  hereditary 
standard-bearer  of  England.     It  happened  in  the  reign  of  this 
king  there  was  a  fierce  battle  fought  in  Flintshire,  at  Coleshull, 
betwixt  the  English  and  Welch,  wherein  this  Henry  de  Essex, 
animum  et  signum  simul  abjecit,   ((( betwixt  traitor  and  coward 
cast  away  both  his  courage  and  banner  together,")  occasioning  a 
great  overthrow  of  English.* 

But  he  that  had  the  baseness  to  do,  had  the  boldness  to  deny 
the  doing  of,  so  foul  a  fact ;  until  he  was  challenged  in  combat 
by  Robert  de  Momford,  a  knight,  eye-witness  thereof,  and  by 
him  overcome  in  a  duel ;  whereupon  his  large  inheritance  was 
confiscated  to  the  king,  and  he  himself,  partly  thrust,  partly  go- 
ing into  a  convent,  hid  his  head  in  a  cowl,  under  which,  betwixt 
shame  and  sanctity,  he  blushed  out  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

16.  DAVID  ARCHIDIACONUS,  &c. — It  may  justly  seem 
strange,  that  an  archdeacon  should  be  sheriff  of  a  shire  :  and  one 
would  have  sought  for  a  person  of  his  profession  rather  in  a 
pulpit,  than  in  a  shire-hall. 

Some  will  answer,  that  in  that  age  men  in  orders  engrossed 
not  only  places  of  judicature,  but  also  such  as  had  military  and 
martial  relations,  whereof  this  sheriff  did  in  some  sort  partake. 
Bufr,  under  correction,  I  conceive,  that  though  bishops  (who  had 
also  temporal  baronies)  were  sometimes  sheriffs,  yet  no  inferior 
clergymen,  being  in  orders,  were  ever  advanced  to  that  office, 
neither  in  ancient  nor  in  modern  times.  Sure  I  am  that,  in  the 

Compare  Camden's  Britannia  in  Essex  with  him  in  Flintshire. 


reign  of  king  Charles,  one  being  pricked  sheriff  of  Rutland  es- 
caped, pleading  that  he  was  a  deacon. 

Yet  we  meet  with  many,  whose  surnames  sound  of  churdh- 
relation,  both  in  the  catalogue  of  ancient  and  modern  sheriffs  : 

1.  Abbot  of  London ;  2.  Archdeacon  of  Cornwall ;  3.  Bishop 
of  Sussex;  4.  Chaplain  of  Norfolk;  5.  Clerk  of  Northampton- 
shire ;  6.  Dean  of  Essex ;  7-  Friar  of  Oxfordshire ;  8.  Moigne 
of  Dorsetshire ;  9.  Monk  of  Devonshire;  10.  Parson  of  Buck- 
inghamshire ;  11.  Pope  of  Oxfordshire;  12.  Prior  of  London. 

It  addeth  to  the  difficulty,  that  whereas  persons  of  their  pro- 
fession were  formerly  enjoined  single  lives,  we  find  in  this  list 
some  of  their  sons  in  the  next  generation  sheriffs  also. 

But  take  one  answer  to  all.  As  these  were  laymen,  so  pro- 
bably their  ancestors  were  ecclesiastics,  and  did  officiate  accord- 
ing to  their  respective  orders  and  dignities.  These  afterwards, 
having  their  patrimony  devolved  unto  them  by  the  death  of  their 
elder  brethren,  were  dispensed  with  by  the  Pope  to  marry,  yet 
so  that  they  were  always  afterwards  called  by  their  former  profes- 
sion, which  was  fixed  as  a  surname  on  their  posterity.  Thus  we  read 
how  in  France  Hugh  de  Lusignian,  being  an  archbishop  (and 
the  last  of  his  family),  when,  by  the  death  of  his  brethren,  the 
signiories  of  Partnay,  Soubize,  &c.  fell  unto  him,  he  obtained 
licence  to  marry,  on  condition  that  his  posterity  should  bear  the 
name  of  Archeveque,  and  a  mitre  over  their  arms  for  ever. 

As  for  the  surname  of  Pope  in  England,  it  is  such  a  tran- 
scendant,  I  cannot  reach  it  with  mine  own,  and  must  leave  it  to 
more  judicious^  conjectures. 


13.  ROB.  de  BRAYBROOK,  et  HEN.  filius  ejus.  14.  HEN. 
BRAYBROOK,  et  ROB.  pater  ejus. — Here  is  a  loving  recipro- 
cation. First,  a  son  under-sheriff  to  his  father;  that  was  his 
duty.  Secondly,  the  father  under-sheriff  to  his  son  ;  that  was 
his  courtesy.  Indeed  I  can  name  one  under-sheriff  to  his  own 
father,  being  a  gentleman  of  right  worthy  extraction  and  estate, 
which  son  afterwards  (in  my  memory)  became  lord  chief  justice 
and  treasurer  of  England. 


52.  EDVARD.  filius  REGIS  primo-genitus. — It  soundeth  not 
a  little  to  the  honour  of  these  two  shires,  that  prince  Edward, 
afterwards  the  most  renowned  king  of  England  (first  of  his 
Christian  name  since  the  Conquest)  was  their  sheriff  for  five 
years  together.  Yea,  the  imperial  crown  found  him  in  that  of- 
fice^ when  it  fell  unto  him,  though  then  absent  in  Palestine. 
We  may  presume,  that  Bartholomew  de  Fowen,  his  under-she- 
riff, was  very  sufficient  to  manage  all  matters  under  him. 

N  2 




Anno  Names  and  Arms.  Place. 

1  Job.  de  Aylesbury          .     Aylesbury. 

Arms  ;  Az.  a  cross  Arg. 

2  Thomas  Peynere. 

3  Egidius  Daubeny  .     SOMERSETSHIRE. 

G.  four  lozenges  in  fess  Arg. 

4  Thomas  Sackwell  .     SUSSEX. 

Quarterly  O.  and  G.  a  bend  vaire. 

5  Job.  de  Aylesbury          .     ut prius. 

6  Idem ut  prius. 

7  Job.  Widevill        .         .     Northam. 

Arg.  a  fess  and  canton  G. 

8  Rob.  DikesweU. 

9  Thomas  CovelL 

Az.  a  lion  ramp.  Arg.  a  file  of  three  lambeaux  G. 

10  Job.  de  Aylesbury          .     ut  prius. 

11  Rad.  Fitz.  Rich. 

12  Thomas  Peynere. 

13  Thomas  Sackvill    .         .     ut  prius. 

14  Edm.  Hampden     .         .     Hampden,  Buc. 

Arg.  a  saltire  G.  between  four  eaglets  displayed  Az. 

15  Will.  Teringham    .         .     Teringham,  Buc. 

Az.  a  cross  engrailed  Arg. 

16  Thomas  Peynere. 

17  Phil.  Walwane. 

18  Johannes  Longvile         .     Wolverton,  Buc. 

G.  a  fess  indented  betwixt  six  crosslets  Arg. 

19  Edm.  Hampden    .         .     ut  prius. 

20  Regin.  Ragon. 

21  Johannes  Worship. 

22  Idem. 


1  Thomas  Eston. 

2  Edw.  Hampden    .         .     ut  prius. 
Ro.  Beauchamp     .         .     Eaton,  Bed. 

G,  a  fess  between  six  martlets  O. 

3  Reg.  Ragon. 

4  Johannes  Boys      .         .     KENT. 

O.  a  griffin  segreant  S.  within  two  borders  G. 

5  Idem. 

6  Edw.  Hampden     .         .     ut  prim. 

7  Thomas  Peynere. 

8  Richardus  Hay. 

9  Bald.  Pigott    '       .         .     Stratton,  Bed. 

S.  three  pick-axes  Arg. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

10  Tho.  Strickland     .         .     YORKSHIRE. 

G.  a  chev.  O.  between  three  crosses  formee  Arg.  on  a 
canton  Erm.  a  buck's  head  erased  S. 

1 1  Richardus  Wyott. 

12  Bald.  Pigott  .         4     ut  prim. 

HENRY    V. 

1  Tho.  Strickland     .         .     ut  prius. 

2  Edw.  Hampden     .         .     ut  prius. 

3  Thomas  Wauton. 

4  Richard  Wyott. 

5  Joh.  Gifford. 

6  Will.  Massy. 

7  Walt.  Fitz.  Rich, 
S  Johan.  Radwell. 

9  Joh.  Radwellet. 

10  Will.  Massy. 

11  Idem. 


1  Johan.  Wauton. 

2  Joh.  Cheney,  mil.    .         .  Cheneys,  Buc. 

Cheeky  O.  and  Az.  a  fess  G.  fretty  Erm. 

3  Richardus  Wyott. 

4  Johan.  Cheney.     .         .     ut  prius. 

5  Will.  Massy,  arm. 

6  Hum.  Stafford,  arm. 

O.  a  chev.  G.  a  quarter  Erm. 

7  Tho.  Wauton,  mil. 

8  Thomas  Hoo. 

Quarterly  S.  and  Arg. 

9  Joh.  Cheney          .         .     ut  prius. 

10  Egid.  Daubeny,  mil.      .     ut  prias. 

11  Tho.  Wauton,  mil. 

12  Johan.  Glove. 

13  Joh.  Hampden,  arm.     .     ut  prius. 

14  Joh.  Broughton. 

15  Rob.  Manfeld. 

16  Hum.  Stafford,  mil.       .     ut  prius. 

17  Joh.  Hampden      .         .     ut  prius, 

18  Walt.  Strickland  .         .     ut  prius. 

19  Joh.  Brekenoll. 

20  Edw.  Campden     .         .     ut  prius. 

21  Edw.  Rede. 

22  Tho.  Singleton. 

23  Joh.  Wenlock. 

Arg.  a  chev.  between  three  blackmore  heads  couped  proper. 

24  Thomas  Rokes. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

25  Thomas  Gifford. 

26  Gor.  Longvile       .         .     -tit  prius. 

27  Idem  .         .         .     ut pri«s. 

28  Will.  Gedney. 

29  Joh.  Hampden      .         .     ut  prius. 

30  Ro.  Whittingham. 

31  Rob.  Olney. 

32  Edw.  Rede,  arm. 

Joh.  Poulter  .         .     HERTFORDSHIRE. 

Arg.  a  bend  voided  S. 

33  Tho.  Singleton. 

34  Tho.  Charlton,  mil. 

35  Joh.  Hampden      .         .     utpriuf. 

36  Joh.  Maningham. 

37  Joh.  Hey  ton,  arm. 

38  Johan.  Broughton. 

Arg.  a  chev.  betwixt  three  mullets  G. 


1  Edw.  Rede,  arm. 

2  Thomas  Reynes. 

3  Idem. 

4  Pet.  House,  arm. 

5  Joh.  Broughton     .         .     ut  prius. 

6  Joh.  Bottiler,  mil.          .     Biddenham,  Bed. 

G.a  fess  compone  Arg.  and  S.  betwixt  six  crosses  crossletsO. 

7  Tho.  Hampden     .         ;     ut  prius. 

8  Joh.  Foster,  arm.  .     BERKSHIRE. 

S.  a  chev.  engrailed  between  three  arr.  A. 

9  Will.  Lucy,  arm. 

G.  crusuly  O.  three  pikes  hauriant  Arg. 

10  Rob.  Dooth,  arm.  .     CHESHIRE. 

Arg.  three  boars*  heads  erased  S.  tusked  O. 

11  Regin.  Grey  .         .         .     Wrestlingw.  Bed. 

Barry  of  six  Ar.  and  Az.  in  chief  three  torteauxes. 

12  Joh.  Lanoston,    arm. 

13  John  Botiler,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 

14  Rich.  Bulstrode. 

(See  our  Notes  in  BUCKS.) 

15  Hugo  Brudenell  .     BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

Arg.  a  chevron  G.  between  three  chappews  Az. 

16  Edward  Molinen. 

17  Jo.  Rotheram,  arm.         .     Luton,  Bed. 

V.  three  roebucks  tripping  O.  a  baton  G. 

18  Thomas  Rokes. 

19  Thomas  Fowler. 

20  Rich.  Enderby,  arm. 

Arg  three  bars  dancette  S.  a  pale  in  chief  E. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

21  Joh.  Verney. 

Az.  on  a  cross  Arg.  five  mullets  G. 

22  Tho.  Hampden      .         .     ut  prim. 


1  Dru.  Brudnell        .         .     ut  prius. 

2  Thomas  Fowler. 

3  Joh.  Boone,  mil. 


1  Gor.  Ingledon. 

2  Tho.  Rokes. 

3  Tho.  Fowler. 

4  Joh.  Rotheram       .         .     ut  prius. 

5  Rich.  Godfrey. 

6  Joh.  Laneston,  sen. 

7  Rich.  Restwood     .         .     La  Vache,  Bed. 

8  Edw.  Cokaine,  arm.       .     Hatley,  Bed. 

Arg.  three  cocks  G. 

9  Rich.  Godfrey,  arm. 

10  Will.  Rede. 

11  Thomas  Darell      .          .     Lillingston,  Bed. 

Az.  a  lion  rampant  O.  crowned  Arg. 

12  Thomas  Langston. 

13  Joh.  Gefford,  arm. 

14  David  Phillip,  arm. 

15  Rich.  Restwood. 

16  Hug.  Conway,  mil. 

S.  on  a  bend  betwixt  two  cotises  Arg.  a  rose  G.  betwixt 
two  annulets. 

17  Joh.  St.  John,  mil.         .     Bletso,  Bed. 

Arg.  on  a  chief  G.  two  mullets  pierced  O. 

18  Rich.  Blount,  arm. 

Barry  formy  nebulee  of  six  O.  and  S. 

19  Edw.  Bulstrod,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

20  Tho.  Darell,  arm.  .     ut  prius. 

21  Joh.  Cheyney,  arm.        .     ut  prius. 

22  Will.  Gascoigne     .         .     Cardinton,  Bed. 

Arg.  on  a  pale  S.  a  lucie^s  head  erected  O. 

23  Joh.  Longvile,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 

24  Geor.  Harvey,  arm. 

G.  on  a  bend  Arg.  three  trefoils  V. 


1  Joh.  Mordant,  arm.         .     Turvey,  Bed. 

Arg.  a  chevron  inter  three  estoiles  S. 

2  John  Dive,  arm.     .         .     Brumham,  Bed. 

Parti  per  pale  Arg.  and  G.  a  fess  Az. 

3  Rad.  Verney,  arm.  .     ut  prius. 

4  Tho.  Dineham,  arm. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

5  Will.  Gascoigne     .         .     ut  prius. 

6  Edw.  Bray,  arm. 

Arg.  a  chev.  between  three  eagles5  legs,  erased  S. 

7  Job.  St.  John,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 
S  Gor.  Harvey,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 
9  Will.  Gascoigne    .         .     ut  prius. 

10  Mich.  Fisher,  arm. 

11  Will:  Rede,  mil. 

12  Joh.  Cheney,  arm.          .     ut  prizes. 

13  Rob.  Lee,  mil.       .         .     Quatendon,  Buc. 

Arg.  a  fess  between  three  crescents  S. 

14  Rob.  Dormer,  arm.         .     Winge,  Buc. 

Az.  ten  billets,  four,  three,  two,  and  one  O.  in  a  chief  of 
the  second,  a  lion  issuant  S. 

15  Tho.  Langston,  arm. 

16  Rad.  Verney  .         .     ut  prius. 

17  Tho.  Rotheram      .         .     ut  prius. 

18  Edw.  Grevill,  mil. 

S.  a  bordure  and  cross  engrailed  O.  therein  five  pellets. 

19  Fran.  Pigote,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

20  Joh.  Hampden,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

21  Joh.  St.  John,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

22  Mich.  Fisher. 

23  Rob.  Dormer,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

24  Edw.  Dun,  mil. 

25  Rob.  Lee,  mil.       .  .  ut  prius. 

26  Joh.  St.  John,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

27  Rog.  Corbet,  arm.  .  SHROPSHIRE. 

O.  a  raven  proper. 

28  Tho.  Longvile,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

29  Will.  Windsor,  mil.        .     Bradenham,  Buc. 

G.  a  saltier  Arg.  betwixt  twelve  cross  crosslets  O. 

30  Rob.  Dormer,  mil.          .     ut  prius. 

31  Tho.  Rotheram      .         .     ut  prius. 

32  Rad.  Verney,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 

33  Joh.  Gostwick,  mil.        .     Wellington,  Bed. 

Arg.  a  bend  G.  cotised  S.  betwixt  six  Cornish  choughs 
proper  ;  on  a  chief  O.  three  mullets  V. 

34  Idem  .         .         .     ut  prius. 

35  Thomas  Giffard,  arm. 

36  Mich.  Fisher,  mil. 

37  Lod.  Dyve,  arm.    .         .     ut  prius. 

38  Rob.  Drury,  mil. 

Arg.  on  a  chief  V.  the  letter  Tau  betwixt  two  mullets 
pierced  O. 


1   Fran.  Russell,  mil.  .     Cheneis,  Buc. 

A  lion  ramp,  G,  on  a  chief  S.  three  escallops  of  the  first. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

2  Fran.  Pigott,  arm.  .  nt  prius. 

3  Joh.  St.  John,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

4  Tho.  Rotheram      .  .  ut  prius. 

5  Oliv.  St.  John,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

6  Tho.  Pigott,  arm.  .  .  ut  prius. 


1  Will.  Dormer,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 

REX    PHIL.    ET    MA.    REGINA. 

1  Arth.  Longvile,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

2  Rob.  Drury,  mil.  .          .     ut  prius. 

3  Rob.  Peckham,  mil. 

4  Tho.  Pigott,  arm.  .         .     ut  prius. 

5  Hum.  Rat  cliff,  mil. 

Arg.  a  bend  engrailed  S. 


1  Will.  Hawtry,  arm.         .     Checkers,  Buc. 

Arg.  four  lioncels  passant  S.  betwixt  two  gemews  in  bend. 

2  Tho.  Teringham     .         .     ut  prius. 

3  Rob.  Drury,  mil.    .         .     ut  prius. 

4  Joh.  Goodwin,  arm. 

5  Paul  Damil,  arm. 

6  Tho.  Fleetwood      .         .     Vache,  Buc. 

Parti  per  pale  nebule  Az.  and  O.  six  martelets  counter- 

7  Hen.  Cheyne,  mil.          .     Tuddington,  Bed. 

8  AMP.  Joh.  Cheny,  arm. 

9  Joh.  Burlacy,  arm. 

10  Will.  Dormer,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 

S.  a  fess  engrailed  between  three  flower-de-luce  Arg. 

11  Edw.  Ashfeld,  mil. 

12  Lod.  Mordant,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

13  Tho.  Pigottj  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

14  Lodo  Dive,  arm.    .  .  ut  prius. 

15  Gor.  Peckham,  mil. 

16  Rad.  Astry,  arm.    .  .  Harlington,  Bed. 

Barry-wavy  of  six  Arg.   and  Az. ;   on  a  chief  G.  three 


8.  THOMAS  Hoo. — If  any  ask  me  the  place  of  his  residence 
in  these  counties,  I  must  return,  Non  sum  informatus.*  But 

*  Dr.  Fuller's  want  of  information  in  this  instance  may  be  supplied  from  the 
History  of  Luton,  in  the  "  Bibliotheca  Topographica  Britannica,"  No.  VIII. 
pp.  27,  53;  where  it  will  be  seen  that  Luton  Hoo,  the  residence  of  the  Mar- 
quis of  Bute,  was  possessed  by  Robert  (the  grandfather  of  Thomas),  who  took 
the  addition  of  de  Hoo  from  this  place.  Thomas  was  created  Lord  Hastings  and 


this  is  he  who  is  charactered  by  Master  Camden,  "  Vir  egre- 
gius,"*  whom  king  Henry  the  Sixth  made  Knight  of  the  Garter, 
and  Lord  Hoo  and  Hastings.  He  left  four  daughters,  thus 
married: — 1.  Anne  to  Sir  Jeffery  Bollen  ;  2.  Eleanor  to  Sir 
Richard  Carew ;  3.  Jane  to  Robert  Cople,  esq. ;  4.  Elizabeth 
to  Sir  John  Devenish.  From  the  first  of  these  was  queen 
Elizabeth  descended.  Some  of  the  issue  male  of  the  same 
family  were  very  lately  extant  in  Hertfordshire. 

23.  JOHN  WENLOCK. — His  surname  seemeth  to  have  something 
in  it  of  a  Salopian  reference  to  a  market  town  therein  so  called ; 
however  his  principal  residence  was  (but  where  to  me  unknownt) 
in  this  county,  whereof  he  was  returned  knight  to  the  Parlia- 
ment, in  the  twelfth  of  this  king's  reign  ;  the  very  same  whom 
afterwards  this  king  created  Baron  Wenlock,  and  Knight  of  the 
Garter,  and  who  afterwards  lost  his  life  in  his  cause,  valiantly 
fighting  in  the  battle  of  Tewksbury.  It  is  charity  to  enter  this 
memorial  of  him,  the  rather  because  he  died  without  issue  (and 
his  fair  estate,  forfeited  to  king  Edward  the  Fourth,  was  quickly 
scattered  amongst  many  courtiers) ;  but  from  his  cousin  and  heir 
general,  the  Lauleys  in  Shropshire  are  lineally  descended. 


17.  Sir  JOHN  SAINT  JOHN,  Mil. —  There  were  three  Sir 
John  Saint  Johns  successively  in  the  same  family,  since  their 
fixing  in  this  county:  1.  The  father  (this  year  sheriff)  being  son 
to  Sir  Oliver  Saint  John,  by  Margaret  daughter  and  sole  heir 
to  Sir  John  Beauchamp.  This  Margaret  was  afterwards  mar- 
ried to  John  Duke  of  Somerset,  to  whom  she  bare  Margaret, 
mother  to  king  Henry  the  Seventh.  2.  The  son  (sheriff  in  the 
seventh  year  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth.)  3.  The  grandchild, 
sheriff  in  the  third  of  Edward  the  Sixth,  and  father  to  Oliver  (the 
first  Lord  Saint  John.  This  we  insert  to  avoid  confusion  ;  it 
being  the  general  complaint  of  heralds  that  such  liomonymy 
causeth  many  mistakes  in  pedigrees. 

22.  WILLIAM  GASCOIGNE. — Much  wondering  with  myself 
how  this  northern  name  straggled  into  the  south,  I  consulted  one 
of  his  family,  and  a  good  antiquary  :  by  whom  I  was  informed 

Hoo  in  1447  ;  and  settled  ten  parts  of  the  tithes  of  the  Hoo  on  the  abbey  of  St. 

Alban's,  for  the  use  of  strangers ED.  *  Britannia,  in  Sussex. 

"\"  According  to  the  Bibliotheca  Topographica,  pp.  25,  45,  his  mansion  was  at 
Somerys,  about  two  miles  to  the  north-west  of  Luton,  where,  as  Leland  informs  us, 
Lord  Wenlock  had  begun  sumptuously  a  house,  but  never  finished  it.  He  was  bu- 
ried in  a  chapel  of  his  own  foundation,  adjoining  to  the  church  of  Luton;  and  on 
his  tomb  is  said  to  have  been  a  native  of  Wenlocke,  "  et  hujus  ville  dominus." — "  At 
Luton,"  says  Mr.  Camden,  "  I  saw  a  fair  church,  but  the  choir  then  roofless  and 
overrun  with  weeds  ;  and  adjoining  to  it  an  elegant  chapel  founded  by  Lord  Wen- 
locke, and  well  maintained  by  the  family  of  Rotherham,  planted  here  by  Thomas 
Rotherham,  archbishop  of  York  and  chancellor  of  England  in  the  time  of  king 
Edward  IV."  &c._ ED. 


that  this  William  was  a  younger  brother  of  Gauthorpe  House  in 
Yorkshire,  and  was  settled  at  Cardirigton  nigh  Bedford,  in  this 
county,  by  marrying  the  inheritrix  thereof.  He  was  afterwards 
twice  sheriff  under  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  knighted,  and  con- 
troller of  the  house  of  Cardinal  Wolsey.  A  rough  gentleman, 
preferring  rather  to  profit  than  please  his  master.  And  although 
the  pride  of  that  prelate  was  far  above  his  covetousness,  yet  his 
wisdom,  well  knowing  thrift  to  be  the  fuel  of  magnificence,  would 
usually  digest  advice  from  this  his  servant,  when  it  plainly 
tended  to  his  own  emolument.  The  name  and  (which  is  worse) 
the  estate,  is  now  quite  extinct  in  this  county. 


1.  JOHN  MORDANT,  Arm. — He  was  extracted  of  a  very  an- 
cient parent  in  this  county,  and  married  one  of  the  daughters  and 
heirs  of  Henry  Vere,  of  Addington  in  Northamptonshire,  whereby 
he  received  a  great  inheritance,  being  by  aged  persons  in  those 
parts  remembered  by  the  name  John  of  the  Woods  (Reader,  I 
was  born  under  the  shadow,  and  felt  the  warmth  of  them) ;  so 
great  a  master  he  was  of  oaks  and  timber  in  that  county,  besides 
large  possessions  he  had  in  Essex  and  elsewhere.  King  Henry 
the  Eighth,  owning  him  deservedly  for  a  very  wise  man,  created 
him  Baron  Mordant  of  Turvey. 

29.  WILLIAM  WINDSOR,  Mil. —  He  was  descended  from 
Walter  Fitz  Otho,*  castle  keeper  of  Windsor  in  the  time  of  king 
William  the  Conqueror,  and  was  by  king  Henry  the  Eighth 
created  Baron  Windsor  of  Bradenham  in  Buckinghamshire,  an- 
cestor to  the  present  Lord  Windsor,  descended  from  him  by  an 
heir-general ;  so  that  Hickman  is  his  surname. 


1.  FRANCIS  RUSSEL,  Mil. — He  was  son  to  Lord  John 
Russel,  afterward  Earl  of  Bedford.  Succeeding  his  father  in  his 
honour,  so  great  was  his  hospitality,  that  queen  Elizabeth  was 
wont  to  say  pleasantly  of  him,  "  That  he  made  all  the  beggars/5 
He  founded  a  small  school  at  Woburn  ;  and  dying  in  great  age 
and  honour,  was  buried  at  Cheneys,  1585. 

5.  OLIVER  SAINT  JOHN,  Arm.— He  was  by  queen  Elizabeth 
made  Lord  Saint  John  of  Bletso  in  this  county,  and  left  two 
sons,  who  succeeded  to  his  honour.  First,  John,  whose  only 
daughter  Anne  was  married  to  William  Lord  Effingham,  and  was 
mother  to  Elizabeth  now  Countess  Dowager  of  Peterborough. 
His  second  son  was  Oliver,  blessed  with  a  numerous  issue,  and 
ancestor  to  the  present  Earl  of  Bullinbrook. 

*  Camden's  Britannia,  in  Berkshire. 



1.  WILLIAM  DORMER,  Mil. —  He  was  son  to  Sir  Robert 
Dormer  (sheriff  the  14th  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth)  by  Jane 
Newdigate  his  wife ;  which  lady  was  so  zealous  a  Papist,  that 
after  the  death  of  queen  Mary  she  left  the  land,  and  lived  be- 
yond the  seas.  This  Sir  William,  by  Mary  Sidney  his  wife,  had 
a  daughter,  married  to  the  Count  of  Feria,  when  he  came  over 
hither  with  king  Philip. 

This  Count,  under  pretence  to  visit  his  sick  lady,  remaining 
here,  did  very  earnestly  move  a  match  betwixt  king  Philip,  his 
master,  and  queen  Elizabeth,  which  in  fine  took  no  effect.*  He 
then  also  mediated  for  Jane  Dormer,  his  grandmother,  and  some 
other  fugitives,  that  they  might  live  beyond  the  seas,  and  receive 
their  revenues  out  of  England ;  which  favour  the  queen  thought 
not  fit  to  indulge :  whereat  the  Count  was  so  incensed,  that  he 
moved  Pope  Pius  the  Fourth  to  excommunicate  her,  though  his 
wife  did  with  all  might  and  main  oppose  it.f 



Anno  Name  and  Arms.  Place. 

17  Ge.  Rotheram,  esq.          .     Farly. 

Arms  :   V.  three  roe-bucks  tripping  Or,  a  baton  Gules. 

18  John  Barnardeston          .     Jewelbury. 

G.  a  saltire  engrailed  Arg. 

19  Ge.  Kenesham,  esq.        .     Temesford. 

20  John  Spencer,  esq.          .     Cople. 

21  Nicholas  Luke,  esq.         .     Woodend. 

Arg.  a  bugle  horn  S. 

22  Henry  Butler,  esq.          .     Biddenham. 

G.  a  fess  cheeky  Ar.  and  S.  bewixt  six  cross  crosslets  Arg. 

23  John  Tompson,  esq.       .     Crawley. 

24  Ric.  Conquest,  esq.         .     Houghton. 

Quarterly,  Arg.  and  S.  a  label  with  three  points. 

25  Lodo.  Dive,  esq.     .         .     Brumham. 

Parti  per  pale  Arg.  and  G.  a  fess  Az. 

26  Joh.  Rowe,  esq.  and 

Ric.  Charnock,  esq.        .     Holcot. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  S.  three  crosses  crosslet  of  the  field. 

27  Oliver  St.  John,  esq. 

Arg.  on  a  chief  G.  two  mullets  O. 

28  Ric.  Charnock,  esq.        .     ut  prius. 

29  Will.  Butler,  esq.  .         .     ut  prius. 

*  Camden's  Elizabeth,  anno  1558. 

t  "  Uxore  frustra  obnitente,"     Idem,  anno  1560. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

30  Rad.  Astry,  esq.    .         .     Westning. 

Barry  wavy  of  six  Arg.  and  Az.  on  a  chief  G.  three  be- 

31  Oliver  St.  John,  esq.      .     ut  prius. 

32  Ge.  Rotheram,  esq.        .     ut  prius. 

33  Ex.  Hoddeson,  esq.        .     ut  prius. 

34  Will.  Buncombe  .     Batlesden. 

Parti  per  chevron  counterflore  G.  and  Arg.  three  talbots' 
heads  erazed  counterchanged. 

35  Nicholas  Luke,  esq.        .     ut  prius. 

36  John  Dive,  esq.      .         .     ut  prius. 

37  Will  Gostwick,  esq.        .     Willington. 

Arg.  a  bend  G.  cotised  S.  betwixt  six  Cornish  choughs 
proper ;  on  a  chief  O.  three  mullets  V. 

38  Ric.  Conquest,  esq.         .     ut  prius. 

39  Tho.  Cheney,  esq.  .     Sundon. 

40  Edr.  Ratcliffe,  knt.         .     Elstow. 

Arg.  a  bend  engrailed  S. 

41  Will.  Butler,  esq.  .     ut  prius. 

42  John  Croft,  knt. 

43  Ri.  Charnocks,  esq.        .     ut  prius. 

44  George  Franklin    .         .     Malvern. 

45  John  Dive,  knt.     .         .     ut  prius. 


1  John  Dive,  knt.     .  .  ut  prius. 

2  John  Leigh,  esq. 

3  Edr.  Sands,  knt.    .  .  Eaton. 

4  Fra.  Anderson,  esq.  .  E worth. 

Arg.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  cross  crosslets  S. 

5  Tho.  Snagge,  knt.  .     Marson. 

6  Edw.  Mordant,  esq.        .     Ockley. 

Arg.  a  chevron  between  three  etoiles  S. 

7  Tho.  Ancell,  esq.  .     Barford. 

G.  on  a  saltire  O.  between  four  bezants  a  mascle  of  the 

8  Fran.  Ventres,  knt.         .     Campton. 

Az.  a  lucie  between  two  bends  wavy  Arg. 

9  Robert  Sandy,  esq. 

10  Will.  Beecher,  esq.         .     Hooberry. 

11  Ric.  Sanders,  esq.  .     Marson. 

Parti  per   chevron  Arg.   and  S.   three  elephants'  heads 
erazed  counterchanged. 

12  Edw.  Duncombe  .     ut  prius. 

13  Will.  Plomer,  esq.          .     Holms. 

V.  a  chevron  between  three  lions'  heads  erazed  O.  bil- 
leted G. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

14  Roger  Burgoyne    .         .     Sutton. 

G.  a  chevron  O.  between  three  talbots;  on  chief  embat- 
tled Arg.  as  many  martlets  S. 

15  Oliver  Luke,  knt.  .         .     ut  prius. 

16  Ed.  Conquest,  knt.         .     tit  prius. 

17  Ge.  Keynsham,  esq. 

18  Fran.  Stan  ton,  esq.         .     Birchmore. 

19  Will.  Bryers,  esq.  .     Woodbery. 

20  Wil.  Hawkins,  esq.         .     Tilbrook. 

21  Fran,  Clerke,  knt. 

22  Math.  Denton,  esq.         .     Barton. 


1  John  Wingate,  esq.        .     Harlington. 

S.  a  bend  E.  cotised  O.  between  six  martlets  Arg. 

2  Ed.  Gostwick,  knt.         .     ut  prius. 

3  John  Moore,  esq. 

4  Anth.  Chester,  bart. 

Per  pale,  Arg.  and  S.  a  chevron  between  three  rams5  heads 
erased,  armed  O.  within  a  border  engrailed  roundly,  all 

5  Michael  Grigg,  esq. 

6  William  Cater,  esq.         .     Kempston. 

E.  on  a  pile  G.  a  lion  passant  gardant  O. 

7  Edmund  Anderson         .     ut  prius. 

8  Ja.  Beverley,  esq.  .     Clapwell. 

E.  a  rose  G. 

9  Oufl.  Winch,  esq.  .     Everton. 

10  Hum.  Monoux,  esq.  .  Wootton. 

11  Richard  Gery,  esq.  .  Bushmede. 

12  Henry  Chester,  esq.  .  lit  prius. 

13  Will.  Boteler,  esq.  .  ut  prius. 

14  Will.  Plomer,  esq.  .  ut  prius. 

15  Richard  Child,  esq.  .  Puddington. 

G.  a  chevron  engrailed  E.  betwixt  three  doves  Arg. 

16  Joh.  Burgogne,  esq.        .     ut  prius. 

17  Tho.  Alston,  knt.  bart.  .     Wodhill. 

Az.  ten  stars  O. 

20  Nich.  Denton,  esq. 
22  Math.  Taylor,  esq.          .     Eaton. 


Being  to  take  my  farewell  of  this  county,  I  am  minded  of  the 
mistake  (what  writer  is  free  from  them  ?)  in  Mr.  Stowe,  telling 


us  of  tide-boats,  till-boats,  and  barges,  which  come  from  Bed- 
fordshire down  the  Thames  to  London,*  which  surely  must 
row  over  many  miles  of  dry-land  in  their  passage  thereunto. 
But,  if  there  be  a  possibility  of  such  a  conveyance  by  art 
and  industry  to  be  effected,  may  his  words  prove  true  by  way  of 
prediction,  seeing  certainly  such  a  conveniehcy  must  needs  be 
advantageous  to  this  county  ! 

*  Stowe,  in  Survey  of  London,  p.  18,  writing  of  the  river  Thames. 


John  BUNYAN,  Anabaptist  preacher,  author  of  "  The  Pilgrim's 

Progress  f  born  at  Elstow  1628 ;  died  1688. 
Hon.  John  BYNG,  admiral ;  born  at  Southhill  1704  ;  shot  1757* 
Edmund  CHISHULL,  divine,  antiquary,  and  Latin  poet ;  born 

at  Ey  worth ;  died  1733. 

Samuel  PALMER,  nonconformist ;  born  at  Bedford  1740. 
John    POM  FRET,   poet    and    classical  scholar  ;  born   at  Luton 

1677;  died  1?03. 
William    RICHARDSON,    divine    and    ecclesiastical    antiquary, 

editor  of  Godwin  "  De  Prsesulibus ;"  bom  at  Wilhamstead 

1698;  died  1775. 
Nicholas  ROWE,  dramatic  poet ;  born  at  Little  Bockford  1673 ; 

died  1718. 
Nathaniel  SALMON,  divine,  topographer,  and  antiquary ;  born  at 

Meppershall;  died  1742. 

Thomas  SALMON,  historian  and  geographer ;  born  at  Mepper- 
shall; died  1743. 
Elkanah  SETTLE,  poet,  author  of  the  "  City  Triumphs  on  Lord 

Mayor's  Day/'  &c. ;  born  at  Dunstable  1647-8  ;  died  1?24. 
Sir  Christopher  TURNOR,  judge,  born  at  Milton   Ernest;  died 

Samuel  WHITBREAD,  eminent  brewer,  public  benefactor,  and 

father  of  the  distinguished  statesman ;  born  at  Cardington ; 

died  1?96,  aged  76. 

*  *  The  Works  which  have  been  published  relative  to  this  county,  since  Ful- 
ler's time,  consist  chiefly  of  Parry's  History  of  Bedfordshire  (1828),  and  of  Woburn 
Abbey  (1831),  besides  notices  given  in  the  Beauties  of  England,  and  Ly- 
sons'  Magna  Britannia.  There  have  also  been  published  Accounts  of  Wimmington, 
by  the  Rev.  O.  St.  John  Cooper  (1785),  and  of  Odell,  by  the  same  author  (1787). 
—In  1812,  Mr.Thos.  Fisher  likewise  published  Collections  for  Bedfordshire.— &D. 


IT  is  a  long  narrow  county  (the  miles  therein  proportioned 
accordingly)  stretching  forty-four  miles  from  North  to  South, 
whilst  the  breadth  is  content  with  fourteen  at  the  most.  A 
fruitful  country,  especially  in  the  vale  of  Aylesbury,  where  one 
[lately]  entire  pasture,  called  Beryfield  (now  part  of  the  inherit- 
ance of  Sir  Robert  Lee,  baronet),  in  the  manor  of  Quarendon, 
is  let  yearly  for  eight  hundred  pounds,  the  tenant  not  complain- 
ing of  his  bargain. 

This  county  takes  its  name  from  Buckingham,  the  chief  town 
therein ;  as  that  from  beeches  (called  in  the  Saxon  tongue  buc- 
cen)  growing  plentifully  thereabouts,  as  in  other  places  in  this 
county,  and  therefore  placed  first  amongst  its 



This  was  esteemed  sacred  amongst  the  Romans :  "  Manius 
Curius  juravit  se  ex  praeda  nihil  attigisse,  praeter  guttum  faginum 
quo  sacrificaret :  "  (ff  protested,  that  he  touched  nothing  of  the 
prey  besides  a  beech-cup,  wherewith  he  should  sacrifice."*)  It 
is  also  medicinal ;  though  we  would  wish  none  sore  lips  or  eyes 
to  try  the  truth  of  Pliny's  report,  whether  beech-leaves  cure 
the  one,  or  the  ashes  of  beech-mast  heal  the  other.f  Our  ordi- 
nary use  thereof  (besides  making  of  many  utensils)  is  for  build- 
ing of  houses.  One  asked,  when  beech  would  make  the  best 
timber  ?  meaning  what  season  of  the  year  wasVbest  to  cut  it  down 
for  that  purpose.  It  was  answered,  "  that  beech  would  make 
the  best  timber  when  no  oak  was  to  be  had;''  a  time,  I  assure 
you,  which  daily  approacheth  in  our  land.J 

Hence  it  was,  that  such  care  was  taken  in  the  reign  of  king 
Henry  the  Eighth  (when  woods  were  in  a  far  better  condition 
than  now-a-days)  for  the  preserving  of  the  standels  of  beech. § 
As  also  it  was  provided  in  the  first  of  queen  Elizabeth,  that  no 
timber  trees  of  oak,  beech,  and  ash  (where  beech  deservedly  is 

Plin.  lib.  decimo  sexto,  p.  287.  cap.  38.  ver.  44. 
Plin.lib.  vigesimo  quarto,  p.  442.  cap.  5,  ver.  37. 
I  Stat.  35  Hen.  VIII.  cap.  17.  §  Stat.   1  Eliz.  cap.  15. 


made  second),  being  one  foot  square  at  the  stub,  and  growing 
within  fourteen  miles  of  the  sea,  or  any  navigable  river,  should 
be  converted  to  coal  or  fuel,*  as  the  debasing  of  that  which, 
if  nature  did  not  first  intend,  necessity^must  employ  for  better 


The  best  and  biggest  bodied  in  England  are  the'.Vale  of  Ayles- 
bury  in  this  county,  where  it  is  nothing  to  give  ten  pounds  or 
more  for  a  breed-ram.  So  that,  should  a  foreigner  hear  of  the 
price  thereof,  he  would  guess  that  ram  rather  to  be  some  Roman 
engine  of  battery,  than  the  creature  commonly  so  called. 

I  know  not  whether  his  observation,  with  the  reason  thereof, 
be  worth  the  inserting,  who  first  took  notice,  that  our  cattle 
for  food  are  English  when  feeding  in  the  field,  but  French  when 
fed  on  in  a  family. 

English.     1.  Sheep.       2.  Ox.      3.  Calf.     4.    Hog.     5.    Pig. 

French.  1.  Mutton.  2.  Beef.  ;  3.  Veal.  4.  Bacon.  5.  Pork. 
Whereof  he  assigned  this  reason,  that,  after  the  Norman  Con- 
quest, the  French  so  tyrannized  over  the  English  tenants,  that 
they  forced  them  to  keep  and  feed  their  cattle ;  but  the  Mon- 
sieurs  ate  all  their  good  meat  after  it  was  slaughtered. 

Foreigners  much  admire  at  our  English  sheep,  because  they 
do  not  (as  those  beyond  the  seas)  follow  their  shepherds  like  to 
a  pack  of  dogs,  but  wander  wide  abroad ;  and  the  popish  priests 
tell  their  simple  flocks,  that  this  disobedience  of  our  sheep  hap- 
peneth  unto  us,  because  (risum  teneatis,  amid  ?)  we  have  left 
the  great  shepherd,  the  Pope  ;*  whereas  they  did  so  long  before 
our  separation  from  Rome,  because,  freed  from  the  fear  of 
wolves  (infesting  them  in  foreign  parts),  they  feed  safely  in  the 
fields,  needing  neither  guide  to  direct,  nor  guard  to  defend 


They  first  took  their  name  from  Phasis,  a  river  in  Asia ;  and 
long  their  flight  thence  into  England :  a  fowl  fair  in  the  feathers, 
a  cock  especially  (males  by  nature,  though  female  by  art,  the 
finest  of  both  sexes),  and  dainty  in  the  flesh.  Abundance  of 
these  are  kept  about  Wycombe ;  the  care  being  more  than  the 
cost,  seeing  their  general  repast  is  on  pismires.  Whether  these 
tame  be  as  good  as  wild  pheasants,  I  leave  to  palate-men  to  de- 


It  is  true  of  this  county,  that  it  liveth  more  by  its  lands  than 
by  its  hands.  Such  the  fruitfulness,  venting  the  native  commo- 
dities thereof  at  great  rates  (thank  the  vicinity  of  London,  the 

*  Stat.  1.  Eliz.  c.  15.  f  Sam.  Hartlib's  Legacie,  p.  84. 

VOL.    I.  O 


best  chapman),  that  no  handicrafts  of  note,  save  what  common 
to  other  countries,,  are  used  therein,  except  any  will  instance  in 
bone-lace,  much  thereof  being  made  about  Owldney  in  this 
county ;  though  more,  I  believe,  in  Devonshire,  where  we  shall 
meet  more  properly  therewith. 


"  Buckinghamshire  bread  and  beef.''*] 

The  former  is  as  fine,  the  latter  as  fat,  in  this  as  in  any  other 
county.  If,  therefore,  the  inhabitants  thereof  come  with  hearty 
grace  and  hungry  appetites,  no  doubt  both  strength  and  health 
will  follow  on  their  repast. 

"  Here  if  you  beat  a  bush,  it's  odds  you'lcl  start  a  thief."f] 

No  doubt  there  was  just  occasion  for  this  proverb  at  the  ori- 
ginal thereof,  which  then  contained  satirical  truth,  proportioned 
to  the  place  before  it  was  reformed ;  whereof  thus  our  great  an- 

"  It  was  altogether  unpassable  in  times  past  by  reason  of 
trees,  until  that  Leofstane  abbot  of  St.  Albany's  did  cut  them 
down,  because  they  yielded  £  place  of  refuge  for  thieves." 

But  this  proverb  is  now  antiquated  as  to  the  truth  thereof, 
Buckinghamshire  affording  as  many  maiden  assizes  as  any 
county  of  equal  populousness.  Yea,  hear  how  she  pleadeth 
for  herself,  that  such  highwaymen  were  never  her  natives,  but 
fled  thither  for  their  shelter  out  of  neighbouring  counties. 


St.  EDBURG,  daughter  unto  Redwald,  king  of  the  East 
Angles,  embraced  a  monastical  life  at  Aylesbury  in  this  county, 
where  her  body  was  deposited,  and  removed  afterwards  to 
Edburgton  (now  Edburton),  in  Suffolk,  her  native  country.  It 
seems  her  person  would  make  one  county  proud,  which  made 
two  happy:  Aylesbury  observing  her  memory  on  the  day  of 

,  whilst  Edburton  was  renowned  for  her  miracles.     By  the 

way,  it  seems  wonderful  that  in  Scripture  we  only  meet  with 
one  posthume  miracle,  viz.  the  grave-fellow  of  Elisha  raised 
with  the  touch  of  his  bones ;  whilst  most  of  popish  miracles 
are  [reported]  born  after  the  saints5  death,  merely  to  mould 
men's  minds  to  the  adoration  of  their  relics. 

St.  RUMALD  was  the  same  with  St.  Rumbald  (commonly 
called  by  country  people  St.  Grumbald),  and  St.  Rumwald,  as 
others  spell  him ;  but  distinct  from  another  St.  Rumwald  of 
Irish  extraction,  a  bishop  and  martyr,  whose  passion  is  cele- 
brated at  Mechlin,  in  Brabant.  This  criticism,  reader,  I  request 
thee  to  take  on  my  credit  for  thy  own  ease,  and  not  to  buy  the 
truth  of  so  difficult  a  trifle  with  the  trouble  I  paid  for  it. 

*  Michael  Dray  ton,  in  his  Polyolbion.  f  Idem. 

J  Camden's  Britannia,  in  Buckinghamshire, 

SAINTS.  395 

Entering  now  on  the  legend  of  his  life,  I  write  neither  what 
I  believe,  nor  what  I  expect  should  be  believed,  but  what  I  find 
written  by  others.  Some  make  him  son  of  a  British  king,* 
which  is  sufficiently  confuted  by  his  own  Saxon  name.  More 
probable  their  tale  who  relate  him  son  to  a  king  of  Northum- 
berland, by  a  Christian  daughter  of  Penda,  king  of  Mercia. 
Being  born  at  King's  Sutton,  in  this  county,  as  soon  as  he  came 
out  of  his  mother's  womb,  he  cried  three  times,  "  I  am  a  Chris- 
tian ;f"  then,  making  a  plain  confession  of  his  faith,  he  desired 
to  be  baptized,  chose  his  godfathers,  and  his  own  name  Rum- 

He  also,  by  his  fingers,  directed  the  standers  by  to  fetch  him 
a  great  hollow  stone  for  a  font,  which  sundry  of  his  father's 
servants  essayed  in  vain,  as  much  above  their  strength ;  till  the 
two  priests  (his  designed  godfathers)  did  go  and  fetch  it  easily 
at  his  appointment.  J  Being  baptized,  he  for  three  days  dis- 
coursed of  all  the  common-places  of  popery;  and,  having 
confirmed  their  truth,  he  bequeathed  his  body  to  remain  at 
Sutton  one  year,  at  Brackly  two,  and  at  Buckingham  ever  after. 
This  done,  he  expired. 

Reader,  I  partly  guess  by  my  own  temper  how  thine  is  affected 
with  the  reading  hereof,  whose  soul  is  much  divided  betwixt 
several  actions  at  once:  — 1.  To  frown  at  the  impudency  of  the 
first  inventors  of  such  improbable  untruths. — 2.  To  smile  at  the 
simplicity  of  the  believers  of  them.  3.  To  sigh  at  that  well- 
intended  devotion  abused  with  them.  4.  To  thank  God  that 
we  live  in  times  of  better  and  brighter  knowledge. 

Now,  although  St.  Rumwald  was  born  in  this  county,  he 
was  most  honoured  at  Boxley  in  Kent;  and  thereon  a  story 

There  was  in  the  church  of  Boxley  a  short  statue  of  St.  Rum- 
wald (as  of  a  boy-saint),  small,  hollow,  and  light ;  so  that  a  child 
of  seven  years  of  age  might  easily  lift  it.  The  moving  hereof 
was  made  the  criterion  of  women's  chastity.  Such  who  paid  the 
priest  well  might  easily  remove  it,  whilst  others  might  tug  at  it 
to  no  purpose ;  for  this  was  the  contrivance  of  the  cheat — that 
it  was  fastened  with  a  pin  of  wood  by  an  invisible  stander 
behind.  §  Now  when  such  offered  to  take  it  who  had  been 
bountiful  to  the  priest  before,  they  bare  it  away  with  ease,  which 
was  impossible  for  their  hands  to  remove  who  had  been  close- 
fisted  in  their  confessions.  "  Thus,"  saith  my  author,  ^  it 
moved  more  laughter  than  devotion ;  and  many  chaste  virgins 
and  wives  went  away  with  blushing  faces,  leaving  (without 
cause)  the  suspicion  of  their  wantonness  in  the  eyes  of  the 
beholders;  whilst  others  came  off  with  more  credit  (because 

*  The  English  Martyrology,  on  the  28th  of  August, 
t  Camden's  Britannia,  in  Buckinghamshire, 
j  Nova  Legenda  Anglica,  in  the  Life  of  Saint  Rumwald. 
I  Lambarde,  in  his  Perambulation  of  Kent,  p.  187. 



with  more  coin),  though  with  less  chastity/5*     The  certain  time 
of  his  life  is  unknown,  but  may  be  guessed  about  the  year  680. 


JOHN  SCRIVENER  was  martyred  at  Amersham,  anno  Domini 
1521 ;  on  whom  an  extraordinary  piece  of  cruelty  was  used,  his 
own  children  being  forced  to  set  the  first  fire  upon  him  ;f  for 
which  the  law  (Deut.  xiii.  6)  was  most  erroneously  pretended, 
as  will  appear  by  the  perusing  thereof : 

"  If  thy  brother,  the  son  of  thy  mother,  or  thy  son,  or  thy 
daughter,  or  the  wife  of  thy  bosom,  or  thy  friend  which  is  as 
thy  own  soul,  entice  thee  secretly,  saying,  Let  us  go  and  serve 
other  gods,  — thou  shalt  not  consent  unto  him,  nor  hearken  unto 
him : — but  thou  shalt  surely  kill  him  ;  thine  hand  shall  be  first 
upon  him  to  put  him  to  death/' 

See  we  here  how  in  the  case  of  idolatry  one  is  to  spare  none 
related  unto  them,  either  as  equals  or  inferiors.  But  this  law 
enjoins  not  children  to  accuse  or  execute  their  own  parents,  as 
Scrivener's  children  were  compelled  to  do  ;  a  barbarous  cruelty, 
especially  seeing  the  civil  law  among  the  heathen  Romans  did  pro- 
vide, that  "  filius  non  torquetur  in  caput  parentis,"  ("  a  son  shall 
not  be  examined  on  the  rack  to  accuse  his  father,  in  such  cases 
wherein  his  life  is  concerned/')  Others,  besides  Scrivener,  were 
martyred,  and  more  confessors  molested  in  this  small  county, 
anno  1521,  than  in  all  England  elsewhere  for  twenty  years 


RICHARD  de  WENDOVER  (a  place  well  known  in  this  shire) 
was  rector  of  Bromley,  in  Kent,  where  the  Bishop  of  Rochester 
hath  a  palace ;  and,  that  see  being  vacant,  he  was  lawfully 
chosen  the  bishop  thereof.  But  Edmund,  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury (afterwards  sainted)  refused  to  give  him  consecration, 
because  he  was  rude  and  unlearned. §  Hereupon  Wendover 
appealed  to  the  Pope,  whom  he  found  his  better  friend,  because 
Edmund  (a  bitter  inveigher  against  papal  extortions)  was  a  foe 
unto  him,  and  so  was  consecrated.  Now  none  will  grudge  him 
his  place  amongst  our  WORTHIES,  seeing  what  he  lacked  in 
learning  he  had  in  holiness  ;  and  such  his  signal  sanctity, ||  that, 
after  his  death,  he  was,  by  special  mandate  of  king  Henry  the 
Third,  buried  in  the  church  of  Westminster  (as  another  Jehoi- 
adah,  for  his  public  goodness,!)  anno  1250. 

JOHN  BUCKINGHAM  (for  so  his  name  is  truly  written),  alias 
Bokingham  and  Bukingham,  took  his  name  and  nativity,  no 

*  Lambarde,  in  his  Perambulation  of  Kent,  p.  187. 

Fox's  Acts  and  Monuments,  p.  838. 
1  See  Fox's  Acts  and  Monuments,  in  that  year. 
§  Godwin,  in  the  Bishops  of  Rochester.  ||   Idem. 

If  2  Chron.  xxiv,  16. 

I'llKLATES.  197 

doubt,  from  Buckingham,  in  this  county,  d-la-mode  of  that  age. 
He  was  bred  at  the  university  of  Oxford ;  and,  although  since 
by  some  causelessly  slandered  for  want  of  learning,  was  a  great 
disputant,  and  well-studied  scholar,  as  his  works  do  declare.* 
He  was  afterwards  preferred  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  where  several 
contests  happened  betwixt  him  and  Pope  Boniface  the  Ninth, 
who,  in  revenge,  ex  plenitudine  potestatis,  removed  him  from 
Lincoln  to  Lichfield ;  that  is,  from  the  hall  into  the  kitchen  ;  a 
bishopric  of  less  credit  and  profit.  Buckingham  grew  sullen 
hereat,  and  would  rather  shut  himself  out  than  play  at  a  less 
game  ;  and  so,  quitting^episcopacy,  1397*  lived  and  died  a  private 
monk  at  Canterbury,  where  he  lies  buried  the  lowermost  in  the 
body  of  Christchurch,  under  a  very  fair  grave-stone,  as  my 
industrious  friend  hath  well  retrieved  his  memory,t  though  the 
brass  on  his  monument  be  worn  or  rather  torn  away.  He 
indented  with  the  prior  and  convent  at  Canterbury  to  build 
him  a  chantry-chapel  near  his  sepulchre,  which  I  find  not 

JOHN  YOUNG  was  born  at  Newton-longville,  in  this  county,! 
and  bred  in  New  College  in  Oxford,  on  the  same  token  that 
there  are  no  fewer  than  ten  Youngs  in  their  register,  reckoned 
fellows  of  that  foundation;  and  one  said,  that  "seeing  the 
college  was  always  new,  well  may  many  fellows  be  young 
therein."  This  John  Young  became  warden  thereof,  and  after- 
wards was  made  bishop  of  the  fair  city  of  Callipoli,  in  Greece  ; 
an  excellent  place  to  fat  a — neither  camel  nor  lion  but — came- 
lion  in  ;  and  seeing  the  great  Turk  was  his  tenant,  little  the 
rent  he  paid  to  this  his  landlord.  However,  this  titular  bish- 
opric gave  him  precedency,  a  vote  in  general  councils,  and 
power  of  ordination.  But  some  English  earth  doth  not  well 
with  such  Grecian  air;  and,  for  his  better  support,  he  was 
made  Master  of  the  Rolls,  Jan.  12,  in  the  first  of  king  Henry  the 
Eighth,  and  either  died  or  resigned  his  office  some  eight  years 
after. §  As  I  remember,  he  lieth  buried,  with  a  brass  inscription, 
in  New  College  chapel. 

JOHN  HOLYMAN  was  born  at  Codington,  in  this  county, 
bred  in  New  College  in  Oxford,  ||  and  afterwards  became  a 
Benedictine  in  Reading,  until  that  monastery  was  dissolved. 
Queen  Mary,  in  the  first  of  her  reign,  preferred  him  Bishop  of 
Bristol,  whilst  his  predecessor,  Paul  Bush  (deprived  for  being 
married)  was  yet  alive.  He  lived  peaceably,  not  embruing 

*  J.  Bale  and  J.  Pits,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis. 

f  William  Sommers,  in  his  Antiquities  of  Canterbury,  p.  181. 

J  New  College  Register,  anno  1482. 

§  J.  Philpot,  in  bis  Catalogue  of  the  Masters  of  the  Rolls. 

II  New  College  Register.,  anno  Domini  1512. 


his  hands  in  Protestants5  blood ;  and  died,  seasonably  for  him- 
self, a  little  before  the  death  of  queen  Mary,  1558. 


JOHN  HARLEY  was  born  in  the  parish  of  Newport- Pagnel 
in  this  county,  as  a  learned  antiquary*  (a  native  of  the  same 
place)  hath  informed  me,,  where  some  of  his  kindred  were  lately 
(if  not  still)  in  being.  He  was  bred  first  fellow,  then  school- 
master in  Magdalen  College  in  Oxford.  In  the  dangerous  days 
of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  he  was  an  hearty  but  concealed  Pro- 

In  the  first  week  of  the  reign  of  king  Edward  the  Sixth, 
whilst  most  men's  minds  stood  at  a  gaze  (it  being  dead  water 
with  them  which  way  the  tide  would  turn,)  Master  Harley,  in 
the  parish  church  of  Saint  Peter's  in  Oxford,  in  a  solemn  Lent 
sermon,  publicly  preached  anti-papal  doctrine,  and  powerfully 
pressed  justification  by  faith  alone;  whereupon  the  over-offi- 
cious vice-chancellor  hurried  him  up  to  London  for  an  heretic, 
there  to  answer  for  his  contempt.f 

But  the  case  was  soon  altered :  Harley  was  acquitted,  com- 
mended, preferred  to  be  tutor  to  the  sons  of  John  Earl  of 
Warwick,  afterwards  Duke  of  Northumberland.  He  was  thence 
made  Bishop  of  Hereford. 

It  is  said  of  Abraham,  (e  he  was  buried  in  a  good  old  age/' J  It 
cannot  be  said  of  our  Harley,  he  died  in  an  old  age  (finding  him 
not  above  fifty ;)  though  expiring  in  a  good  age,  in  two  respects 
— in  relation  to  the  piety  of  his  life  past,  and  in  reference  to  the 
future  troubles  which  immediately  followed.  Surely,  had  he 
survived  a  little  longer,  he  had  lost  his  life,  as  he  did  his  bishop- 
ric, for  being  married,  in  the  first  of  queen  Mary0  § 

Doctor  Laurence  Humphred,  Harley;s  scholar  in  Magdalen 
College,  hath  consecrated  this  distich  to  the  memory  of  his 
master,  though  the  Muses  in  my  mind  looked  very  solemnly, 
without  the  least  smile  at  the  making  thereof, 

"  Flos  domui  Harlseus,  socius  ludique  magister, 
Celsus  deinde  throno,  celsior  inde  polo." 

He  died  anno  Domini  1554,  shifting  from  place  to  place, — the 
cause  why  there  is  no  certain  intelligence  where  he  was  interred. 

ROBERT  ALDRICH,  although  he  lived  but  in  the  twilight  of 
religion,  he  is  justly  to  be  placed  not  on  the  dark  but  light  side 
of  Reformation;  for,  though  his  actions  were  but  weak,  his 
affections  were  sincere  therein.  Born  he  was  at  Burnham  in 
this  county,  bred  in  King's  College,  in  Cambridge,  proctor  of  that 

*  Mr.  Martin,  beneficed  near  Northampton. 

t  Laurence  Humphred,  in  the  Latin  Life  of  Bishop  Jewell. 

J  Gen.  xv.  15. 

§  Bishop  Godwin,  in  his  Catalogue  of  the  Bishops  of  Hereford. 


university,  anno  1525  ;*  about  which  time  many  letters  passed 
betwixt  him  and  his  familiar  friend  Erasmus,,  who  styleth  him, 
"blandee  eloquentise  juvenem."  He  was  afterwards  school- 
master, then  fellow  and  provoster  of  Eaton,  and  at  last  made 
bishop  of  Carlile,  anno  1537,  by  king  Henry  the  Eighth.  He 
was  never  a  thorough-paced  Papist  (much  less  a  persecutor  of 
Protestants,)  though  a  complier  with  some  superstitions.  He 
died  at  Horncastle,  in  Lincolnshire  (a  house  belonging  to  his 
see),  in  the  reign  of  queen  Mary,  1555.f 

WILLIAM  ALLEY  was  born  at  Wickham,in  this  county,  bred 
first  at  Eton, .  then  in  King's  College,  where  he  was  admitted 
anno  Domini  1528.  J  Hence  he  went  away  being  bachelor  of  arts, 
and  afterwards  became  lecturer  in  Saint  Paul's  ;  I  say  lecturer, 
which  name,  though  since  it  hath  sounded  ill  in  some  jealous 
ears  as  infected  with  faction,  was  an  ancient  office  founded 
in  some  cathedrals,  to  read  divinity  there ;  and  this  Master 
Alley's  learned  lectures  (according  to  that  age)  are  extant  in 
print.  He  was  consecrated  Bishop  of  Exeter,  July  14,  1560  ; 
and  dying  1576,  lieth  buried  under  a  fair  marble  in  his  own 

RICHARD  Cox  was  born  at  Whaddon,  in  this  county,  and 
bred  for  some  years  in  King's  College,  in  Cambridge ;  §  even 
when  Cardinal  Wolsey  was  erecting  Christ  Church,  in  Oxford. 
This  great  prelate,  desiring  that  this  his  college  should  be  as  fair 
within  as  without,  and  have  learning  answerable  to  the  building 
thereof,  employed  his  emissaries  to  remove  thither  the  most 
hopeful  plants  of  Cambridge,  and  this  Richard  Cox  amongst 
the  rest.  He  became  afterwards  schoolmaster  of  Eton,  which 
was  happy  with  many  flourishing  wits  under  his  endeavours, 
and  Haddon  amongst  the  rest,  whom  he  loved  with  filial  affec- 
tion ;  nor  will  it  be  amiss  to  insert  the  poetical  pass  betwixt 

Walter  Haddon  to  Doctor  Cox,  his  schoolmaster. 
"  Vix  caput  attollens  e  lecto  scribere  carmen 
Qui  velit,  is  voluit,  scribere  plura,  Vale." 

Doctor  Cox  to  Walter  Haddon,  his  scholar. 
"  Te  magis  optarem  salvum  sine  carmine,  fili, 
Quam  sine  te  salvo,  carmina  rnulta,  Vale.'' 

Hence  he  was  sent  for  to  be  instructor  to  prince  Edward, 
which,  with  good  conscience,  to  his  great  credit  he  discharged. 
Here,  reader,  forgive  me  in  hazarding  thy  censure,  in  making 
and  translating  a  distich  upon  them. 

Prceceptor  doctus,  docilis  magis  an  puer  itte  ? 
Ille  puer  docilis,  praceptor  tu  quoque  doctus. 

*  Mr.  Hatcher,  in  his  Manuscript  Catalogue  of  the  Fellows  of  King's  College, 
t  Godwin,  in  his  Catalogue  of  Bishops, 
j  Mr.  Hatcher,  ul  prius.  §  Ibid. 


"  Master  more  able;  child  of  more  docility  ? 
Docile  the  child,  master  of  great  ability.  " 

At  last  he  was  preferred  Bishop  of  Ely,  1559,  comrnendably 
continuing  therein,  whatever  causeless  malice  hath  reported  to 
the  contrary,  twenty-one  years,  and  dying  anno  Domini  1580. 

THOMAS  BICKLEY  was  born  at  Stow,  in  this  county,  bred 
first  chorister,  then  scholar,  then  fellow  in  Magdalen  College 
in  Oxford.*  In  the  first  of  Edward  the  Sixth,  his  detestation 
of  superstition  may  rather  be  commended,  than  his  discretion  in 
expressing  it,  when  (before  the  public  abolishing  of  Popery)  at 
evening-prayer,  he  brake  the  consecrated  Host  with  his  hands, 
and  stamped  it  under  his  feet,  in  the  college  chapel.f  After- 
wards he  fled  over  into  France,  living  an  exile  at  Paris  and  Or- 
leans all  the  reign  of  queen  Mary.  Returning  into  England,  he 
became  chaplain  to  Archbishop  Parker,  who  preferred  him 
warden  of  Merton  College,  wherein  he  continued  twenty  years. 
When  passed  the  age  of  a  man  (eighty  years  old)  he  began  the 
life  of  a  bishop,  and  was  rather  contented  than  willing  to  accept 
the  bishopric  of  Chichester,  freely  offered  unto  him  :J  yet  lived 
he  eleven  years  therein,  and  died  ninety- years  of  age,  April  30, 
1596,  and  had  a  most  sumptuous  funeral ;  all  the  gentry  of  the 
vicinage  doing  their  homage  to  "  the  crown  of  his  old  age, 
which  was  found  in  the  way  of  truth."  He  led  a  single  life,  left 
an  hundred  pound  to  Merton  College,  and  other  moneys  to 
pious  uses. 

JOHN  KING  was  born  at  Warnhall,  nigh  Tame,  in  this  county ; 
Robert  King,  the  last  abbot  of  Osney,  and  first  bishop  of  Ox- 
ford, being  his  great  uncle.  He  was  first  dean  of  Christchurch, 
then  bishop  of  London,  being  full  fraught  with  all  episcopal 
qualities  ;  so  that  he  who  endeavoureth  to  give  a  perfect  account 
thereof  will  rather  discover  his  own  defects,  than  describe  this 
prelate's  perfections.  He  died  anno  Domini  1618,  being  buried 
in  the  choir  of  Saint  Paul's,  with  the  plain  epitaph  of  "  Resur- 
gam ;"  and  I  cannot  conceal  this  elegant  elegy  made  upon  him : 

"  Sad  Relique  of  a  blessed  soul  whose  trust 
We  sealed  up  in  this  religious  dust ; 
O  do  not  thy  low  exequies  suspect, 
As  the  cheap  arguments  of  our  neglect. 
'T\vas  a  commanded  duty  that  thy  grave 
As  little  pride  as  thou  thyself  should  have. 
Therefore  thy  covering  is  an  humble  stone, 
And  but  a  word§  for  thy  inscription  ; 
When  those  that  in  the  same  earth  neighbour  thee, 
Have  each  his  chronicle  and  pedigree, 
They  have  their  waving  penons  and  their  flags 
Of  matches  and  alliance,  formal  brags  ; 

*  Godwin,  in  his  Catalogue  of  Bishops  of  Chichester. 

t  Dr.  Humphred,  in  his  Latin  Life  of  Bishop  Jewell,  p.  73. 

"  Episeopatum  oblatum  ultro,  non  nimis  cupide  accepit."     (Godwin,  ui  priiis.) 
§  "  Resurgam."' 


When  thou  (although  from  ancestors  thou  came 

Old  as  the  Heptarchy,  great  as  thy  name) 

Sleep'st  there  enshrin'd  in  thy  admired  parts, 

And  hast  no  heraldry  but  thy  deserts. 

Yet  let  not  them  their  prouder  marbles  boast  ; 

For  they  rest  with  less  honour,  though  more  cost. 

Go  search  the  world,  and  with  your  mattock  wound 

The  groaning  bosom  of  the  patient  ground  ; 

Dig  from  the  hidden  veins  of  her  dark  womb 

All  that  is  rare  and  precious  for  a  tomb  : 

Yet  when  such  treasure,  and  more  time  is  spent, 

You  must  grant  his  the  nobler  monument, 

Whose  faith  stands  o'er  him  for  a  hearse,  and  hath 

The  Resurrection  for  his  Epitaph." 

See  more  of  the  character  of  this  most  worthy  prelate,  in  our 
"Ecclesiastical  History/"  anno  1620,  wherein  he  died. 

RICHARD  MONTAGUE  was  born  at  Dorney  (where  his  father 
was  vicar  of  the  parish),  within  three  miles  of  Eaton,  and  so 
(though  not  within  the  reach)  within  the  sight  of  that  staple 
place  for  grammar-learning,  wherein  he  was  bred  :*  thence  was 
he  chosen  successively  fellow  of  kingVcollege  in  Cambridge, 
fellow  of  Eaton,  parson  of  Stanford  Rivers  in  Essex,  canon 
of  Windsor,  parson  of  Petworth,  elected  bishop  of  Chichester, 
and  at  last  of  Norwich.  He  spent  very  much  in  repairing  his 
parsonage-house  at  Petworth,  as  also  on  his  episcopal  house  at 
Allingbourn  near  Chichester. 

He  was  most  exact  in  the  Latin  and  Greek ;  and,  in  the  vin- 
dication of  tithes,  wrestled  with  the  grand  antiquary  of  England, 
and  gave  him  a  fair  flat  fall  in  the  point  of  a  Greek  criticism, 
taxing  him  justly  for  mistaking  a  god  (amongst  the  Egyptians) 
more  than  there  was,  by  making  a  man  amongst  the  gramma- 
rians fewer  than  they 'should  be. 

He  hath  many  learned  works  extant  against  the  Papists,  some 
in  English,  some  in  Latin ;  and  one,  called  his  " Appello  Cee- 
sarem,"  which  (without  his  intent  and  against  his  will)  gave  oc- 
casion of  much  trouble  in  the  land.  He  began  an  Ecclesiastical 
History,  and  set  forth  his  apparatus,  and,  alas  !  it  was  but  an  ap- 
paratus ;  though,  through  no  default  of  his,  but  defect  of  his 
health ;  sickness,  troublesome  times,  and  then  death,  surprising 
him.  Had  it  been  finished,  we  had  had  church-annals  to  put 
into  the  balance  with  those  of  Baronius ;  and  which  would  have 
swayed  with  them  for  learning,  and  weighed  them  down  for 
truth.  He  died  anno  Domini  1641. 

HENRY  KING,  D.D.,  son  to  John  King  (lately  mentioned), 
bishop  of  London,  and  his  wife  (of  the  ancient  family  of  the 
Conquests),  was  born  in  this  county,  in  the  same  town,  house, 
and  chamber,  with  his  father;  a  local  coincidence,  which 
in  all  considerable  particulars  cannot  be  paralleled. 

We  know  the  scripture  proverb,  used  in  exprobration,  "As  is  the 

*  So  am  I  informed  by  his  son-in-law.  Doctor  David  Stokes. 


mother,  so  is  the  daughter  ;"*  both  wicked,  both  woeful.  But 
here  it  may  be  said,  by  way  of  thankfulness  to  God  and  honour 
to  the  persons,  "  As  was  the  father,  so  is  the  son ;"  both  pious, 
both  prosperous,  till  the  calamity  of  the  times  involved  the 

Episcopacy,  anno  1641,  was  beheld  by  many  in  a  deep  con- 
sumption, which  many  hoped  would  prove  mortal.  To  cure  this 
it  was  conceived  the  most  probable  cordial,  to  prefer  persons 
into  that  order,  not  only  unblameable  for  their  life,  and  eminent 
for  their  learning,  but  also  generally  beloved  by  all  disengaged 
people;  and  amongst  these,  king  Charles  advanced  this  our 
doctor  bishop  of  Chichester. 

But  all  would  not  do.  Their  innocency  was  so  far  from  stop- 
ping the  mouth  of  malice,  that  malice  almost  had  swallowed 
them  down  her  throat;  since  God  hath  rewarded  his  patience, 
giving  him  to  live  to  see  the  restitution  of  his  order. 

David  saith,  that  "  the  good  tree  [man]  shall  bring  forth  his 
fruit  in  due  season  ;"t  so  our  doctor  varied  his  fruits,  according 
to  the  diversity  of  his  age.  Being  brought  up  in  Christ-church 
in  Oxford,  he  delighted  in  the  studies  of  music  and  poetry :  more 
elder,  he  applied  himself  to  oratory  and  philosophy ;  and  in  his 
reduced  age  fixed  on  divinity,  which  his  printed  sermons  on  the 
Lord's-prayer,  and  others  which  he  preached,  remaining  fresh  in 
the  minds  of  his  auditors,  will  report  him  to  all  posterity.  He 
is  still  living,  anno  Domini  1660. 


Sir  GEORGE  CROOK,  knight,  son  of  Sir  John  Crook  and 
Elizabeth  Unton  his  wife,  was  born  at  Chilton  in  this  county,  J 
in  the  second  year  of  the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  bred  first  in 
Oxford,  then  a  double  reader  in  the  Inner  Temple,  serjeant  at 
law,  and  the  king's  serjeant,  justice  first  of  the  Common-bench, 
22  Jacobi,  and  then  of  the  Upper-bench,  4  Caroli. 

His  ability  in  his  profession  is  sufficiently  attested  by  his  own 
printed  "  Reports ;"  eight  eminent  judges  of  the  law,  out  of  their 
knowledge  of  his  great  wisdom,  learning,  and  integrity,  approv- 
ing and  allowing  them  to  be  published  for  the  common  benefit. 

He  was  against  the  illegality  of  ship-money,  both  publicly  in 
Westminster-hall,  and  privately  in  his  judgment  demanded  by 
the  king,  though  concluded  to  subscribe  (according  to  the  course 
of  the  court)  by  plurality  of  voices.  The  country-man's  wit  (le- 
velled to  his  brain)  will  not  for  many  years  be  forgotten — "  that 
ship-money  may  be  gotten  by  Hook,  but  not  by  Crook ;"  though 
since  they  have  paid  taxes  (loins  to  the  little  finger,  and 
scorpions  to  the  rod  of  ship-money)  ;  but  whether  by  Hook  or 
Crook,  let  others  inquire. 

His  piety,  in  his  equal  and  even  walkings  in  the  way  of  God 

*  Ezek.  xvi.  44.  f  Psalm  i.  J  In  his  Life,  prefixed  to  his  Reports. 


through  the  several  turnings  and  occasions  of  his  life,  is 
evidenced  by  his  charity  to  man,  founding  a  chapel  at  Beachley 
in  Buckinghamshire,  two  miles  at  least  distanced  from  the  mo- 
ther-church, and  an  hospital  in  the  same  parish,  with  a  liberal 

Considering  his  declining  and  decaying  age,  and  desiring  to 
examine  his  life,  and  prepare  an  account  to  the  Supreme  Judge, 
he  petitioned  king  Charles  for  a  writ  of  ease  ;  which,  though °iii 
some  sort  denied  (what  wise  master  would  willingly  part  with  a 
good  servant?)  was  in  effect  granted  unto  him.  He  died  at 
Waterstock  in  Oxfordshire,  in  the  eighty-second  year  of  his  age, 
anno  Domini  1641. 

EDWARD  BULTSTRODE,  Esq.  (born  in  this  county,  bred  in  the 
studies  of  our  municipal  laws  in  the  Inner  Temple,  and  his  High- 
ness's  justice  in^North  Wales,)  hath  written  a  book  of  divers  re- 
solutions and  judgments,  with  the  reasons  and  causes  thereof, 
given  in  the  court  of  King's  Bench,  in  the  reigns  of  king  James 
and  king  Charles ;  and  is  lately  deceased. 


SIR  WILLIAM  WINDSOR,  Knight. — I  am  confident  herein 
is  no  mislocation,  beholding  him  an  ancestor  to  the  Right 
Honourable  Thomas  Windsor  Hickman,  Lord  Windsor,  and 
fixed  at  Bradenham.  He  was  deputed  by  king  Edward  the 
Third,  in  the  forty- seventh  year  of  his  reign,  Lord  Lieutenant 
of  Ireland,  which  country  was  then  in  a  sad  condition  :  for  the 
king  was  so  intent  on  the  conquest  of  France  (as  a  land 
nearer,  fairer,  and  due  to  him  by  descent),  that  he  neglected  the 
effectual  reduction  of  Ireland. 

This  encouraged  the  Irish  grandees  (their  O's  and  Mac's)  to 
rant  and  tyrant  it  in  their  respective  seigniories,  whilst  such 
English  who  were  planted  there  had  nothing  native  (save  their 
surnames)  left;  degenerating  by  degrees  to  be  Irish  in  their 
habits,  manners,  and  language.  Yea,  as  the  wild  Irish  are  ob- 
served to  love  their  nurses  or  fosters  above  their  natural 
mothers,  so  these  barbarizing  English  were  more  endeared  to 
the  interest  of  Ireland  which  fed,  than  of  England  which  bare 
and  bred  them. 

To  prevent  more  mischief,  this  worthy  knight  was  sent  over, 
of  whose  valour  and  fidelity  the  king  had  great  experience.  He 
contracted  with  the  king  to  defray  the  whole  charge  of  that 
kingdom  (as  appeareth  by  the  instrument  in  the  Tower)  for 
eleven  thousand  two  hundred  and  thirteen  pounds,  six  shillings, 
and  eight  pence,  per  annum.* 

Now  Sir  William  undertook  not  the  Conquest,  but  custody  of 
the  land  in  a  defensive  war.  He  promised  not  with  a  daring 

*  47  Edward  III,  Claus.  pars  2,  m.  24  and  26. 


mountebank  to  cure,  but  with  a  discreet  physician  to  ease,  this 
Irish  gout. 

Indeed  I  meet  with  a  passage  in  Froissart,  relating  how  Sir 
William  should  report  of  himself,  "  that  he  was  so  far  from  sub- 
duing the  Irish,  he  could  never  have  access  to  understand  arid 
know  their  countries,  albeit  he  had  spent  more  time  in  the  ser- 
vice of  Ireland  than  any  Englishman  then  living ;"  *  which  to 
me  seems  no  wonder,  the  Irish  vermin  shrouding  themselves 
under  the  scabs  of  their  bogs,  and  hair  of  their  woods.  How- 
ever, he  may  truly  be  said  to  have  left  that  land  much  improved, 
because  no  whit  more  impaired  during  those  dangerous  distrac- 
tions, and  safely  resigned  his  office  (as  I  take  it)  in  the  first  of 
king  Richard  the  Second. 

ARTHUR  GRAY,  Baron  of  Wilton,  is  justly  reckoned  amongst 
the  natives  of  this  shire,  whose  father  had  his  habitation  (not  at 
Wilton,  a  decayed  castle  in  Herefordshire,  whence  he  took  his 
title,  but)  at  Waddon,  a  fair  house  of  his  family,  not  far  from 

He  succeeded  to  a  small  estate,  much  diminished  on  this  sad 
occasion.  His  father  William  Lord  Gray  being  taken  prisoner 
in  France,  after  long  ineffectual  soliciting  to  be  (because  capti- 
vated in  the  public  service)  redeemed  on  the  public  charge,  at 
last  was  forced  to  ransom  himself  with  the  sale  of  the  best  part 
of  his  patrimony. 

Our  Arthur  endeavoured  to  advance  his  estate  by  his  valour, 
being  entered  in  feats  of  war  under  his  martial  father,  at  the 
siege  of  Leith,  1560,  where  he  was  shot  in  the  shoulder,  which 
inspirited  him  with  a  constant  antipathy  against  the  Scotch.f 
He  was  afterwards  sent  over  lord  deputy  into  Ireland,  anno 
1580 :  where,  before  he  had  received  the  sword,  or  any  emblems 
of  command,^  acrioribus  initiis  terrorem  incut  eret,%  ("  to  fright 
his  foes  with  his  fierce  beginning/5)  he  unfortunately  fought  the 
rebels  at  Glandilough,  to  the  great  loss  of  English  blood.  This 
made  many  commend  his  courage  above  his  conduct,  till  he  re- 
covered his  credit,  and  finally  suppressed  the  rebellion  of 

Returning  into  England,  the  queen  chiefly  relied  on  his  -coun- 
sel for  ordering  our  land  forces  against  the  Spaniards  in  88,  and 
fortifying  places  of  advantage.  The  mention  of  that  year  (criti- 
cal in  Church  differences  about  discipline  at  home,  as  well  as 
with  foreign  foes  abroad)  mindeth  me  that  this  lord  was  but  a 
back  friend  to  bishops,  and  in  all  divisions  of  votes  in  parlia- 
ment, or  council-table,  sided  with  the  anti-prelatical  party. 

When  secretary  Davison,  that  state-pageant  (raised  up  on 
purpose  to  be  put  down),  was  censured  in  the  star-chamber 

*  The  same  also  in  effect  is  found  in  Stow,  in  Richard  the  Second, 
f  Camden's  Elizabeth,  anno  notato.  +  Ibid,  anno  1580. 


about  the  business  of  the  queen  of  Scots,  this  Lord  Grey  only 
defended  him,  as  doing  nothing  therein  but  what  became  an  able 
and  honest  minister  of  state.  An  ear- witness  saith,  "  Heec 
fuse,  oratorie,  et  animose,  Greium  disserentem  audivimus."* 
So  that  besides  bluntness  (the  common  and  becoming  eloquence 
of  soldiers)  he  had  a  real  rhetoric,  and  could  very  emphatically 
express  himself.  Indeed  this  warlike  lord  would  not  wear  "  two 
heads  under  one  helmet,"  and  may  be  said  always  to  have  borne 
his  beaver  open,  not  dissembling  in  the  least  degree,  but  own- 
ing his  own  judgment  at  all  times  what  he  was.  He  deceased 
anno  Domini  1593. 


ROGER  de  WENDOVER  was  born  at  that  market-town  in  this 
county,  bred  a  benedictine  in  St.  Alban's,  where  he  became  the 
king's  historian. 

Know,  reader,  that  our  English  kings  had  always  a  monk, 
generally  of  St.  Alban's  (as  near  London,  the  staple  of  news 
and  books),  to  write  the  remarkables  of  their  reigns.f  One 
addeth  (I  am  sorry  he  is  a  foreigner,  and  therefore  of  less  credit 
at  such  distance),  that  their  chronicles  were  locked  up  in  the 
king's  library ;  so  that  neither  in  that  king's  nor  his  son's  life 
they  were  ever  opened.  If  so,  they  had  a  great  encouragement 
to  be  impartial,  not  fearing  a  blow  on  their  teeth,  though  com- 
ing near  to  the  heels  of  truth,  which  in  some  sort  were  tied  up 
from  doing  them  any  hurt. 

This  Roger  began  his  chronicle  at  the  Conquest,  and  con- 
tinued it  to  the  year  1235,  being  the  19th  year  of  king  Henry 
the  Third.  Indeed  Matthew  Paris  doth  quarter  too  heavily  on 
the  pains  of  Wendover,  who  only  continuing  his  chronicle  for 
some  years,  and  inserting  some  small  alterations,  J  is  entitled 
to  the  whole  work.  As  a  few  drops  of  blood,  because  of  the 
deep  hue  thereof,  discoloureth  a  whole  bason  of  water  into 
redness ;  so  the  few  and  short  interpolations  of  Paris,  as  the 
more  noted  author,  give  a  denomination  to  the  whole  history, 
though  a  fabric  built  three  stories  high,  whereof  our  Roger  laid 
the  foundation,  finished  the  ground-room  and  second  loft,  to 
which  by  M.  Paris  was  added  the  garret,  as  since  the  roof  by 
W.  Rishanger.  This  Wendover  died  about  the  year  of  our 
Lord  1236. 

JOHN  AMERSHAM  was  born  in  that  small  corporation  in  this 
county,  bred  a  monk  in  St.  Alban's,  where  he  contracted  not 
only  intimacy,  but  in  some  sort  identity  of  affection,  with  John 
Weathamsted,  abbot  thereof;  insomuch  that  what  was  said  of 

*  Camden's  Elizabeth,  anno  1587. 

f  Ponticus  Virunius,  cited  by  J.  Bale,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis,  Cent.  4, 
num.  94. 

I  See^Dr.  Watts's  Prefatory  Notes  to  Matthew  Paris. 


two  other  friends  was  true  of  them  (ethics  making  good  the 
grammar  thereof;)  "duo  amici  vixit  in  eodem  conventu." 

Now  there  was  a  great  faction  in  that  convent  against  their 
abbot,  which  to  me  seemeth  no  wonder ;  for  the  generality  of 
monks  being  lewd,  lazy,  and  unlearned,  they  bare  an  antipathy 
to  their  abbot,  who  was  pious,  painful,  and  a  profound  scholar. 
Nor  did  they  only  rail  on  his  person  whilst  living,  but  also  revile 
his  memory  when  dead.  Our  Amersham,  surviving  his  dear 
friend,  wrote  a  book  (besides  other  of  his  works),  intituled, 
ff  The  shield  of  Weathamsted,"  therein  defending  him  from  the 
undeserved  darts  of  his  enemies'  obloquy.*  He  flourished  anno 
Domini  1450. 

MATTHEW  STOKES  was  born  in  the  town  and  bred  in  the 
school  of  Eton,t  until  he  was  admitted  in  King's  College  in 
Cambridge,  anno  Domini  1531.  He  afterwards  became  fellow 
of  that  house,  and  at  last  esquire  beadle,  and  register  of  the 

A  register  indeed,  both  by  his  place  and  painful  performance 
therein ;  for  he  (as  the  poets  feign  of  Janus  with  two  faces)  saw 
two  worlds,  that  before  and  after  the  Reformation ;  in  which 
juncture  of  time,  so  great  the  confusion  and  embezzling  of 
records,  that,  had  not  Master  Stokes  been  the  more  careful,  I 
believe,  that  though  Cambridge  would  not  be  so  oblivious  as 
Massala  Corvinus,  who  forgot  his  own  name,  yet  would  she 
have  forgotten  the  names  of  all  her  ancient  officers. 

To  secure  whose  succession  to  posterity,  Mr.  Stokes,  with 
great  industry  and  fidelity,  collected  a  catalogue  of  the  chancel- 
lors, vice-chancellors,  and  proctors.  He  was  a  zealous  papist 
(even  unto  persecution  of  others) ;  which  I  note,  not  to  disgrace 
his  memory,  but  defend  myself,  for  placing  him  before  the 
Reformation,  though  he  lived  many  years  in  the  reign  of  queen 


WALTER  H ADDON  was  born  of  a  knightly  family  in  this 
county,  bred  at  Eton,{  afterwards  fellow  in  King's  College, 
where  he  proceeded  Doctor  of  Law,  and  was  the  King's  pro- 
fessor in  that  faculty,  chosen  Vice-chancellor  of  Cambridge  1550  : 
soon  after  he  was  made  President  of  Magdalen  College  in  Ox- 
ford, which  place  he  waived  in  the  reign  of  queen  Mary,  and 
sheltered  himself  in  obscurity.  Queen  Elizabeth  made  him  one 
of  the  Masters  of  her  Requests,  and  employed  him  m  several 
embassies  beyond  the  seas.  Her  Majesty,  being  demanded  whe- 
ther she  preferred  him  or  Buchanan  for  learning,  wittily  and 
warily  returned,  "  Buchananum  omnibus  antepono,  Haddonum 

*  Bale,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis ;  and  Pitsseus,  aetat.  14,  num.  843. 
f  Hatcher's  MS.  Catalogue  of  the  Fellows  of  King's  College. 
J  Bale,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis,  Cent,  nono,  num.  87. 

WRITERS.  207 

nemini  postpone."  Indeed  he  was  a  most  eloquent  man,  and 
a  pure  Ciceronian  in  his  style,  as  appeareth  by  his  writings,  and 
especially  in  his  book  against  Osorius.  The  rest  may  be  learned 
out  of  his  epitaph  : 


"  GUALTERO  HADDONO,  Equestri  loco  nato,  Jurisconsulto, 
Oratori,  Poetce  celeberrimo,  Graecee  Latineeque  eloquentise  sui 
tempons  facile  principi;  sapientia.  et  sanctitate  vitse,  in  id 
invecto,  ut  reginse  Elizabethan  a  supplicum  libellis  magister 
esset,  destinareturquejnajoribus  nisi  facto  immaturius  cessisset: 
interim  in  omni  gradu  viro  longe  eminentissimo.  Conjugi  suo 
optimo  meritissimoque  ANNA  SUTTONA,  uxor  ejus  secunda, 
flens,  moerens,  desiderii  sui  signum  posuit.  Obiit  anno  Salut. 
hum.  1572,  sotatis  56." 

This  his  fair  monument  is  extant  in  the  wall  at  the  upper  end 
of  the  chancel  of  Christ's  Church  in  London ;  where  so  many 
ancient  inscriptions  have  been  barbarously  defaced. 

LAURENCE  HUMPHRED  was  born  in  this  county,*  bred  in 
Magdalen  College,  in  Oxford,  a  great  and  general  scholar,  able  lin- 
guist, deep  divine,  pious  to  God,  humble  in  himself,  charitable 
to  others.  In  the  reign  of  queen  Mary  he  fled  into  Germany, 
and  there  was  fellow- commoner  with  Mr.  Jewell  (whose  Life  he 
wrote  at  large  in  Latin)  in  all  his  sufferings.  Here  he  trans- 
lated Origen  «  de  Recta  Fide,"  and  Philo  "  de  Nobilitate,"  out 
of  Greek. 

Returning  into  England  in  the  reign  of  queen  Elizabeth,  he 
was  made  President  of.  Magdalen  College  in  Oxford,  and  Dean 
of  Winchester.  Higher  preferment  he  never  attained,  because 
he  never  desired  it ;  though  a  learned  author  seems  to  put  it  on 
another  account,  fe  fortasse  eo  quod  de  adiaphoris  non  juxta  cum 
Ecclesia  Anglicana  senserit."f  I  deny  not  but  he  might  scruple 
some  ceremonies ;  but  sure  I  am  he  was  much  molested  in  his 
college  with  a  party  of  fierce  (not  to  say  furious)  Nonconformists 
from  whom  he  much  dissented  in  judgment.  He  died  anno 
Domini  1589. 

Here  I  must  confess  a  ^mistake  in  my  "  Ecclesiastical  His- 
tory" (misguided  therein  with  many  others  by  general  tradition), 
when  I  reported  the  gold  lately  found  and  shared  amongst  the 
president  and  fellows  of  Magdalen  College  in  Oxford,  to  have 
been  the  gift  of  this  Doctor  Humphred,  which  since  appeareth 
a  legacy  left  by  William  Wainfleet,  their  founder.  Would  I  had 
been  mistaken  in  the  matter  as  well  as  the  person,  that  so  un- 
worthy an  act  had  never  been  performed.  But  what  said  Jacob 
to  his  sons  :  "  Carry  back  the  money  again  ;  peradventure  it  was 
an  oversight."^  Seasonable  restitution  will  make  reparation. 

*  "  Humfredus  patriot  Buchingamensi."  Baleus,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis, 
Cent.  xi.  num.  93. 

f  Camden's  Elizabeth,  in  anno  1589.  J  Gen-  xliii.12. 


ROGER  GOAD  was  born  at  Houton  in  this  county,  and  was 
admitted  sholar  in  King's  College  in  Cambridge  1555.*  Leaving 
the  college,,  he  became  a  schoolmaster  at  Guilford  in  Surrey. 
But  pity  it  is  that  a  great  candle  should  be  burning  in  the 
kitchen,  whilst  light  is  lacking  in  the  hall,  and  his  public  parts 
pent  in  so  private  a  profession.  He  was  made  not  to  guide  boys 
but  govern  men.  Hence,  by  an  unexpected  election,  he  was 
surprised  into  the  Provostship  of  King's  College,  wherein  he 
remained  forty  years.  He  was  thrice  Vice-chancellor  of  Cam- 
bridge ;  a  grave,  sage,  and  learned  man.  He  had  many  contests 
with  the  young  fry  in  this  college,  chiefly  because  he  loved  their 
good  better  than  they  themselves.  Very  little  there  is  of  his  in 
print,  save  what  he  did  in  conjunction  with  other  doctors  of  the 
university.  By  his  testament  he  gave  the  rectory  of  Milton  to 
the  college  ;  and  dying  on  St.  Mark's  day,  1610,  lieth  buried  in 
a  vestry  on  the  north  side  of  the  chapel. 

-  JOHN  GREGORY  was  born  November  10,  1607;,  at  Amersham 
in  this  county,  of  honest  though  mean  parents,  yet  rich  enough 
to  derive  unto  him  the  hereditary  infirmity  of  the  gout,  which 
afflicted  him  the  last  twenty  years  of  his  life.     He  was  bred  in 
Christ  Church  in  Oxford,  where  he  so  applied  his  book,  that  he 
studied  sixteen  hours  of  the  four-and-twenty  for  many  years  to- 
gether.f  He  attained  to  be  an  exquisite  linguist  and  general  scho- 
lar ;  his  modesty  setting  the  greater  lustre  on  his  learning.    His 
notes  on  Dr.  Ridley's  book  of  Civil  Law  gave  the  first  testimony 
of  his  pregnancy  to  the  world,  and  never  did  text  and  comment 
Better  meet -together. 

He  was  first  chaplain  of  Christ  Church,  and  thence  preferred 
by  Bishop  Duppa,  Prebendary  of  Chichester  and  Sarum ;  and 
indeed  no  church  preferment  compatible  with  his  age  was  above 
his  deserts.  He  died  at  Kidlington  in  Oxfordshire,  1646,  and 
was  buried  at  Christ  Church  in  Oxford.  I  find  a  smart  epitaph, 
made  by  a  friend,  on  his  memory ;  and  it  was,  in  my  mind,  as 
well  valiantly  (consider  the  times)  as  truly  indited : 

"  Ne  premas  cineres  ho  see,  viator, 
Nescis  quot  sub  hoc  jacet  lapillo ; 

Greeculus,  Hebreeus,  Syrus, 
Et  qui  te  quovis  vincet  idiomate. 

At  ne  molestus  sis 

Ausculta,  et  causam  auribus  tuis  imbibe : 

Templo  exclusus, 

Et  avita  Religione 

Jam  senescente  (ne  dicam  sublata), 

Mutavit  chorum,  altiorem  ut  capesceret. 

Vade  nunc,  si  libet,  et  imitare.          R.  W." 

*  Mr.  Hatcher,  in  his  MS.  Catalogue  of  the  Fellows  of  King's  College, 
t  In  his  Life,  prefixed  to  his  book. 

WRITERS.  209 

His  "  Opera  Posthuma "  are  faithfully  set  forth  by  his  good 
friend  John  Gurgain,  and  deservedly  dedicated  to  Edward  Bish, 
Esquire ;  one  so  able  that  he  could  (charitable  that  he  would,  and  va- 
liant that  he  durst)  relieve  Master  Gregory  in  his  greatest  distress. 

SAMUEL  COLLINS,  son  to  Baldwin  Collins  (born  in  Coventry, 
a  pious  and  painful  preacher,  prodigiously  bountiful  to  the  poor, 
whom  queen  Elizabeth  constantly  called  Father  Collins)  was 
born  and  bred  at  Eton ;  so  that  he  breathed  learned  air  from  the 
place  of  his  nativity .*  Hence  coming  to  King's  College  in  Cam- 
bridge, he  was  chosen  successively  Fellow,  Provost,  and  Regius 
Professor  ;  one  of  an  admirable  wit  and  memory,  the  most  fluent 
Latinist  of  our  age  ;  so  that,  as  Caligula  is  said  to  have  sent  his 
soldiers  vainly  to  fight  against  the  tide,  with  the  same  success 
have  any  encountered  the  torrent  of  his  tongue  in  disputation. 
He  constantly  read  his  lectures  twice  a  week  for  above  forty 
years,  giving  notice  of  the  time  to  his  auditors  in  a  ticket  on  the 
school  doors,  wherein  never  any  two  alike,  without  some  consi- 
derable difference  in  the  critical  language  thereof.  When  some 
displeased  courtier  did  him  the  injurious  courtesy  to  prefer  him 
downwards  (in  point  of  profit)  to  the  Bishopric  of  Bristol,  he 
improved  all  his  friends  to  decline  his  election.  In  these  trou- 
blesome times  (affording  more  preachers  than  professors),  he 
lost  his  church,  but  kept  his  chair ;  wherein  he  died  about  the 
year  1651. 

WILLIAM  OUGIITRED  was  (though  branched  from  a  right 
ancient  family  in  the  North)  born  in  the  town,  bred  in  the 
school  of  Eton,  became  Fellow  of  King's  College  ;  and  at  last 
was  beneficed  by  Thomas  Earl  of  Arundel  at  Albury  in  Surrey. 
All  his  contemporaries  unanimously  acknowledged  him  the 
prince  of  mathematicians  in  our  age  and  nation.  This  aged 
Simeon  had  (though  no  revelation)  a  strong  persuasion  that 
before  his  death  he  should  behold  Christ's  anointed  restored  to 
his  throne :  which  he  did  accordingly,  to  his  incredible  joy ; 
and  then  had  his  Dimittis  out  of  this  mortal  life,  June  30,  1660. 


THOMAS  DORMAN  was  born  at  Ammersham  in  this  county, 
being  nephew  unto  Thomas  Dorman  of  the  same  town,  a  con- 
fessor in  the  reign  of  king  Hemy  the  Eighth.  True  it  is,  this 
his  uncle,  through  weakness,  did  abjure  (let  us  pity  his,  who  de- 
sire God  should  pardon  our  failings) ;  but  was  ever  a  cordial 
Protestant.  He  bred  this  Thomas  Dorman,  junior,  at  Berkham- 
sted  school  ( founded  by  Dr.  Incent)  in  Hertfordshire,  under 
Mr.  Reeve,  a  Protestant  school-master.f 

*  Hence  he  styleth  himself,  in  his  books,  Etonensis. 
f  Fox's  Acts  and  Monuments,  p.  338. 

VOL.   I.  P 


But  this  Dorman  turned  tail  afterwards,  and  became  a  great 
Romanist;  running  over  beyond  the  seas,  where  he  wrote  a 
book,  intituled,  "  Against  Alexander  Nowel,  the  English  Calvin- 
ist."  J.  Pits  doth  repent  that  he  affordeth  him  no  room  in  the 
body  of  his  book,  referring  him  to  his  Appendix.*  He  flourished 
anno  1560. 


JOHN  MATHEW,  Mercer,  son  to  Thomas  Mathew,  was  born 
at  Sherington  in  this  county ;  Lord  Mayor  of  London,  anno 
Domini  1490.  He  is  eminent  on  this  account,  that  he  was  the 
first  bachelor  that  ever  was  chosen  into  that  office,  f  Yea,  it 
was  above  a  hundred  and  twenty  years  before  he  was  seconded 
by  a  single  person  succeeding  him  in  that  place,  viz.  Sir  John 
Leman,t  Lord  Mayor  1616.  It  seemeth  that  a  Lady  Mayoress 
is  something  more  than  ornamental  to  a  Lord  Mayor ;  their 
wives  great  portions,  or  good  providence,  much  advantaging 
their  estates,  to  be  capable  of  so  high  a  dignity. 

Dame  HESTER  TEMPLE,  daughter  to  Miles  Sands,  Esquire, 
was  born  at  Latmos  in  this  county,  and  was  married  to  Sir 
Thomas  Temple,  of  Stow,  Baronet.  She  had  four  sons  and  nine 
daughters,  which  lived  to  be  married,  and  so  exceedingly  mul- 
tiplied, that  this  lady  saw  seven  hundred  extracted  from  her 
body.  Reader,  I  speak  within  compass,  and  have  left  myself  a 
reserve,  having  bought  the  truth  hereof  by  a  wager  I  lost.  Be- 
sides, there  was  a  new  generation  of  marriageable  females  just 
at  her  death  ;  so  that  this  aged  vine  may  be  said  to  wither,  even 
when  it  had  many  young  boughs  ready  to  knit. 

Had  I  been  one  of  her  relations,  and  as  well  enabled  as  most 
of  them  be,  I  would  have  erected  a  monument  for  her — thus  de- 
signed. A  fair  tree  should  have  been  erected,  the  said  lady  and 
her  husband  lying  at  the  bottom  or  root  thereof ;  the  heir  of  the 
family  should  have  ascended  both  the  middle  and  top  bough 
thereof.  On  the  right  hand  hereof  her  younger  sons,  on  the 
left  her  daughters  should,  as  so  many  boughs,  be  spread  forth. 
Her  grandchildren  should  have  their  names  inscribed  on  the 
branches  of  those  boughs;  the  great  grandchildren  on  the  twigs 
of  those  branches ;  the  great  great  grandchildren  on  the  leaves 
of  those  twigs.  Such  as  survived  her  death  should  be  done  in 
a  lively  green,  the  rest  (as  blasted)  in  a  pale  and  yellow  fading 

Pliny§  (who  reports  it  as  a  wonder  worthy  the  chronicle, 
that  Chrispinus  Hilarus,  prcelata  pompd,  "  with  open  ostenta- 
tion/5 sacrificed  in  the  Capitol  seventy-four  of  his  children 

*  Pagina  914.  f  Stow's  Survey  of  London,  p.  573. 

t  "  This  Mayor  was  the  second  batchlor,"  saith  How,  continuing  Stow  in  his 
Survey  of  London,  p.  195.  Sed  quaere  ?— F.  §  Lib.  vii.  cap.  13. 


and  children's  children  attending  on  him,)  would  more  admire, 
if  admitted  to  this  spectacle. 

Vives  telleth  us  of  a  village  in  Spain,  of  about  an  hundred 
houses,  whereof  all  the  inhabitants  were  issued  from  one  cer- 
tain old  man  who  then  lived,  when  as  that  village  was  so  peo- 
pled, so  as  the  name  of  propinquity,  how  the  youngest  of  the 
children  should  call  him,  could  not  be  given.*  te  Lingua  enim 
nostra  supra  abavum  non  ascendit ;"  ("  Our  language/'  saith 
he,  meaning  the  Spanish,  ee  affords  not  a  name  above  the  great 
grandfather's  father.")  But,  had  the  offspring  of  this  lady  been 
contracted  into  one  place,  they  were  enough  to  have  peopled 
a  city  of  a  competent  proportion,  though  her  issue  was  not  so 
long  in  succession,  as  broad  in  extent. 

I  confess  very  many  of  her  descendants  died  before  her 
death ;  in  which  respect  she  was  far  surpassed  by  a  Roman  ma- 
tron, on  whom  the  poet  thus  epitapheth  it,  in  her  own  person. f 

"  Viginti  atque  novem,  genitrici  Callicratece, 

Nuttius  sexus  mors  mihi  visafuit. 
Sed  centum  et  quinque  ei-plevi  bene  messibus  annos, 

In  tremulam  baculo  non  subeunte  manum." 
"  Twenty-nine  births  Callicrate  I  told, 
And  of  both  sexes  saw  none  sent  to  grave, 
I  was  an  hundred  and  five  winters  old, 
Yet  stay  from  staff  my  hand  did  never  crave." 

Thus,  in  all  ages,  God  bestoweth  personal  felicities  on  some 
far  above  the  proportion  of  others.  The  Lady  Temple  died  anno 
Domini  1656. 


1.  John  Brokle,  son  of  William  Brokle,  of  Newport  Pagnel, 
Draper,  1433. 

2    Thomas  Scot,  son  of  Robert  Scot,  of  Dorney,  Draper,  1458. 

3*  Henry  Collet,  son  of  Rob.  Collet,  of  Wendover,  Mercer,  1486. 

4*.  John  Mathew,  son  of  Thomas  Mathew,  of  Sherington,  Mer- 
cer, 1490. 

5.  John  Mundy,  son  of  William  Mundy,  of  Wycombe,  Gold- 

smith, 1522. 

6.  John  Coates,  son  of  Thomas  Coates,  of  Bearton,  Salter,  1542. 


HENRY    THE    SIXTH,  1433. 

William  bishop  of  Lincoln,  and  Reginald  de  Gray  de  Ruthyan, 

Chivaler,  Commissioners  to  take  the  oaths. 
Thomas  Sakevile,  Miles,  and  William  Wapload,  knights  for  the 

shire,   Commissioners. 

*  In  Comment  upon  the  8th  chapter  of  Lib.  xv.  de  Civitate  Dei. 
fAusonius,  Epitaph.  Heroum,  num.  34. 



Reginald!  Lucy,  chiv. 
Walteri  Lucy,  chiv. 
Johannis  Cheyne,  chiv. 
Thomse  Chetewode,  chiv. 
Johannis  Cheyne,  arm. 
Johan.  Hampden  de  Hampden 


Andrese  Sperling. 
Thomse  Rokes,  arm. 
Johannis  Langeston,  arm. 
Johannis  Iwardby,  arm. 
David  Breknook,  arm. 
Thomse  Stokes,  arm. 
Johan.  Hampden  de  Kimbell. 
Walteri  Fitz  Richard,  arm. 
Johannis  Stretlee,  arm. 
Thomse  Shyngelton,  arm. 
Thomse  Cheyne,  arm. 
Johannis  Stokes,  arm. 
Thomae  Gifford,  arm. 
Johan.  Gifford  de   Whaddon, 

senioris,  arm. 
Thomee  Boteler,  arm. 
Roberti  Puttenham,  arm. 
Rob.  Olney  de  Weston,  arm; 
Johannis  Tyringham,  arm. 
Johannis  Brekenock,  arm. 
Thomse  RufFord,  arm. 
Johannis  Dayrell,  arm. 
Nicolai  Clopton. 
Edmundi  Brutenell. 
Johannis  Sewell. 
.Johannis  Watkins. 
Willielmi  Brook  de  Chesham. 
Bernard!  Sanderdon. 
Thomse  More. 
Willielmi  Fouler. 
Johannis  Arches. 
Johannis  Skydmore. 
Johannis  Kimbell. 
Willielmi  Joyntour. 
Rogeri  More. 
Johannis  Horewode. 
Johannis  Baldewin. 
Thomse  Atte  Welle. 
Will.  Chapman  de  Aylesbury. 
ThomsB  Tumour. 
Johan.  Knight  de  Hampslape. 
Willielmi  Watford. 
Thomse  Oliver. 

Will.  Colingryg  de  Toursey. 

Thomse  Malins. 

Willielmi  Parker  de  Eton. 

Willielmi  Burton,  persone  Ec- 

clesise  de  Crowle, 
,  Johannis  Clerke  de  Olney. 

Richardi  Hawtreve. 

Johan.  Giffard  de  Hardmede. 

Johan.  Tapelo  de  Hampslape. 

Thomse  Knight  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Giffard  de  Whad- 
don, junioris. 

Johannis  Sapcote  de  Olney. 

Richardi  Arnecok, 

Willielmi  Edy. 

Nicholai  Brackwell. 

Willielmi  Sambroke.  _ 

Johannis  Edy,  junioris. 

Thomee  Edy. 

Johannis  Puchas. 

Willielmi  Berewell. 

Ade  Asshinden. 

David.  Whitchirche. 

Johannis  Sweft. 

Will.  Britwell  de  Cherdesle. 

Johannis  Verney. 

Eustachii  Grenvile. 

Johannis  Fitz  John. 

Willielmi  Gerebray. 

Thomse  Maudeleyn. 

Johannis  Vesy. 

Thomse  Wodewarde. 

Richardi  Enershawe. 

Johan.  Harewold  de  Weston. 

Henrici  Loveden. 

Johannis  Thorp. 

Johannis    Parker    de    Fenny 

Nicholai  Baker  de  Crowle. 

Nicholai  Hobbesson. 

Thomee  Malette. 

Johannis  Kerye. 

Thomas  Tappe. 

Richardi  Hoo  de  Snenstone 

Johannis  Manchestre. 

Johannis  Phelip. 

Henrici  Hunkes. 

Richardi  Miches. 

Willielmi  Meridale, 

Thomas  Edward. 


Johannis  Vaux.  Richard!  Yaloude. 

Willielmi  Dun.  Johannis  Gold  de  Ailesbury. 

Henrici  Toursey.  Willielmi  Clarke  de  eadem. 

Henrici  Dicon.  Willielmi  Clarke  de   Culver- 

Willielmi  Winslowe.  don. 

Johannis  Bilindon.  Thomee  Kene  de  Horsendon. 

Henrici  Porter.  Willielmi  Symeon. 

Thomae  Turgens.  Willielmi  Fether. 

Roberti  Dalafeld.  Johannis  Caradons. 

Math.  Colett.  Willielmi   Combe   de  Ayles- 

Johannis  Hampden  de  Wy-         bury. 

combe.  Willielmi  Gill. 

Johannis  Wellesburn.  Richardi  Lamburn. 

Thomee  Merston.  Willielmi  Hide. 

Willielmi  Attegate.  Thomse  Bristow. 

Thomas  Mery.  Nicholai  Baron. 

Richardi  Milly.  Willielmi  Cook  de  Fertwell. 

Willielmi  Wodeward.  Johannis  Glover  de  Kimbell. 

Thomee  Pusey.  Johannis  Balke  de  Aylesbury. 
Roberti  Broun  de  Beknesfeld.    Johannis  Lucy,  et 

Johannis  Jourdeley.  Richardi  Lucy, 
Thomee  Houghton, 


This  county  had  the  same  with  Bedfordshire,  until  they 
were  parted  in  the  seventeenth  year  of  queen  Elizabeth.  Since 
which  time  these  have  been  the  sheriffs  of  this  county  alone. 


Anno          Name  and  Arms.  Place. 

17  Joh.  Croke,  arm.       .     .     Chilton. 

Arms :  G.  a  fess  between  six  martlets  Arg, 

18  Griff.  Hampden,  arm.    .     Hampden. 

Arg.  a  saltire  G.  betwixt  four  eaglets  Az. 

19  Mich.  Blount,  arm. 

Barry  nebule  of  six  O.  and  S. 

20  Rob.  Drury,  arm.  .     SUFFOLK. 

Arg.  on  a  chief  V.  the  letter  Tau  betwixt  two  mullets 
pierced  O. 

21  Rich.  Crafford,  arm. 

22  Paul  Darell,  arm.       .     .     Lillingstone. 

Az.  a  lion  rampant  O.  crowned  Arg. 

23  Th.  Tasborough,  arm. 

Az.  on  a  cross  Arg.  five  mullets  G. 

24  Edm.  Verney,  arm. 

Arg.  four  lions  passant  S.  betwixt  two  gemewes  in  bend.. 

25  Will.  Hawtrey,  arm.       .     Checkers. 

*      Az.  ten  billets,  four,  three,  two,  and  one,   O. ;    in   a  chief 
of  the  second  a  lion  issuant  S. 

26  Rob.  Dormer,  arm.         .     Wing. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

27  Edw.  Bulstrod,  arm.       .     (See  our  Notes.) 

28  Joh.  Temple,  arm.          .     Stow. 

Arg.  on  two  bars  S,  six  martlets  O. 

29  Joh.  Goodwin,  arm.       .     (See  21  of  king  James.) 

30  Joh.  Burlace,  arm. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  S.  two  cubit  arms  issuant  out  of  two 
petit  clouds  rayonated  all  proper,  rending  of  a  horse- 
shoe O. 

31  Fran.  Cheney,  arm.        .     Chesham. 

Cheeky  O.  and  Az.  a  fess  G.  fretty  Erm. 

32  Geo.  Fleetwood,  arm.     .     the  Vache. 

Partie  per  pale  nebulee  Az.  and  O.  six  martelets  counter- 

33  Ale.  Hampden,  arm.       .     ut  prius. 

34  Hen.  Longvile,  arm.      .     Wolverton. 

G.  a  fess  indented  betwixt  six  crosses  crosslets  Arg. 

35  Thomas  Pigot,  arm.        .     Doddershal. 

S.  three  pick-axes  Arg. 

36  Mic.  Harecourt,  arm. 

O.  two  bars  G. 

37  Edw.  Tirrell,  arm.  .     Thornton. 

Arg.  two  chev.  Az.  within  a  border  engrailed  G. 

38  An.  Tirringham,  arm.     .     Tirringham. 

Az.  a  cross  engrailed  Arg. 

39  Joh.  Dormer  .     ut  prius. 

40  Will.  Garrend,  arm. 

(See  our  Notes  in  Northamptonshire.) 

41  Will.  Clarke,  mil. 

42  Tho.  Denton,  arm. 

G.  a  chevron  between  three  crescents  Arg. 

43  Will.  Burlace,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

44  Anth.  Chester,  arm.       .     Chichely. 

Per  pale  Arg.  and  S.  a  chev.  between  three  rams'  heads 
erased  armed  O.  within  a  border  engrailed,  roundelly, 
all  counterchanged. 

45         .     ut  prius. 


1  Fra.  Cheney,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 

2  [AMP.]  W.  Willoughby,  mil. 

3  Ri.  Ingoldesby,  mil.       .     Lethenborough. 

Erm.  a  saltire  engrailed  S. 

4  Hen.  Longvile,  mil.        .     ut  prius. 

5  Will.  Andrews,  mil. 

G.  a  saltire  O.  charged  with  another  V. 

6  Fran.  Fortescu,  mil. 

Az.  a  bend  engrailed  Arg.  cotised  O. 

7  Anth.  Greenway,  arm. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

8  Rob.  Lovet,  mil.  .     Liscomb. 

Arg.  three  wolves  passant  in  pale  S. 

9  lero.  Horsey,  mil. 

Az.  three  horses'  heads  couped  O.  bridled  Arg. 

10  Edw.  Tirrell,  mil.  .     ut  prius. 

11  Sim.  Mayne,  arm. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  engr.  S.  three  dexter  hands  of  the  first. 

12  Bri.  Johnson,  arm.         .     Beaconfield. 

Quarterly,  Az.  and  G.  a  cross  patoncee,  and  a  chief  O. 

13  Edm.  Wheeler,  mil.       .     Riding  Co. 

O.  a  chevron  between  three  leopards'  heads  S. 

14  Th.  Temple,  mil.  et  bar.     ut  prius. 

15  Joh.  Laurence,  mil.        .     Iver. 

Arg.  a  cross-knotted  G.  on  a  chief  Az.  three  leopards' 
heads  O. 

16  Fra.  Duncombe,  arm. 

Partie  per  chev.  counter-flory,  G.  and  Arg.  three  talbots' 
heads  erazed  counterchanged. 

17  Be.  Winchcombe,  arm.       (See  our  Notes.) 

18  Hen.  Lee,  mil.  et  ba.     .     Quarrendon. 

Arg.  a  fess  betwixt,  three  crescents  S. 

19  Joh.  Denham.  mil. 

G.  three  fusils  Erm. 

20  Will.  Fleetwood         .     .     ut  prius. 

21  Fra.  Goodwin,  mil. 

Per  pale  O.  and  G.  a  lion  rampant,  between  three  flower- 
de-luces  counterchanged. 

22  Will.  Pen,  arm.  .     Pen. 

Arg.  on  a  fess  S.  three  plates. 


1  Edw.  Coke,  mil.         .     .     Stoke. 

Partie  per  pale  G.  and  Az.  three  eagles  Arg. 

2  Gil'  Gerrard,  bar. 

Quarterly,  the  1  and  4  Arg.  a  saltire  G.  2  and  3  Az.  a 
lion  rampant  Erm.  crowned  O. 

3  Tho.  Darel,  arm.   .         .     ut  prius. 
Fr.  Catesby,  arm. 

Arg.  two  lions  passant  S.  crowned  O. 

4  Tho.  Lee,  arm.     .          .     ut  prius. 

5  Will.  Andrews,  mil.        .     ut  prius. 

6  Tho.  Hide,  bar. 

O.  a  chev.  betwixt  three  lozenges  Az. ;  in  chief  an  eagle 
of  the  first. 

7  Jaco.  Dupper,  arm. 

8  Rob.  Dormer,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

9  Fran.  Cheney,  mil.         .     ut  prius. 


Anno  Name.  Pl:uv. 

10  Pet.  Temple,  mil.  .     lit  prius. 

11  H encage  Proby,  arm. 

Erin,  on  a  fess  G.  a  lion  passant,  the  tail  extended  O. 
I-.   Anth.  Chester,  bar.         .     itt  priug. 

15  Thomas  Archdale,  arm. 
1 7  Rich.  Grevile,  mil. 

S.  a  border  and  cross  engrailed  O.  thereon  live  pellets. 

£0  Hen.  Beak,  arm. 
22  Will.  Collier,  arm. 


17.  JOHN  CROKE,  Arm. — Being  afterwards  knighted.  He 
was  the  son  of  Sir  John  Crook,  a  six-clerk  in  Chancery,  and 
therefore  restrained  marriage  until  enabled  by  a  statute  of  the 
14th  of  Henry  the  Eighth.  His  ancestors,  in  the  civil  wars 
between  York  and  Lancaster,  concealed  their  proper  name  Le 
Blount  under  the  assumed  one  of  Croke.* 

As  for  this  Sir  John  Croke,  first  sheriff  of  Buckingham  after 
the  division  of  Bedfordshire,  he  was  most  fortunate  in  an  issue 
happy  in  the  knowledge  of  our  municipal  law ;  of  whom  Sir 
John  Croke,  his  eldest  son,  Speaker  of  the  parliament  in  the 
43rd  of  queen  Elizabeth,  received  this  eulogium  from  her 
majesty :  "  That  he  had  proceeded  therein  with  such  wisdom 
and  discretion,  that  none  before  him  had  deserved  better.*5  As 
for  Sir  George,  his  second  son,  we  have  spoken  of  him  before.t 

26.  ROBERT  DORMER,  Arm. — He  was,  on  the  10th  of  June, 
1615,  made  baronet  by  king  James,  and  on  the  30th  day  of  the 
same  month  was  by  him  created  Baron  Dormer  of  Wing,  in 
this  county. 

His  grandchild,  Robert  Dormer,  was  by  king  Charles,  in  the 
4th  of  his  reign,  created  Viscount  Ascot  and  Earl  of  Carnarvon. 
He  lost  his  life,  fighting  for  him  who  gave  him  his  honour,  at 
the  first  battle  of  Newbury.  Being  sore  wounded,  he  was  de- 
sired by  a  lord  to  know  of  him  what  suit  he  would  have  to  his 
majesty  in  his  behalf;  the  said  lord  promising  to  discharge  his 
trust  in  presenting  his  request,  and  assuring  him  that  his  ma- 
jesty would  be  willing  to  gratify  him  to  the  utmost  of  his 
power.  To  whom  the  Earl  replied,  "  I  will  not  die  with  a  suit 
in  my  mouth  to  any  king,  save  to  the  King  of  heaven."  By 

*  Pretace  to  Croke's  Reports.  f  In  Law     m  this  County. 


Anne,  daughter  to  Philip,  Earl  of  Pembroke  and  Montgomery, 
he  had  Charles,  now  Earl  of  Carnarvon.* 

27.  EDWARD  BULSTROD,  Arm. — I  have  not  met  with  so 
ancient  a  coat  (for  such  it  appeareth  beyond  all  exception),  so 
voluminous  in  the  blazon  thereof;  viz".  Sable,  a  buck's  head 
-nt,  attired  O.  shot  the  nose  with  an  arrow  of  the  third, 
headed  and  feathered  of  the  second;  a  cross  patee  fitchee 
betwixt  the  attire  O. 

34.  HENRY  LOXGVILE,  Arm. — He  had  to  his  fourth  son 
Sir  Michael  Longvile,  who  married  Susan,  sole  daughter  to 
Henry  Earl  of  Kent.  Now,  when  the  issue  in  a  direct  line  of 
that  earldom  failed  in  our  memory,  Mr.  Selden  was  no  less 
active  than  able  to  prove  that  the  barony  of  Ruthyn  was 
dividable  from  the  earldom,  and  descended  to  the  son  of  the 
said  Sir  Michael ;  and  thereupon  he  sat  as  Baron  Ruthyn  in 
our  late  Long  Parliament. 

Since  his  death,  his  sole  daughter  and  heir  hath  been  mar- 
ried unto  Sir  Henry  Yelverton,  of  Easton,  in  the  county  of 
Northampton,  Baronet,  a  worthy  gentleman  of  fair  estate ;  so 
that  that  honour  is  likely  to  continue  in  an  equipage  of  breadth 
proportionable  to  the  height  thereof. 


17.  BENEDICT  WINCHCOMBE,  Arm. — His  arms  (too  large 
for  the  little  space  allotted  them)  I  here  fully  represent,  in 
gratitude  to  the  memory  of  his  ancestor,  so  well  deserving  of 
Newbury  ;f  viz.  Azure,  on  a  chevron  engrailed  between  three 
birds  O.  as  many  cinquefoils  of  the  first ;  on  a  chief  of  the 
second  a  flower-de-luce  between  two  spears*  heads  of  the  first. 


1.  EDWARD  COKE,  Knight. — This  was  our  English  Trebo- 
?iianus,  so  famous  for  his  comments  on  our  Common  Law.  This 
year  a  parliament  was  called,  and  the  court  party  was  jealous  of 
Sir  Edward's  activity  against  them,  as  who  had  not  digested  his 
discontentments.  Hereupon,  to  prevent  his  election  as  a  mem- 
ber, and  confine  him  to  this  county,  he  was  pricked  sheriff  thereof. 

He  scrupled  to  take  the  oath,  pretending  many  things  against 
it,  and  particularly  "  that  the  sheriff  is  bound  thereby  to  prose- 
cute Lollards,  wherein  the  best  Christians  may  be  included." 

It  was  answered,  "  that  he  had  often  seen  the  oath  given  to 
others  without  any  regret;  and  knew  full  well  that  Lollard, 
in  the  modern  sense,  imported  the  opposers  of  the  present 
religion,  as  established  by  law  in  the  land. "  J 

*  Who  lived  till  1709,  when  he  died  without  male  issue. — ED. 

f  See  "  Memorable  Persons  "  in  Berkshire. 

t  Sir  Henry  Spelman,  in  his  Glossary,  verbo  Lollard. 


No  excuses  would  serve  his  turn,  but  he  must  undertake  this 
office.  However,  his  friends  beheld  it  as  an  injurious  degra- 
dation of  him,  who  had  been  Lord  Chief  Justice,  to  attend  on 
the  judges  at  the  assises. 

FRANCIS  CHENEY,  Mil. — It  is  an  epidemical  disease,  to 
which  many  ancient  names  are  subject,  to  be  variously  disguised 
in  writing.  How  many  names  is  it,  Chesney,  Chedney,  Cheyne, 
Chyne,  Cheney,  &c.  ?  and  all  but  one,  de  Casineto.  A  name 
so  noble,  and  so  diffused  in  the  catalogue  of  sheriffs,  it  is  harder 
to  miss  than  find  it  in  any  county. 

Here,  reader,  let  me  amend  and  insert  what  I  omitted  in  the 
last  county.  There  was  a  fair  family  of  the  Cheneys  flourishing 
in  Kent  (but  landed  also  in  other  counties),  giving  for  their 
arms,  Azure,  six  lions  rampant  Argent,  a  canton  Ermine.  Of 
this  house  was  Henry  Cheney,  high  sheriff  of  this  county  and 
Bedfordshire,  in  the  7th  of  queen  Elizabeth,  and  not  long  after 
by  her  created  baron  of  Tuddington  in  Bedfordshire.  In  his 
youth  he  was  very  wild  and  venturous ;  witness  his  playing  at 
dice  with  Henry  the  Second,  king  of  France,  from  whom  he 
won  a  diamond  of  great  worth  at  a  cast.  And  being  demanded 
by  the  king  what  shift  he  would  have  made  to  repair  himself, 
in  case  he  had  lost  the  cast ;  "  I  have, "  said  young  Cheney,  in 
an  hyperbolical  brave,  e£  sheeps*  tails  enough  in  Kent,  with 
their  wool,  to  buy  a  better  diamond  than  this. "  His  reduced 
age  afforded  the  befitting  fruits  of  gravity  and  wisdom;  and 
this  lord  deceased  without  issue. 

As  for  Sir  Francis  Cheney,  sheriff  for  this  present  year,*  we 
formerly  observed  the  distinct  arms  of  his  family.  This  worthy 
knight  was  father  to  Charles  Cheney,  Esq.,  who,  by  his  exquisite 
travelling,  hath  naturalized  foreign  perfections  unto  himself,  and 
is  exemplarily  happy  in  a  virtuous  lady,  Jane,  daughter  to  the 
truly  noble  William,  Marquis  of  Newcastle,  and  by  her  of  hope- 
ful posterity. 


On  serious  consideration,  I  was  at  a  loss  to  wish  to  this 
county  what  it  wanted ;  God  and  the  kings  of  England  have  so 
favoured  it  with  natural  perfections  and  civil  privileges.  In 
avowance  of  the  latter,  it  showeth  more  borough  towns  (sending 
burgesses  no  fewer  than  twelve  to  the  parliament)  than  any 
shire  (though  thrice  as  big)  lying  in  the  kingdom  of  Mercia. 
Now  seeing,  at  the  instant  writing  hereof,  the  general  news  of 
the  nation  is,  of  a  parliament  to  be  called  after  his  majesty's 
coronation,  my  prayers  shall  be,  that  the  freeholders  of  this 
county  shall  (amongst  many  therein  so  qualified)  choose  good 
servants  to  God,  subjects  to  the  king,  patriots  to  the  county,  effec- 
tually to  advance  a  happiness  to  the  Church  and  Commonwealth. 

*  Viz.,  in  the  31st  year  of  queen  Elizabeth. 



George  ANDERSON,  a   poor   peasant,   mathematician  and  ac- 
countant-general; born  at  Weston  1760;  died  1796. 
Francis  ATTERBURY,  Bishop  of  Rochester,  a  restless  and  as- 
piring politician;  born  at  Milton  Keynes  1662;  died  1731. 
Dr.  Lewis  ATTERBURY,  elder  brother,  an  amiable  divine ;  born 

at  Caldecot  1656  ;  died  1731. 

Giles  AYRE,  Dean  of  Winchester ;  born  at  Burnham. 
John   BISCOE,    a  nonconformist  divine   and  author;   born  at 

Wycombe;  died  1679. 

Owen  BUCKINGHAM,  Lord  Mayor  of  London  in  1705,  bene- 
factor to  Reading  in  Berkshire  ;  born  at  Colebrooke. 
Knightley  CHETWOOD,  Dean  of   Gloucester,  author;  born  at 

Chetwode  1650;  died  1?20. 

Euseby  CLEAVER,  Archbishop  of  Dublin;  died  1819. 
William  CLEAVER,  brother  of  Euseby,  Bishop  of  St.  Asaph, 

critic  ;  born  at  Twyford  1742  ;  died  1815. 
John  CROWDER,  printer,  Lord  Mayor  of  London ;  died  1830. 
Sir    Kenelm   DIGBY,  an  alchymist  and   philosophical  writer ; 

born  at  Gothurst  1603  ;  died  1665, 
Charles  DUNCOMBE,    Lord   Mayor  of  London   in   1709,    an 

eminent  banker ;  born  at  Drayton  Beauchamp. 
Phillip  ELLIS,  Bishop  of  Pavia,  author  of  some  sermons  pub- 
lished about  1686;  born  at  Waddesdon. 
Welbore  ELLIS,  Bishop  of  Meath ;  born  at  Waddesdon ;  died 


Heneage  FINCH,  Earl  of  Nottingham,  Lord  Chancellor  of  Eng- 
land; born  at  Ravenstone  1621 ;  died  1682. 
George  GRENVILLE,  statesman;  born  at  Wotton   1712;  died 

Richard    GRENVILLE-TEMPLE,     Earl  Temple,    a   statesman; 

born  at  Wotton  1?!!  ;  died  1779. 

Josiah   HOWE,  an  accomplished  scholar,  author  of  a  sermon 
preached  before  Charles   I.   at   Oxford,  in   1644;   born    at 
Grendon  Underwood;  died  1701. 
Martin  LISTER,  physician,  naturalist,  and  author ;  born  about 

1638;  died  1712. 
Thomas    MORELL,    a    divine,    and  writer   on    philology   and 

criticism;  born  at  Eton  1703;  died  1784. 
Dr.  William  NICHOLS,  a  learned  divine  and  polemical  author ; 

born  at  Donnington  1664;  died  1712. 
Thomas  ODELL,  a  dramatic  writer,  about  1700. 
Thomas  PHILLIPS,  a  Roman  Catholic  divine,   biographer   of 

Cardinal  Pole ;  born  at  Ickford  1708;  died  1774. 
Joseph    RAWSON,  a  divine  and  author;   born  at  Aylesbury ; 
died  1?19. 


John  THROCKMORTON,  patron  of  Cowper,  author;  born  at 
Weston  Underwood  ;  d(ed  1819. 

William  WAGSTAFFE,  a  physician,  and  ingenious  and  humour- 
ous writer;  born  at  Cublington  1685  ;  died  1725. 

Edward  WESTON,  statesman  and  author  of  "  Sermons,"  1700. 

Edward  YOUNG,  Bishop  of  Dromore ;  born  at  Eton  ;  died  1772. 

%*  The  principal  Works  appertaining  to  Buckinghamshire,  besides  the  Magna 
Britannia  and  the  Beauties  of  England,  are  the  History  of  Buckingham,  by  Browne 
Willis,  LL.D.  (1755);  the  History  of  Desborough,  Wycombe,  &c.,  by  Thomas 
Langley,  M.A.  (1797) ;  and  the  History  of  the  County  of  Buckingham,  by  G.  Lips- 
comb,  M.D.  [Hundred  of  Ashendon],  which,  we  apprehend,  is  never  likely  to  be 
completed . — ED. 


CAMBRIDGESHIRE  hath  Lincolnshire  on  the  north,  Norfolk 
•nnd  Suffolk  on  the  east,  Essex  and  Hertfordshire  on  the 
south,  Huntingdon  and  Bedford-shires  on  the  west,  being  in 
length  thirty-five,  in  breadth  not  fully  twenty  miles.  The  tables 
therein  as  well  furnished  as  any  ;  the  south  part  affording  bread 
and  beer,  and  the  north  (the  Isle  of  Ely)  meat  thereunto.  So 
good  the  grain  growing  here,  that  it  out-selleth  others  some 
pence  in  the  bushel. 

The  north  part  of  this  county  is  lately  much  improved  by 
draining,  though  the  poorest  sort  of  people  will  not  be  sensible 
thereof.  Tell  them  of  the  great  benefit  to  the  public,  because 
where  a  pike  or  duck  fed  formerly,  now  a  bullock  or  sheep 
is  fatted ;  they  will  be  ready  to  return,  that  if  they  be  taken 
in  taking  that  bullock  or  sheep,  the  rich  owner  inditeth  them 
for  felons ;  whereas  that  pike  or  duck  were  their  own  goods 
only  for  their  pains  of  catching  them.  So  impossible  it  is  that 
the  best  project,  though  perfectly  performed,  should  please  all 
interests  and  affections. 

It  happened  in  the  year  1657,  upon  the  dissolution  of  the  great 
snow,  their  banks  were  assaulted  above  their  strength  of  resist- 
ance, to  the  great  loss  of  much  cattle,  corn,  and  some  Christians. 
But,  soon  after,  the  seasonable  industry  of  the  undertakers  did 
recover  all  by  degrees,  and  confute  their  jealousies  who  sus- 
pected the  relapsing  of  these  lands  into  their  former  condition. 

This  northern  part  is  called  the  Isle  of  Ely,  which  one  will 
have  so  named  from  the  Greek  word  "EXetoc,  fenny  or  marshy 
ground.*  But  our  Saxon  ancestors  were  not  so  good  Grecians ; 
and  it  is  plain  that  plenty  of  eels  gave  it  its  denomination.  Here, 
I  hope,  I  shall  not  trespass  on  gravity,  in  mentioning  a  passage 
observed  by  the  reverend  professor  of  Oxford,  Doctor  Prideaux, 
referring  the  reader  to  him  for  the  author's  attesting  the  same.f 
When  the  priests  in  this  part  of  the  county  would  still  retain 
their  wives,  in  despite  of  whatever  the  Pope  and  monks  could 
do  to  the  contrary,  their  wives  and  children  were  miraculously 
turned  all  into  eels  (surely  the  greater  into  congers,  the  less  into 

*  Doctor  Smith,  in  the  Life  of  his  father-in-law,  Doctor  Willet. 
f  In  his  Comitiate  Oration  "  De  duobus  Testibus,"  page  15. 


griggs)  whence  it  had  the  name  of  Eely.  I  understand  him  a 
lie  of  Eels.  No  doubt  the  first  founder  of  so  damnable  an 
untruth  hath  long  since  received  his  reward.  However,  for  this 
cause,  we  take  first  notice,  amongst  this  county's 

OF    EELS. 

Which,  though  they  be  found  in  all  shires  in  England,  yet 
are  most  properly  treated  of  here,  as  most,  first,  and  best; 
the  courts  of  the  kings  of  England  being  thence  therewith 
anciently  supplied.  I  will  not  engage  in  the  controversy  whe- 
ther they  be  bred  by  generation  as  other  fish ;  or  equivocally, 
out  of  putrefaction ;  or  both  ways,  which  is  most  probable ; 
seeing  some  have  adventured  to  know  the  distinguishing  marks 
betwixt  the  one  and  other.  I  know  the  silver  eels  are  gene- 
rally preferred,  and  I  could  wish  they  loved  men  but  as  well 
as  men  love  them,  that  I  myself  might  be  comprised  within  the 
compass  of  that  desire.  Th'ey  are  observed  to  be  never  out  of 
season  (whilst  other  fishes  have  their  set  times) ;  and  the  biggest 
eels  are  ever  esteemed  the  best.  I  know  not  whether  the 
Italian  proverb  be  here  worth  the  remembering,  "  Give  eels 
without  wine  to  your  enemies. " 


Though  these  are  found  in  all  counties,  yet  because  lately 
there  was  in  this  shire  an  hare-park  nigh  Newmarket,  preserved 
for  the  king's  game,  let  them  here  be  particularly  mentioned. 
Some  prefer  their  sport  in  hunting  before  their  flesh  for  eating, 
as  accounting  it  melancholic  meat,  and  hard  to  be  digested ; 
though  others  think  all  the  hardness  is  how  to  come  by  it.  All 
the  might  of  this  silly  creature  is  in  the  flight  thereof ;  and  I 
remember  the  answer  which  a  school-boy  returned  in  a  Latin 
distich,  being  demanded  the  reason  why  hares  were  so  fearful : 

"  Cur  metuunt  lepores  ?  Terrestris,  nempe,  marinus, 
JEthereus  quod  sit,  tartareusque  canis." 

Whether  or  no  they  change  their  sex  every  year  (as  some  have 
reported),  let  huntsmen  decide.  These  late  years  of  our  civil 
wars  have  been  very  destructive  unto  them ;  and  no  wonder  if 
no  law  hath  been  given  to  hares,  when  so  little  hath  been 
observed  toward  men. 


Though  plenty  hereof  in  this  county ;  yet,  because  I  conceive 
it  first  planted  in  Essex,  we  thither  refer  our  description  thereof. 


A  sad  tree,  whereof  such  who  have  lost  their  love  make  their 
mourning  garlands ;  and  we  know  what  exiles  hung  up  their 


harps*  upon  such  doleful  supporters.  The  twigs  hereof  are 
physic,  to  drive  out  the  folly  of  children.  This  tree  delighteth 
in  moist  places,  and  is  triumphant  in  the  Isle  of  Ely,  where  the 
roots  strengthen  their  banks,  and  lop  affords  fuel  for  their  fire. 
It  groweth  incredibly  fast ;  it  being  a  by- word  in  this  county, 
"  that  the  profit  by  willows  will  buy  the  owner  a  horse,  before  that 
by  other  trees  will  pay  for  his  saddle."  Let  me  add,  that  if 
green  ash  may  buVn  before  a  queen,  withered  willows  may  be 
allowed  to  burn  before  a  lady. 


Expect  not  I  should,  by  way  of  preface,  enumerate  the  seve- 
ral inventions,  whereby  the  ancients  did  communicate  and  con- 
tinue their  notions  to  posterity.  First,  by  writing  in  leaves  of 
trees,  still  remembered  when  we  call  such  a  scantling  of  paper  a 
folio  or  leaf.  Hence  from  leaves  men  proceeded  to  the  bark 
of  trees,  as  more  solid,  still  countenanced  in  the  notation  of  the 
word  liber.  Next  they  wrote  in  labels  or  sheets  of  lead,  where- 
in the  letters  were  deeply  engraven,  being  a  kind  of  printing 
before  printing ;  and  to  this  I  refer  the  words  of  Job  (an  author 
allowed  contemporary  with  if  not  senior  to  Moses  himself) ; 
"  Oh  that  my  words  were  now  written,  oh  that  they  were  print- 
ed in  a  book  \f 

To  omit  many  other  devices  in  after-ages  to  signify  their  con- 
ceptions, paper  was  first  made  of  a  broad  flag  (not  unlike  our 
great  dock)  growing  in  and  nigh  Canopus  in  Egypt,  which  it 
seems  was  a  staple  commodity  of  that  country,  and  substantial 
enough  to  bear  the  solemn  curse  of  the  prophet :  "  The  paper- 
reeds  by  the  brooks  shall  wither,  be  driven  away,  and  be  no 

Our  modern  paper  is  made  of  grinded  rags,  and  yet  this  new 
artificial  doth  still  thankfully  retain  the  name  of  the  old  natural 
paper.  It  may  pass  for  the  emblem  of  men  of  mean  extraction, 
who  by  art  and  industry,  with  God's  blessing  thereon,  come  to 
high  preferment.  ef  He  raiseth  the  poor  out  of  the  dust,  and 
lifteth  the  needy  out  of  the  dunghill,  that  he  may  set  him  with 
his  princes,  even  with  the  princes  of  his  people.§"  One  may 
find,  if  searching  into  the  pedigree  of  paper,  it  cometh  into  the 
world  at  the  doungate,  raked  thence  in  rags,  which,  refined  by 
art  (especially  after  precious  secrets  are  written  therein),  is 
found  fit  to  be  choicely  kept  in  the  cabinets  of  the  greatest 
potentates.  Pity  it  is  that  the  first  author  of  so  useful  an 
invention  cannot  with  any  assurance  be  assigned.  || 

There  are  almost  as  many  several  kinds  of  paper  as  condi- 
tions of  persons  betwixt  the  emperor  and  beggar:  imperial, 
royal,  cardinal ;  and  so  downwards  to  that  coarse  paper  called 

*  Psalm  cxxxvii.  2.  f  Job.  xix.  23.  J  Isaiah  xix.  7. 

§   Psalm  cxiii.  7.  j|  P.  Vergil,  de  Rerum  Inventionibus,  lib.  ii.  cap.  8. 


emporetica,  useful  only  for  chapmen  to  wrap  their  wares  therein. 
Paper  participates  in  some  sort  of  the  characters  of  the  country- 
men which  make  it:  the  Venetian  being  neat,  subtile,  and 
courtlike ;  the  French,  light,  slight,  and  slender ;  the  Dutch, 
thick,  corpulent,  and  gross ;  not  to  say  sometimes  also  charta 
bibula,  sucking  up  the  ink  with  the  sponginess  thereof. 

Paper  is  entered  as  a  manufacture  of  this  county,  because 
there  are  mills  nigh  Sturbridge-fair,  where  paper  was  made  in 
the  memory  of  our  fathers.  And  it  seemeth  to  me  a  proper 
conjunction,  that  seeing  Cambridge  ["yieldeth  so  many  good 
writers,  Cambridgeshire  should  afford  paper  unto  them.  Pity 
the  making  thereof  is  disused ;  considering  the  vast  sums  yearly 
expended  in  our  land  for  paper  out  of  Italy,  France,  and  Ger- 
many, which  might  be  lessened  were  it  made  in  our  nation.  To 
such  who  object  that  we  can  never  equal  the  perfection  of  Venice 
paper,  I  return,  neither  can  we  match  the  purity  of  Venice 
glasses ;  and  yet  many  green  ones  are  blown  in  Sussex,  profit- 
able to  the  makers,  and  convenient  for  the  users  thereof,  as  no 
doubt  such  coarser  (home-spun  paper)  would  be  found  very 
beneficial  for  the  Commonwealth. 


These  are  made  of  the  osiers  plentifully  growing  in  the  moist 
parts  of  this  county,  an  acre  whereof  turns  to  more  profit  than 
one  of  wheat ;  a  necessary  utensil  in  an  house,  whereby  many 
things  are  kept,  which  otherwise  would  be  lost.  Yea,  in  some 
sort  it  saved  the  life  of  St.  Paul,  when  "  let  down  by  the  wall  of 
Damascus  in  a  basket  ;*  whence  some  (not  improbably)  conjec- 
ture him  hominem  tricubitalem,  "  a  man  of  low  stature."  Mar- 
tial confesseth  baskets  to  have  been  a  British  invention,  though 
Rome  afterwards  laid  claim  thereunto  : 

Barbara  tie  pictis  veni  Bascauda  Britannis, 
Sed  me  jam  mavult  dicere  Roma  suam. 

"  I,  foreign  basket,  first  in  Britain  known, 
And  now  by  Rome  accounted  for  her  own." 

Their  making  is  daily  improved  with  much  descant  of  art, 
splitting  their  wickers  as  small  as  threads,  and  dying  them  into 
several  colours ;  which  daily  grow  a  greater  commodity. 


Cambridge  is  the  chief  credit  of  the  county,  as  the  University 
is  of  Cambridge.  It  is  confessed,  that  Oxford  far  exceeds  it  for 
sweetness  of  situation ;  and  yet  it  may  be  maintained,  that 
though  there  be  better  air  in  Oxford,  yet  there  is  more  in  the 
colleges  of  Cambridges ;  for  Oxford  is  an  university  in  a  town  ; 
Cambridge  a  town  in  an  university  ;  where  the  colleges  are  not 
surrounded  with  the  offensive  embraces  of  streets,  but  generally 
situated  on  the  outside,  affording  the  better  conveniency  of  pri- 

*  2  Cor.  xi.  3.3. 


vate  walks  and  gardens  about  them.  But,  having  formerly  writ- 
ten of  the  fabrics  of  Cambridge,*  I  forbear  any  further  enlarge- 


This  presenteth  itself  afar  off  to  the  eye  of  the  traveller,  and 
on  all  sides,  at  great  distance,  not  only  maketh  a  promise,  but 
giveth  earnest  of  the  beauty  thereof.  The  lanthorn  therein, 
built  by  Bishop  Hotham,  (wherein  the  labour  of  twenty  years, 
and  five  thousand  ninety-four  pounds  eighteen  shillings  ten 
pence  half-penny  farthing  was  expended),  is  a  master- 
piece of  architecture.  When  the  bells  ring,  the  wood-work 
thereof  shaketh  and  gapeth  (no  defect,  but  perfection  of  struc- 
ture), and  exactly  chocketh  into  the  joints  again;  so  that  it  may 
pass  for  the  lively  emblem  of  the  sincere  Christian,  who,  though 
he  hath  motum  trepidationis,  of  fear  and  trembling,!  stands 
firmly  fixed  on  the  basis  of  a  true  faith.  Rare  also  is  the  art  in 
the  chapel  of  Saint  Mary's,  the  pattern  or  parent  of  that  in  King's 
College  in  Cambridge,  though  here  (as  often  elsewhere)  it  hath 
happened,  the  child  hath  out-grown  the  father.  Nor  must  the 
chapel  of  Bishop  West  be  forgotten,  seeing  the  master-masons 
of  king  James,  on  serious  inspection,  found  finer  stone-work 
herein,  than  in  king  Henry  the  Seventh's  chapel  at  Westmin- 

It  grieved  me  lately  to  see  so  many  new  lights  in  this  church 
(supernumerary  windows  more  than  were  in  the  first  fabric),  and 
the  whole  structure  in  a  falling  condition,  except  some  good 
men's  charity  seasonably  support  it.  Yet  was  I  glad  to  hear  a 
great  antiquary  employed  to  transcribe  and  preserve  the  monu- 
ments in  that  church,  as  all  others  in  the  late-drowned  land. 
And  it  is  hard  to  say,  which  was  the  better  office,  whether 
of  those  who  newly  have  dried  them  from  the  inundation 
of  water,  or  of  those  who  shall  drain  them  from  the  deluge  of 
oblivion,  by  perpetuating  their  antiquities  to  posterity. 


Let  me  here  insert  an  artificial  wonder,  of  what  is  commonly 
called  Devil's-ditch  ;  countryfolk  conceiting  that  it  was  made  by 
the  devil,  when  the  devil  he  made  it,  being  the  work  of  some 
king  or  kings  of  the  East  Angles.  See  the  laziness  of  posterity  ; 
so  far  from  imitating  the  industry  of  their  ancestors,  that  they 
belibel  the  pure  effects  of  their  pains  as  hellish  achievements. 
But,  if  the  aforesaid  kings  merely  made  this  ditch  to  get  them- 
selves a  name,  divine  justice  hath  met  with  them,  their  names 
being  quite  forgotten.  More  probably  it  was  made  to  divide 
and  defend  their  dominions  .from  the  kingdom  of  Mercia, 

*  In  my  History  of  that  University — F.  t  Phil.  ii.  12. 

VOL.    I.  Q 


or  possibly  to  keep  the  people  in  employment,  for  diversion  of 
mutinous  thoughts ;  laziness  being  the  mother  of  disloyalty,  in- 
dustry of  obedience. 


Cantabrigia  petit  ^Equales — ^Equalia.  "  Cambridge  requires  all  to  be  equal." 

Some  interpret  this  of  their  commons,  wherein  all  of  the  same 
mess  go  share  and  share  alike.  Others  understand  it  of  the  ex- 
penses out  of  the  hall,  all  being  'lo-oo-v'/>t/3oXoi  in  their  collations, 
all  paying  alike ;  which  parity  is  the  best  preservative  of  com- 
pany, according  to  the  apophthegm  of  Solon,  which  Plutarch 
so  commends*  for  the  wisdom  thereof,  "laa  TroXe^ov  ov  7rote7, 
"  Equality  breeds  no  battles."  Otherwise  it  is  a  murthering 
shot,  where  one  pays  all  the  reckoning,  as  recoiling  on  him  that 
dischargeth  it :  yea,  such  inequality  is  a  certain  symptom  of  an 
expiring  society. 

Some  expound  the  words,  that  graduates  of  the  same  degree 
(either  within  or  without  the  university)  are  to  be  fellows  well 
met  one  with  another.  Dido  had  a  piece  of  state  in  her  court 
peculiar  to  herself  (which  may  be  called  an  equipage  indeed) ; 
where  she  had  a  hundred  servants  in  ordinary  attendance,  ge  all 
of  the  same  age."f  Thus  the  same  degree  in  effect  levels  all 
scholars  ;  so  that  seniority  of  years  ought  not  to  make  any  dis- 
tance betwixt  them,  to  hinder  their  familiarity.  I  have  nothing 
else  to  add  of  this  proverb,  saving  that  it  is  used  also  in  Oxford. 

"  Cambridgeshire  Camels.''] 

I  cannot  reconcile  this  common  saying  to  any  considerable 
sense :  I  know  a  camel  passeth  in  the  Latin  proverb  either  for 
gibbous  and  distorted,  or  for  one  that  undertaketh  a  thing  awk- 
ly  or  ungeenly  ((f  Camelus  sal  tat"  J) ;  or  else  for  one  of  extraor- 
dinary bulk  or  bigness :  all  inappliable  in  any  peculiar  manner 
to  the  people  of  this  county,  as  straight  and  dexterous  as  any 
other,  nor  of  any  exorbitant  proportions. 

All  that  I  can  recover  of  probability  is  this ;  the  fen-men 
dwelling  in  the  northern  part  of  this  county,  when  stalking  on 
their  stilts,  are  little  giants  indeed,  as  master  Camden  hath  well 
observed. §  However,  that  mathematician  who  measured  the 
height  of  Hercules  by  the  bigness  of  his  foot,  would  here  be 
much  mistaken  in  his  dimensions,  if  proportionably  collecting 
the  bulk  of  their  bodies  from  the  length  of  their  legs. 

"  A  Boistea  horse  and  a  Cambridge  Master  of  Art,  are  a  couple  of  creatures  that 
will  give  way  to  nobody."] 

This  Proverb  we  find  in  the  letter  of  William  Zoon  written  to 
George  Bruin,  in  his  "  Theatre  of  Cities ;"  and  it  is  objected 

*  In  vita  Solonis. 

f  "  Centumque  pares  aetate  ministri.''  (Virgil's  ^Eneid,  lib.  i.  juxtafinem.) 

J  Hieronimus  in  Helvidium.  §  Camden,  in  Cambridgeshire. 


against  us  by  an  Oxford  antiquary  ;*  as  if  our  masters  wanted 
manners  to  give  place  to  their  betters ;  though,  all  things  con- 
sidered, it  soundeth  more  to  their  honour  than  disgrace. 

For  mark  what  immediately  went  before  in  the  same  author  :t 
(C  In  plateis  ambulantes,  decedi  sibi  de  via,  non  a  civibus  solum, 
sed  etiam  a  peregrino  quovis  nisi  dignitate  excellat,  postulant :" 
("Walking  in  the  streets,  they  require,  not  only  of  the  town's- 
men,  but  also  of  every  stranger,  except  they  excel  in  dignity, 
that  they  go  out  of  the  way  unto  them.")  Herein  two  things 
are  observable  in  the  scholars: — 1.  Their  manners,  or  civility. 
If  the  party,  whatever  he  be,  appear  dignified  above  them,  they 
willingly  allow  him  superiority.  What  is  this  but  to  give  what 
is  due  to  another? — 2.  Their  manhood,  or  courage.  If  he  seem 
beneath  them,  then  they  do  uti  jure  suo,  and  take  what  is  their 
own  to  themselves. 

What  reason  is  it  he  should  give  place  to  a  townVman ;  ut 
quid  cedat  plenum  vacuo,  scientia  ignorantia  ?  '  This  mindeth 
me  of  a  passage  in  Plutarch  concerning  Themistocles  :  when  a 
boy,  going  home  from  school,  he  met  one  of  the  Athenian  Ty- 
rants in  the  city,  and  the  people  cried  out  unto  him  to  go  out 
of  the  way ;  u  What,"  said  Themistocles,  "  is  not  all  the  street 
broad  enough  for  him,  but  I  must  be  put  out  of  my  path  and 
pace  to  make  room  for  him  ?"  This  was  interpreted,  by  such 
as  heard  him,  as  a  presage  of  his  future  magnanimity.  And 
surely  it  shews  not  want  of  breeding,  but  store  of  spirit,  when  a 
a  man  will  not  be  put  out  of  his  way  for  every  swelling  empti- 
ness that  meets  him  therein. 

"An  Henry-Sophister."] 

So  are  they  called,  who,  after  four  years5  standing  in  the  uni- 
versity, stay  themselves  from  commencing  Bachelors  of  Art,  to 
render  them  (in  some  colleges)  more  capable  of  preferment. 
Several  reasons  are  assigned  of  their  name. 

That  tradition  is  senseless  (and  inconsistent  with  his  princely 
magnificence)  of  such  who  fancy,  that  king  Henry  the  Eighth, 
coming  to  Cambridge,  staid  all  the  Sophisters  a  year,  who  ex- 
pected a  year  of  grace  should  have  been  given  unto  them. 
More  probable  it  is,  because  that  king  is  commonly  conceived 
of  great  strength  and  stature,  that  these  Sophista  Henriciani 
were  elder  and  bigger  than  others.  The  truth  is  this  :  in  the 
reign  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  after  the  destruction  of  monas- 
teries, learning  was  at  a  loss,  and  the  university  (thanks  be  unto 
God  !  more  scared  than  hurt)  stood  at  a  gaze  what  would  be- 
come of  her.  Hereupon  many  students  staid  themselves,  two, 
three,  some  four  years,  as  who  would  see,  how  their  degrees 
(before  they  took  them)  should  be  rewarded  and  maintained. 

*  Br.  Twin.  Ant.  Acad.  Oxon.  p.  333.  f  Gulielmus  Zcon. 

Q   2 



— — — —    WILLIAM  FLOWER  was  born  at  Snowhill*  in 

this  county  bred  first  a  monk  in  Ely,  till,  relinquishing  his  ha- 
bit, he  became  a  secular  priest  and  a  Protestant ;  and,  after 
many  removals,  fixed  at  last  at  Lambeth. 

Wonder  not,  reader,  to  see  a  long  black  line  prefixed  before 
his  name,  which  he  well  deserved,  to  distinguish  him  from  such 
men  who  had  an  unquestionable  title  of  martyrdom ;  whereas 
this  Flower  dangerously  wounded  a  Popish  priest  with  a  wood- 
knife  (a  mischievous  weapon)  in  Saint  Margaret's,  Westminster, 
just  at  the  ministration  of  the  mass  ;  so  that  the  blood  of  the 
priest  spurted  into  the  chalice ;  a  fact  so  foul,  that  the  greatest 
charity  would  blush  to  whisper  a  syllable  in  the  excuse  thereof. 
As  for  such  who,  in  his  defence,  plead  the  precedent  of  Elijah's 
killing  of  Baal's  priests,  they  lay  a  foundation  for  all  impiety  in 
a  Christian  commonwealth.  If  in  the  old  world  giants  were  the 
product  of  those  marriages,  when  the  sons  of  God  took  to  wives 
the  daughters  of  men  f  (a  copulation  not  unlawful  because  they 
were  too  near  akin,  but  because  they  were  too  far  off),  what 
monsters  will  be  generated  from  such  mixtures,  when  extraor- 
dinary actions  by  immediate  commissions  from  God  shall  be 
matched  unto  ordinary  persons  of  mere  men,  and  heaven  un- 
justly alleged  and  urged  for  the  defence  of  hell  itself  ? 

However,  it  plainly  appears  that  Flower  afterwards  solemnly 
repented  of  this  abominable  act,  and  was  put  to  death  for  the 
testimony  of  the  truth.  Grudge  not,  reader,  to  peruse  this 
following  parallel,  as  concerning  the  hands  of  the  martyrs  in  the 
reign  of  queen  Mary. 

The  right  hand  of  Thomas  Tomkins  was  burnt  off  in  effect 
(so  as  to  render  it  useless^)  by  Bishop  Bonner,  some  days  before 
he  was  martyred. 

Archbishop  Cranmer,  at  the  stake,  first  thrust  his  right  hand 
into  the  flame  to  be  burnt,  in  penance  for  his  subscription  to  a 

The  right  hand  of  William  Flower,  before  he  went  to  the 
stake,  was  cut  off  by  order  of  the  judges  for  his  barbarous  fact. 

Yet,  though  his  right  hand  suffered  as  a  malefactor,  there 
want  not  those  who  maintained  that  martyr  belongs  to  the  rest  of 
his  body.  There  were  but  three  more  martyred  in  this  county, 
wrhereof  John  Hullier,  fellow  of  King's  College,  was  most  re- 


STEPHEN  de  FULBORN  was  born  at  Fulborn  (no  other  of 
that  name  in  England)  in  this  county.  Going  over  into  Ire- 
land to  seek  his  providence  (commonly  nick-named  his  fortune), 

So  Mr.   Fox  spells  it,  in  his  Acts  and  Monuments,  page   1573  ;  called  Snaile 
Well  at  this  day.  f  Gen.  vi.  2. 


therein  he  became,  anno  1274,  bishop  of  Waterford,  and  lord 
treasurer  of  Ireland.*  Hence  he  was  preferred  archbishop  of 
Tuam,  and  once  and  again  was  chief  justice  of  that  (allow  me  a 
profepsis)  kingdom.t  He  is  reported  to  have  given  to  the 
church  of  Glassenbury  in  England  "  indulgences  of  an  hundred 
days  ;  "  J  which  I  cannot  understand,  except  he  promised  par- 
don of  so  many  days  to  all  in  his  province  who  went  a  pilgrim- 
age to  that  place  :  and  this  also  seems  an  over-papal  act  of  a 
plain  archbishop.  He  died  1288,  and  was  buried  in  Trinity 
Church  in  Dublin. 

NICHOLAS  of  Ely  was  so  called  (say  some)  from  being  arch- 
deacon thereof;  which  dignity  so  dyed  his  denomination  in 
grain,  that  it  kept  colour  till  his  death,  not  fading,  for  his  future 
higher  preferments,  though  others  conjecture  his  birth  also  at 
Ely.  When  the  bold  barons  obtruded  a  chancellor  (a  king's 
tongue  and  hands  by  whom  he  publicly  speaks  and  acts)  anno 
1260,  they  forced  this  Nicholas  on  king  Henry  the  Third  for 
that  office,  §  till  the  king  some  months  after  displaced  him  ;  yet 
(knowing  him  a  man  of  much  merit)  voluntarily  chose  him  lord 
treasurer,  1  1  when  ousted  of  his  chancellor's  place;  so  that  (it 
seems)  he  would  trust  him  with  his  coffers,  but  not  with  his 
conscience  ;  yea,  he  afterwards  preferredjiim  bishop  of  Worces- 
ter, then  of  Winchester.  Here  he  sat  twelve  years  ;  and  that 
cathedral  may  (by  a  synecdoche  of  a  novel  part  for  the  whole) 
challenge  his  interment,  having  his  heart  enclosed  in  a  wall, 
though  his  body  be  buried  at  Waverley  in  Surrey 

WILLIAM  of  BOTLESHAM  was  born  at  Botlesham  (contractly 
Botsam)  in  this  county.  This  is  a  small  village,  which  never 
amounted  to  a  market  town,  some  five  miles  east  of  Cambridge, 
pleasantly  seated  in  pure  air,  having  rich  arable  on  the  one  and 
the  fair  heath  of  Newmarket  on  the  other  side  thereof.  It  hath 
been  the  nursery  of  refined  wits,  affording  a  'triumvirate  of 
learned  men,  taking  their  lives  there,  and  names  thence  :  and  to 
prevent  mistakes  (to  which  learned  pens  in  this  point  have  been 
too  prone),  we  present  them  in  the  ensuing  parallels. 

WILLIAM**  of  Bottlesham,  made  by  the  Pope  first  bishop  of 
Bethlehem  in  Syria;  afterwards,  anno  13  85,  bishop  of  Llandaff, 
and  thence  removed  to  Rochester  :  —  a  famous  preacher,  con- 
fessor to  king  Richard  the  Second,  and  learned  writer  ;  but  by 

*  Sir  James  Ware,  in  the  Archbishops  of  Tuam. 

f  Ireland  properly  was  no  kingdom  till  the  time  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth. 

j  Sir  James  Ware,  ut  prius. 

§  John  Philipot,  in  his  Catalogue  of  Chancellors,  p.  23. 

||  Idem,  in  his  Catalogue  of  Treasurers,  p.  16. 

^  Bishop  Godwin,  in  the  Bishops  of  Winchester. 

**  Idem,  in  the  Catalogue  of  Llandaff  and  Rochester. 


Walsingham  and  Bale  called  John  by  mistake.  He  died  in 
February,  anno  1399.  Nor  must  we  forget  that  he  was  once 
Fellow  of  Pembroke  hall. 

JOHN  of  Bottlesham  was  bred  in  Peter-house  in  Cambridge, 
whereunto  he  was  a  benefactor,  as  also  to  the  whole  university, 
chaplain  to  Thomas  Arundel,  archbishop  of  Canterbury;  by 
whose  recommendation  he  was  preferred  to  succeed  his  towns- 
man in  the  see  of  Rochester ;  which  he  never  saw  (saith  my  au- 
thor*), as  dying  in  the  beginning  of  the  year  1401. 

NICHOLAS  of  Bottlesham  was  a  Carmelite,  bred  in  Cambridge, 
afterwards  removed  to  Paris,  where  in  Sorbonne  he  commenced 
Doctor  of  Divinity.  Returning  to  Cambridge,  he  became  Prior 
of  the  Carmelites  (since  Queen's  College),  where  he  wrote  many 
books,  and  lies  buried  in  his  own  convent,  anno  Domini  1435.f 

Let  all  England  shew  me  the  like  of  three  eminent  men  (all 
contemporaries  at  large)  which  one  petty  village  did  produce. 
Let  Botlesham  hereafter  be  no  more  famed  for  its  single  beacon, 
but  for  these  three  lights  it  afforded. 

THOMAS  of  NEWMARKET  was  born  therein;  and  though 
that  town  lieth  some  part  in  Suffolk,  my  author  assures  his  na- 
tivity in  this  county.  He  was  bred  in  Cambridge,  an  excellent 
humanist  and  divine  (having  left  some  learned  books  to  poste- 
rity), and  at  last  was  advanced  to  be  bishop  of  Carlisle. { 

Surely  then  he  must  be  the  same  with  Thomas  Merks,  con- 
secrated anno  1397  ;  consent  of  time  most  truly  befriending  the 
conjecture  ;§  Merks  also  and  Market  being  the  same  in  effect. 
Neither  doth  the  omission  of  New  in  the  least  degree  discom- 
pose their  identity,  it  being  usual  to  leave  out  the  prsenomen  of 
a  town  for  brevity  sake,  by  those  of  the  vicinage  (amongst  whom 
there  is  no  danger  of  mistake),  commonly  calling  Westchester 
Chester,  Southampton  Hampton.  If  the  same,  he  is  famous  in 
our  English  histories,  because  his  devotion  (in  a  transposed  pos- 
ture to  public  practice)  worshipped  the  sun-setting  king  Richard 
the  Second ;  for  which  his  memory  will  meet  with  more  to  com- 
mend than  imitate  it.||  Yet  was  his  loyalty  shent,  but  not 
shamed;  and  king  Henry  the  Fourth  being  sick  of  him,  not 
daring  to  let  him  live,  nor  put  him  to  death  (because  a  prelate) 
found  an  expedient  for  him  of  a  living  death,  confining  him  to  a 
titular  Grecian  bishopric.^  He  died  about  1405, 

THOMAS  THIRLBY,  Doctor  of  Laws,  was  (as  I  am  assured  by 
an  excellent  antiquary)**  born  in  the  town,  and  bred  in  the  uni- 

*  Bishop  Godwin,  in  the  Bishops  of  Rochester.  f  Bale,  p.  576.  Pits,  p.  625. 

J  Bale,  de  Scriptoribus  Anglise,  Cent.  7,  num.  60. 
§  Bale  maketh  him  to  flourish  under  king  Henry  the  Fourth- 
II   See  his  speech  in  Parliament,  in  Speed. 
If  Godwin,  in  the  Bishops  of  Carlisle. 
'*  Mr,  Martin,  beneficed  near  Northampton. 


versity  of  Cambridge,  most  probably  in  Trinity-hall.  He  was 
very  able  in  his  own  faculty,  and  more  than  once  employed  in 
embassies  by  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  who  preferred  him  oishop 
of  Westminster.  Here,  had  Thirlby  lived  long,  and  continued 
the  course  he  began,  he  had  prevented  queen  Mary  from  dis- 
solving that  bishopric,  as  which  would  have  dissolved  itself  for 
lack  of  land,  sold  and  wasted  by  him.  And  though  probably 
he  did  this  to]  raise  and  enrich  his  own  family,  yet  such  the 
success  of  his  sacrilege,  his  name  and  alliance  is  extinct. 

From  Westminster  he  was  removed  to  Norwich,  thence  to 
Ely.  He  cannot  be  followed  (as  some  other  of  his  order)  by 
the  light  of  the  faggots  kindled  by  him  to  burn  poor  martyrs, 
seeing  he  was  given  rather  to  prodigality  than  cruelty ;  it  being 
signally  observed  that  he  wept  at  archbishop  Cranmer's  degra- 
dation. After  the  death  of  queen  Mary,  he  was  as  violent  in 
his  opinions,  but  not  so  virulent  in  his  expressions ;  always 
devoted  to  queen  Mary,  but  never  invective  against  queen  Eli- 
zabeth. He  lived  in  free  custody ;  died,  and  is  buried  at  Lam- 
beth, 1570. 


GODFREY  GOLDSBOROUGH,  D.  D.  was  born  in  the  town  of 
Cambridge,  where  some  of  his  sirname  and  relation  remained 
since  my  memory.  He  was  bred  in  Trinity  College  (pupil  to 
archbishop  Whitgift) ;  and  became  afterwards  fellow  thereof. 
At  last  he  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Gloucester  anno  Domini 
1598.  He  was  one  of  the  second  set  of  Protestant  bishops, 
which  were  after  those  so  famous  for  their  sufferings  in  the 
Marian  days,  and  before  those  who  fall  under  the  cognizance  of 
our  generation  ;  the  true  reason  that  so  little  can  be  recovered 
of  their  character.  He  gave  a  hundred  marks  to  Trinity  Col- 
lege, and  died  anno  Domini  1604. 

ROBERT  TOWNSON,  D.  D.  was  born  in  Saint  Botolph's  parish 
in  Cambridge,  and  bred  a  fellow  in  Queen's  College,  being 
admitted  very  young  therein,  but  12  years  of  age.  He  was 
blessed  with  an  happy  memory,  insomuch  that  when  D.  D.  he 
could  say  by  art  the  second  book  of  the  JEneid,  which  he 
.earnt  at  School,  without  missing  a  verse.  He  was  an  excellent 
preacher,  and  becoming  a  pulpit  with  his  gravity.  He  attended 
king  James  his  chaplain  into  Scotland ;  and  after  his  return, 
was  preferred  dean  of  Westminster,  then  bishop  of  Salisbury. 

Hear  what  the  author  of  a  pamphlet,  who  inscribeth  himself 
A.  W.,  saith  in  a  book  which  is  rather  a  satire  than  a  history,  a 
libel  than  a  character,  of  the  "  Court  of  King  James  ;"  for,  after 
he  had  slanderously  inveighed  against  the  bribery  of  those  days 
in  church  and  state,  hear  how  he  seeks  to  make  amends  for  all: 

"  Some  worthy  men  were  preferred  gratis  to  blow  up  their 


[Buckingham  and  his  party]  fames  (as  Token,  a  worthy  man, 
paid  nothing  in  fine  or  pension,  and  so  after  him  Davenant  in 
the  same  bishopric).  Yet  these  were  but  as  music  before  every 

Now  although  both  these  persons  here  praised  were  my  God- 
fathers and  uncles  (the  one  marrying  the  sister  of,  the  other 
being  brother  to,  my  mother),  and  although  such  good  words 
seem  a  rarity  from  so  railing  a  mouth  ;  yet  shall  not  these  con- 
siderations tempt  me  to  accept  his  praises  on  such  invidious 
terms  as  the  author  doth  proffer  them. 

Oh  were  these  worthy  bishops  now  alive,  how  highly  would 
they  disdain  to  be  praised  by  such  a  pen,  by  which  king  James, 
their  lord  and  master,  is  causelessly  traduced  !  How  would  they 
condemn  such  uncharitable  commendations,  which  are  (if  not 
founded  on)  accompanied  with  the  disgrace  of  others  of  their 
order  !  Wherefore  I  their  nephew,  in  behalf  of  their  memories, 
protest  against  this  passage,  so  far  forth  as  it  casteth  lustre  on 
them,  by  eclipsing  the  credit  of  other  prelates  their  contempo- 
raries. And  grant  corruption  too  common  in "  that  kind,  yet 
were  there  besides  them  at  that  time  many  worthy  bishops 
raised  to  their  dignity  by  their  deserts,  without  any  simoniacal 

Doctor  Townson  had  a  hospitable  heart,  a  generous  disposi- 
tion, free  from  covetousness,  and  was  always  confident  in  God's 
providence,  that,  if  he  should  die,  his  children  (and  those  were 
many)  would  be  provided  for ;  wherein  he  was  not  mistaken. 
He  lived  in  his  bishopric  but  a  year ;  and  being  appointed  at 
very  short  warning  to  preach  before  the  parliament,  by  unsea- 
sonable sitting  up  to  study,  contracted  a  fever,  whereof  he  died, 
and  was  buried  in  Westminster  abbey,  anno  Domini  1622. 

THOMAS  (son  to  William)  WESTFIELD,  D.  D.  was  born  anno 
Domini  1573,  in  the  parish  of  Saint  Mary's  in  Ely,  and  there 
bred  at  the  Free-school  under  Master  Spight,  till  he  was  sent 
to  Jesus  College  in  Cambridge,  being  first  scholar,  then  fellow 
thereof.  He  was  curate  or  assistant  rather,  to  bishop  Felton, 
whilst  minister  of  Saint  Mary-le-Bow  in  Cheapside,  afterward 
rector  of  Hornsey,  nigh,  and  Great  Saint  Bartholomew's  in, 
London,  where  in  his  preaching  he  went  through  the  four  Evan- 
gelists. He  was  afterwards  made  archdeacon  of  Saint  Alban's, 
and  at  last  bishop  of  Bristol,  a  place  proffered  to  and  refused 
by  him  twenty-five  years  before :  for  then  the  bishopric  was 
offered  to  him  to  maintain  him ;  which  this  contented  meek 
man,  having  a  self-subsistence,  did  then  decline ;  though  accept- 
ing of  it  afterwards,  when  proffered  to  him  to  maintain  the 
bishopric,  and  support  the  episcopal  dignity  by  his  signal  devo- 
tion. What  good  opinion  the  parliament  (though  not  over-fond 

*  King  James's  Court,  pp.  129,  130. 


of  bishops)  conceived  of  him,  appears  by  their  order  ensuing  :* 

"  The  thirteenth  of  May,  1643,  From  the  Committee  of  Lords 

and  Commons  for  Sequestration  of  Delinquents'  estates. 
"  Upon  information  in  the  behalf  of  the  bishop  of  Bristol,  that 
his  tenants  refuse  to  pay  him  his  rents ;  it  is  ordered  by  this 
committee,  that  all  profits  of  his  bishopric  be  restored  to  him, 
and  a  safe  conduct  be  granted  him  to  pass  with  his  family  to 
Bristol,  being  himself  of  great  age,  and  a  person  of  great  learn- 
ing and  merit.  Jo.  WYLDE." 

About  the  midst  of  his  life  he  had  a  terrible  sickness,  so  that 
he  thought  (to  use  his  own  expression  in  his  diary)  that  "  God 
would  put  out  the  candle  of  his  life,  though  he  was  pleased  only 
to  snuff  it."  By  his  will  (the  true  copy  whereof  I  have)  he 
desired  to  be  buried  in  his  cathedral  church,  near  the  tomb  of 
Paul  Bush,  the  first  bishop  thereof.  "  And  as  for  my  worldly 
goods,"  (Reader,  they  are  his  own  words  in  his  will)  "  which  (as 
the  times  now  are)  I  know  not  well  where  they  be,  nor  what 
they  are,  I  give  and  bequeath  them  all  to  my  dear  wife  Eliza- 
beth, &c."  He  protested  himself  on  his  death-bed  "  a  true 
Pretestant  of  the  Church  of  England ;"  and  dying  Junii  28, 
1644,  lieth  buried  according  to  his  own  desire  above  men- 
tioned, with  this  inscription : 

"  Hie  jacet  THOMAS  WESTFIELD,  S.  T.  D. 

Episcoporum  intimus,  peccatorum  primus. 

Obitt  25  Junii,  anno  MDCXLIV,  senio  et  moerore  confectus. 

Tu  Lector  (quisquis  es)  vale,  et  resipisce. 

Epitaphium  ipse  sibi  dictavit  vivus. 

Monumentum  uxor  mcestissima  ELIZABETHA  WESTFIELD 
Marito  desideratissimo  posuit  superstes." 

Thus  leaving  such  as  survived  him  to  see  more  sorrow,  and 
feel  more  misery,  he  was  seasonably  taken  away  from  the  evil 
to  come:  and  according  to  the  anagram  made  on  him  by  his 
daughter,  "Thomas  Westfield, c  I  dwel  the  most  safe  ;">  enjoying 
all  happiness,  and  possessing  the  reward  of  his  pains,  who  con- 
verted many,  and  confirmed  more,  by  his  constancy  in  his  calling. 


JOHN  TIPTOFT,  son  and  heir  of  John  Lord  Tiptoft  and 
Joyce  his  wife  (daughter  and  co-heir  of  Edward  Charlton  Lord 
Powis,  by  his  wife  Eleanor,  sister  and  co-heir  of  Edmund 
Holland,  Earl  of  Kent)t  was  born  at  Everton,|  in  this  (but  in 
the  confines  of  Bedford)  shire.  He  was  bred  in  Baliol  College 
in  Oxford,  where  he  attained  to  great  learning;  and  by  king 
Henry  the  Sixth  was  afterwards  created  first  Viscount,  then 

*  The  particulars  of  this  were  procured  for  me  by  my  worthy  friend  Mathew 
Gilly.  Esquire,  from  Elizabeth  the  bishop's  sole  surviving  daughter — F. 

f  Milles's  Catalogue  of  Honour,  p.  1010.         J  Bale  de  Script.  Brit.  c.  8,  n.  « 


Earl  of  Worcester,  and  Lord   High  Constable  of  England,  and 
by  king  Edward  the  Fourth  Knight  of  the  Garter. 

The  skies  began  now  to  lower,  and  threaten  civil  wars  ;  and 
the  house  of  York  fell  sick  of  a  relapse.  Meantime  this  earl 
could  not  be  discourteous  to  Henry  the  Sixth,  who  had  so  much 
advanced  him,  nor  disloyal  to  Edward  the  Fourth,  in  whom  the 
right  of  the  crown  lay.  Consulting  his  own  safety,  he  resolved 
on  this  expedient ;  for  a  time  to  quit  his  own,  and  visit  the 
Holy  Land.  In  his  passage  thither,  or  thence,  he  came  to 
Rome,  where  he  made  a  Latin  speech  before  the  Pope,  Pius  the 
Second,  and  converted  the  Italians  into  a  better  opinion  than 
they  had  formerly  of  the  Englishmen's  learning ;  insomuch  that 
his  Holiness  wept  at  the  elegancy  of  the  oration. 

He  returned  from  Christ's  sepulchre  to  his  own  grave  in 
England,  coming  home  in  a  most  unhappy  juncture  of  time.  If 
sooner,  or  later,  he  had  found  king  Edward  on  that  throne,  to 
which  now  Henry  the  Sixth  was  restored,  and  whose  restitution 
was  only  remarkable  for  the  death  of  this  worthy  lord.  Thus 
those  who,  when  the  house  of  the  state  is  on  fire,  politicly  hope 
to  save  their  own  chamber,  are  sometimes  burned  therein. 

Treason  was  charged  upon  him  for  secret  siding  with  king 
Edward,  who  before  and  afterward  de  facto,  and  always  de  jure, 
was  the  lawful  king  of  England.  On  this  account  he  lost  his 
life.  Then  did  the  axe  at  one  blow  cut  off  more  learning  in 
England  that  was  left  in  the  heads  of  all  the  surviving  nobi- 
lity. His  death  happened  on  Saint  Luke's-day  1470. 

Edward  Lord  Tiptoft,  his  son,  was  restored,  by  Edward 
the  Fourth,  Earl  of  Worcester.  But,  dying  without  issue,  his 
large  inheritance  fell  to  his  three  aunts,  sisters  to  the  learned 
lord  aforesaid;  viz.  first,  Phillippa,  married  to  Thomas  Lord 
Ross,  of  Hamlake.  Second,  Joan,  wife  of  Sir  Edmund  Ingolds- 
thorp,  of  Borough-green,  in  this  county.  Third,  Joyce,  married 
unto  Sir  Edward  Sutton,  son  and  heir  of  John  Lord  Dudley, 
from  whom  came  Edward  Sutton,  Lord  Dudley,  and  Knight  of 
the  Garter.* 

JOHN  CHEEKE,  Knight,  tutor  to  king  Edward  the  Sixth, 
and  Secretary  of  State,  was  born  over  against  the  Market-cross, 
in  Cambridge.  What  crosses  afterwards  befel  him  in  his  course 
of  life,  and  chiefly  before  his  pious  death,  are  largely  related  in 
our  "  Church  History. " 


The  courage  of  the  men  in  this  county  before  the  Conquest 
plainly  appeareth  by  this  authentic  passage  in  a  memorable 
author,  who  reporteth  that,  when  the  rest  of  the  East  Angles 
cowardly  fled  away  in  the  field  from  the  Danish  army,  "  homines 

*  Milles,  ut  supra. 

WRITERS.  235 

comitatus  Cantabrigise  viriliter  obstiterunt ;"  ("  the  men  of  the 
county  of  Cambridge  did  manfully  resist.")  Our  author  addeth 
"  unde  Anglis  regnantibus  laus  Cantabrigiensis  Provincise  splen- 
dide  florebat ;"  (ic  whence  it  was  that,  whilst  the  English  did  rule, 
the  praise  of  the  people  of  Cambridgeshire  did  most  eminently 

Nor  lost  they  their  reputation  for  their  manhood,  at  the 
coming  in  of  the  Normans ;  who,  partly  by  the  valour  of  their 
persons,  partly  by  the  advantage  of  their  fens,  made  so  stout 
resistance,  that  the  conqueror,  who  did  fly  into  England,  was 
glad  to  creep  into.  Ely.  Yea,  I  have  been  credibly  informed 
that  Cambridgeshire  men  commonly  passed  for  a  current  pro- 
verb, though  now,  like  old  coin,  almost  grown  out  of  request. 

Indeed  the  common  people  have  most  robustious  bodies; 
insomuch  that  quarter- sacks  were  here  first  used,  men  com- 
monly carrying  on  their  backs  (for  some  short  space)  eight 
bushels  of  barley ;  whereas  four  are  found  a  sufficient  load  for 
those  in  other  counties.  Let  none  say  that  active  valour  is  ill 
inferred  from  passive  strength ;  for  I  do  not  doubt  but  (if  just 
occasion  were  given)  they  would  find  as  good  hands  and  arms  as 
they  do  backs  and  shoulders. 


[AMP.]  MATTHEW  PARIS  is  acknowledged  an  Englishman 
by  all  (save  such  who  mistake  Parisius  for  Parisiensis),  and  may 
probably  be  presumed  born  in  this  (as  bred  in  the  next)  county, 
where  the  name  and  family  of  Paris  is  right  ancient,  even  long 
before  they  were  settled  therein  at  Hildersham,  which  accrued 
unto  them  by  their  marriage  with  the  daughter  and  heir  of  the 
Buslers.f  Sure  I  am,  were  he  now  alive,  the  Parises  would 
account  themselves  credited  with  his,  and  he  would  not  be 
ashamed  of  their  affinity. 

He  was  bred  a  monk  of  Saint  Alban^s,  skilled  not  only  in 
poetry,  oratory,  and  divinity,  but  also  in  such  manual  as  lie  in 
the  suburbs  of  liberal  sciences,  painting,  graving,  &c.  But  his 
genius  chiefly  disposed  him  for  the  writing  of  histories,  wherein 
he  wrote  a  large  Chronicle,  from  the  Conquest  unto  the  year  of 
our  Lord  1250,  where  he  concludes  with  this  distich  : 

Sisle  tui  metas  studii,  Matth&e,  quietas  : 
Nee  Ventura  petas,  quce  postera  prqferat  (Bias. 

"  Matthew,  here  cease  thy  pen  in  peace,  and  study  on  no  more  ; 
Nor  do  thou  roam  at  things  to  come,  what  next  age  hath  in  store." 

However,  he,  afterwards  resuming  that  work,  continued  it 
until  the  year  1259.  This  I  observe,  not  to  condemn  him,  but 
excuse  myself  from  inconstancy ;  it  being,  it  seems,  a  catching 
disease  with  authors,  to  obey  the  importunity  of  others,  con- 
trary to  their  own  resolution. 

*  Chronicon  Jo.  Brompton,  p.  887. 

f  Camdens  Britannia,  in  Cambridgeshire. 


His  history  is  impartially  and  judiciously  written  (save  where 
he  indulgeth  too  much  to  monkish  miracles  and  visions) ;  and 
no  writer  so  plainly  discovereth  the  pride,  avarice,  and  rapine  of 
the  court  of  Rome ;  so  that  he  seldom  "  kisseth  the  pope's  toe 
without  biting  it.3'  Nor  have  the  Papists  any  way  to  waive  his 
true  jeers,  but  by  suggesting,  hac  non  ab  ipso  script  a,  sed  ab 
aliis  falso  illi  ascripta  ;*  insinuating  a  suspicion  of  forgery,  in 
his  last  edition :  understand  them  in  what  some  eighty  years 
since  was  set  forth  by  Matthew  Parker ;  whereas  it  was  done 
with  all  integrity,  according  to  the  best  and  most  ancient 
manuscripts ;  wherein  all  those  anti-papal  passages  plainly  ap- 
pear, as  since  in  a  latter  and  exacter  edition,  by  the  care 
and  industry  of  Doctor  William  Watts.  This  Matthew  left  off 
living  and  writing  at  the  same  time,  viz.  anno  1259.  I  will  only 
add,  that  though  he  had  sharp  nails,  he  had  clean  hands  ;  strict 
in  his'  own  as  well  as  striking  at  the  loose  conversations  of 
others ;  and,  for  his  eminent  austerity,  was  employed  by  Pope 
Innocent  the  Fourth,  not  only  to  visit  the  monks  in  the  diocese 
of  Norwich,  but  also  was  sent  by  him  into  Norway,  to  reform 
the  discipline  in  Holui,  a  fair  convent  therein,  but  much  cor- 

H  ELI  AS  RUBEUS  was  born  at  Triplowf  in  this  county,  bred 
D.D.  in  Cambridge.  Leland  acquainteth  us  that  he  was  a 
great  courtier,  and  gracious  with  the  king;  not  informing  us 
what  king  it  was,  nor  what  time  he  lived  in ;  only  we  learn 
from  him,  that  this  Rubeus  (conceive  his  English  name  Rouse, 
or  Red),  seeing  many  who  were  nobilitatis  portenta  (so  that  as 
in  a  tympany  their  very  greatness  was  their  disease)  boasted  (if 
not  causelessly)  immoderately  of  their  high  extraction,  wrote  a 
book  contra  nobilitatem  inanem.  He  is  conjectured  to  have 
flourished  about  the  year  1266. 

JOHN  EVERSDEN  was  born  at  one  of  the  Eversdens,  in  this 
county,  bred  a  monk  in  Bury  Abbey,  and  the  cellerar  thereof; 
an  officer  higher  in  sense  than  sound,  being  by  his  place  to 
provide  diet  for  the  whole  convent,  assigning  particular  persons 
their  portions  thereof.  But  our  Eversden's  mind,  mounted 
above  such  mean  matters,  busied  himself  in  poetry,  law,  his- 
tory, whereof  he  wrote  a  fair  volume  from  the  beginning  of  the 
world,  according  to  the  humour  of  the  historians  of  that  age ; 
starting  all  thence,  though  they  run  to  several  marks.  J  Being 
a  monk,  he  was  not  over-fond  of  friars ;  and  observeth  that 
when  the  Franciscans  first  entered  Bury,  anno  1336,  there  hap- 
pened a  hideous  hurricane,  levelling  trees  and  towers,  and 
whatsoever  it  met  with.  The  best  was,  though  they  came  in 

*  Pits,  de  illustribus  Angliae  Scriptoribus,  p.  338. 
•  Bale,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis,  Cent.  4,  num.  48. 
J  Idem,  Cent.  5,  num.  40. 

WRITERS.  237 

with  a  tempest,  they  went  out  with  a  calm,  at  the  time  of  the 
dissolution.  This  John  nourished  under  king  Edward  the 
Third,  and  died  about  the  year  1338. 

[S.  N.]  RICHARD  WETHERSET,  commonly  called  of  Cam- 
bridge (saith  Bale),  because  he  was  Chancellor  thereof.  But 
there  must  be  more  in  it  to  give  him  that  denomination,  seeing 
many  had  that  office  besides  himself.  He  was  a  great  scholar 
and  deep  divine  ;  it  being  reported  to  his  no  small  praise,  "  that 
he  conformed  his  divinity  to  Scripture,  and  not  to  the  rules  of 
philosophy."*  He  flourished  under  king  Edward  the  Third, 
anno  1350. 

WILLIAM  CAXTON,  born  in  that  town  (a  noted  stage  betwixt 
Royston  and  Huntingdon).  Bale  beginneth  very  coldly  in  his 
commendation,  by  whom  he  is  charactered,  ff  vir  non  omnino 
stupidus,  aut  ignavia  torpens;"f  but  we  understand  the  lan- 
guage of  his  liptotey  the  rather  because  he  proceedeth  to  praise 
his  diligence  and  learning.  He  had  most  of  his  education  be- 
yond the  seas,  living  thirty  years  in  the  court  of  Margaret, 
duchess  of  Burgundy,  sister  to  king  Edward  the  Fourth,  whence 
I  conclude  him  an  anti-Lancastrian  in  his  affection.  He  con- 
tinued "  Polychronicon  "  (beginning  where  Trevisa  ended)  unto 
the  end  of  king  Edward  the  Fourth,  with  good  judgment  and 
fidelity.  And  yet,  when  he  writeth  that  king  Richard  the 
Second  left  in  his  treasury  money  and  jewels  to  the  value  of 
seven  hundred  thousand  pounds,  J  I  cannot  credit  him  ;  it  is  so 
contrary  to  the  received  character  of  that  king's  riotous  pro- 
digality. Caxton  carefully  collected  and  printed  all  Chaucer's 
works  ;  and  on  many  accounts  deserved  well  of  posterity  when 
he  died,  about  the  year  I486. 


RICHARD  HULOET  was  born  at  Wisbeach,  in  this  county, 
and  brought  up  in  good  learning. §  He  wrote  a  book  called 
"  The  English  and  Latin  ABC;"  and  dedicated  the  same  to 
Thomas  Goodrich,  Bishop  of  Ely,  and  Chancellor  of  England. 
Some  will  condemn  him  of  indiscretion,  in  presenting  so  low  a 
subject  to  so  high  a  person,  'as  if  he  would  teach  the  greatest 
statesman  in  the  land  to  spell  aright.  Others  will  excuse  him, 
his  book  being,  though  of  low,  of  general  use  for  the  common 
people,  who  then  began  to  betake  themselves  to  reading  (long 
neglected  in  the  land),  so  that  many  who  had  one  foot  in  their 
grave,  had  their  hand  on  their  primer.  But  I  believe  that  his 
book  (whereof  I  could  never  recover  a  sight),  though  entitled 
an  A  B  C,  related  not  to  literal  reading,  but  rather  to  some 

*  Bale,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis,  Cent.  5,  num.  88. 

f   Idem,  Cent.  8,  num.  43.  t  Polychronicon,  lib.  ult.  cap.  10. 

§  Bale,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis,  Cent.  9,  num.  67. 


elemental   grounds  of  religion.     He  flourished    anno    Domini 

JOHN  RICHARDSON  was  born  of  honest  parentage,  at  Linton, 
in  this  county ;  bred  first  fellow  of  Emanuel,  then  master  of 
Saint  Peter's,  and  at  last  of  Trinity  College  in  Cambridge,,  and 
was  Regius  Professor  in  that  university.  Such  who  represent 
him  a  dull  and  heavy  man  in  his  parts,  may  be  confuted  with 
this  instance : 

An  extraordinary  act  in  divinity  was  kept  at  Cambridge  be- 
fore king  James,  wherein  doctor  John  Davenant  was  answerer, 
and  doctor  Richardson  amongst  others  the  opposers.  The 
question  was  maintained  in  the  negative,  concerning  "  the  excom- 
municating of  kings."  Doctor  Richardson  vigorously  pressed 
the  practice  of  Saint  Ambrose  excommunicating  of  the  em- 
peror Theodosius ;  insomuch  that  the  king,  in  some  passion, 
returned,  "  Profecto  fuit  hoc  ab  Ambrosio  insolentissime  fac- 
tum."  To  whom  Doctor  Richardson  rejoined,  "  Responsum 
vere  Regium,  et  Alexandro  dignum.  Hoc  non  est  argumenta 
dissolvere,  sed  desecare."  And  so,  sitting  down,  he  desisted 
from  any  further  dispute. 

He  was  employed  one  of  the  translators  of  the  Bible ;  and 
was  a  most  excellent  linguist;  whose  death  happened  anno 
Domini  1621. 

ANDREW  WILLET,  D.D.  was  born  at  Ely,  in  this  county, 
bred  fellow  of  Christ's  College  in  Cambridge.  He  afterwards 
succeeded  his  father  in  the  parsonage  of  Barley,  in  Hertfordshire, 
and  became  prebendary  of  Ely.  He  confuted  their  cavil  who 
make  children  the  cause  of  covetousness  in  clergymen,  being 
bountiful  above  his  ability,  notwithstanding  his  numerous 
issue.  No  less  admirable  his  industry,  appearing  in  his  "  Sy- 
nopsis," "  Comments/'  and  "  Commentaries  ;"  insomuch  that 
one,  considering  his  polygraphy,  said  merrily,  ee  that  he  must 
write  whilst  he  slept,  it  being  impossible  that  he  should  do  so 
much  when  waking."  Sure  I  am,  he  wrote  not  sleepily  nor 
oscitanter,  but  what  was  solid  in  itself,  and  profitable  for  others. 

A  casual  fall  from  his  horse  in  the  highway  near  Hodsden, 
breaking  his  leg,  accelerated  his  de'ath.  It  seems  that  God's  pro- 
mise to  his  children,  "  to  keep  them  in  all  their  ways,  that  they 
dash  not  their  foot  against  the  stone,"*  is  (as  other  temporal 
promises)  to  be  taken  with  a  tacit  cause  of  revocation,  viz.  if 
God's  wisdom  doth  not  discover  the  contrary  more  for  his 
glory  and  his  children's  good.  This  doctor  died  anno  Domini 

Sir  THOMAS  RIDLEY,  Knight,  Doctor  of  the  Laws,  was  born 

*  Psalm  xci.  11,  12. 

WRITERS.  239 

at  Ely,  in  this  county,  bred  first  a  scholar  in  Eton,  then  fellow 
of  King's  College  in  Cambridge.  He  was  a  general  scholar  in 
all  kind  of  learning,  especially  in  that  which  we  call  melior  lite- 
rat  ur  a.  He  afterwards  was  Chancellor  of  Winchester,  and  the 
Vicar-general  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury.  His  memory  will 
never  die  whilst  his  book  called  the  "  View  of  the  Ecclesiastical 
Laws  "  is  living ;  a  book  of  so  much  merit,  that  the  common 
lawyers  (notwithstanding  the  difference  betwixt  the  professions) 
will  ingeniously  allow  a  due  commendation  to  his  learned  per- 
formance in  that  subject.  He  died  anno  Domini  1629,  on  the 
two  and  twentieth  day  of  January. 

ARTHUR  HILDERSHAM  was  born  at  Strechworth  in  this 
county,  descended  by  his  mother's  side  from  the  blood- royal, 
being  great-great-grandchild  to  George  Duke  of  Clarence,  bro- 
ther to  Edward  the  Fourth.  Yet  was  he  not  like  the  proud 
nobles  of  Tecoa,  who  counted  themselves  "too  good  to  put 
their  hands  to  God's  work.'7  But,  being  bred  in  Christ's  Col- 
lege, in  Cambridge,  he  entered  into  the  ministry.  How  this 
worthy  divine  was  first  run  aground  with  poverty,  and  after- 
wards set  afloat  by  God's  providence ;  how  he  often  alternately 
lost  and  recovered  his  voice,  being  silenced  and  restored  by  the 
bishops ;  how,  after  many  intermediate  afflictions,  this  just  and 
upright  man  had  peace  at  the  last ;  is  largely  reported  in  my 
"  Ecclesiastical  History,"  to  which  (except  I  add  to  the  truth)  I 
can  add  nothing  on  my  knowledge  remarkable.  He  died  anno 
Domini  1631. 

R.  PARKER,  for  so  is  his  Christian  name  defectively  written 
in  my  book,  born  in  Ely,  (therefore  place-naming  himself  Eli- 
ensis),  was  son  (as  I  am  confident)  to  Master  Parker,  Arch- 
deacon of  Ely,  to  whom  that  bishopric  in  the  long  vacancy 
(after  the  death  of  Bishop  Cox)  was  proffered,  and  by  him  re- 
fused, (i  tantum  opurn  usuram  iniquis  conditionibus  sibi  oblatam 
respuens."  Our  Parker  was  bred  in,  and  became  a  fellow  of, 
Caius  College,  an  excellent  herald,  historian,  and  antiquary, 
author  of  a  short,  plain,  true,  and  brief  manuscript,  called 
"  Sceletos  Cantabrigiensis  ;"  and  yet  the  bare  bones  thereof  are 
fleshed  with  much  matter,  and  hath  furnished  me  with  the  na- 
tivities of  several  bishops  who  were  masters  of  colleges. 

I  am  not  of  the  mind  of  the  Italian  (from  whose  envy  God 
deliver  us !)  Polidore  Vergil,  who,  having  first  served  his  own 
turn  with  them,  burnt  all  the  rare  English  manuscripts  of  his- 
tory he  could  procure,  so  to  raise  the  valuation  of  his  own 
works.  But  from  my  heart  I  wish  some  ingenious  person 
would  print  Mr.  Parker's  book,  for  the  use  of  posterity.  He 
was  a  melancholy  man,  neglecting  all  preferment  to  enjoy  him- 
self; and  died  in  the  place  of  his  nativity,  as  I  conjecture, 
about  1624. 


MICHAEL  DALTON,  Esquire. — He  was  bred  in  the  study  of 
our  municipal  law  in  Lincoln's  Inn,  and  attained  great  skill  in 
his  own  profession.  His  gravity  graced  the  bench  of  justices 
in  this  county,  where  his  judgment  deservedly  passed  for  an 
oracle  in  the  law :  having  enriched  the  world  with  two  excellent 
treatises,  the  one  of  the  office  of  the  sheriffs,  the  other  of  the 
justices  of  peace.  Out  of  the  dedicatory  epistle  of  the  latter  I 
learnt  this  (which  I  knew  not  before),  that  king  James  was  so 
highly  affected  with  our  English  government  by  justices  of  peace, 
that  he  was  the  first  who  settled  the  same  in  his  native  country 
of  Scotland.  Mr.  Dalton  died  before  the  beginning  of  our  civil 

THOMAS  GOAD,  D.D.  was  son  to  Dr.  Roger  Goad  (for  more 
than  forty  years  Provost  of  King's  College) ;  but  whether  born 
in  the  Provost's  lodgings  in  Cambridge,  or  at  Milton  in  this 
county,  I  am  not  fully  informed.  He  was  bred  a  Fellow  under 
his  father;  afterwards  chaplain  to  archbishop  Abbot,  rector  of 
Hadley  in  Suffolk,  prebendary  of  Canterbury,  &c. ;  a  great  and 
general  scholar,  exact  critic,  historian,  poet,  (delighting  in  making 
of  verses  till  the  day  of  his  death)  school-man,  divine.  He  was 
substituted  by  king  James  in  the  place  of  Doctor  Hall  (indis- 
posed in  health),  and  sent'over  to  the  synod  of  Dort.  f  He  had 
a  commanding  presence,  an  uncontrollable  spirit,  impatient  to 
be  opposed,  and  loving  to  steer  the  discourse  (being  a  good  pi- 
lot to  that  purpose)  of  all  the  company  he  came  in.  I  collect 
him  to  have  died  about  the  year  1635. 

ANDREW  MARVAIL,  was  born  at  Mildred  in  this  county,*  and 
bred  a  Master  of  Arts  in  Trinity  College  in  Cambridge. 

He  afterwards  became  minister  in  Hull,  where  for  his  life-time 
he  was  well  beloved :  most  facetious  in  his  discourse,  yet  grave 
in  his  carriage ;  a  most  excellent  preacher,  who,  like  a  good  hus- 
band, never  broached  what  he  had  new  brewed,  but  preached 
what  he  had  pre-studied  some  competent  time  before;  inso- 
much that  he  was  wont  to  say,  that  he  would  cross  the  common 
proverb,  which  called  "  Saturday  the  working  day,  and  Monday 
the  holiday  of  preachers."  It  happened  that,  anno  Domini 
1640,  Jan.  23,  crossing  Humber  in_a  barrow-boat,  the  same  was 
sand-warped,  and  he  drowned  therein,  by  the  carelesness,  not 
to  say  drunkenness,  of  the  boatmen,  to^  the  great  grief  of  all 
good  men.f  His  excellent  "  Comment  upon  Saint  Peter  "  is 
daily  desired  and  expected,  if  the  envy  and  covetousness  of  pri- 
vate persons  for  their  own  use,  deprive  not  the  publie  of  the 
benefit  thereof. 

*  So  his  son-in-law  informed  me. — F. 

t  With  Mrs.  Skinner  (daughter  to  Sir  Edward  Coke),  a  very  religious  gentle- 
woman  F. 



HUGO  de  BALSHAM  (for  so  is  he  truly  written)  was  born  in 
this  county,  as  may  easily  be  spelled  out  of  the  four  following 
probabilities  put  together :  first,  it  was  fashionable  for  clergy- 
men in  that  age  to  assume  their  surnames  from  the  place  of  their 
nativity :  secondly,  Balsham  is  an  eminent  village  in  this  county, 
whereof  an  ancient  author  taketh  notice,  naming  thence  the 
neighbouring  around  " fcmcenissima  Montana  de  Balsham:5'* 
thirdly,  there  is  no  other  village  of  that  name  throughout  the 
dominions  of  England :  fourthly,  it  is  certain  this  Hugh  was 
bred  in  this  county,  where  he  attained  to  be  sub-prior,  and  after- 
wards bishop,  of  Ely. 

This  Hugh  was  he  who  founded  Peter-house  in  the  university 
of  Cambridge,  the  first  built  (though  not  first  endowed)  college 
in  England.  This  foundation  he  finished  anno  1284,  bestowing 
some  lands  upon  it,  since  much  augmented  by  bountiful  bene- 
factors. He  sat  28  years  in  his  see,  and  died  June  the  6th,  1286. 

Sir  WILLIAM  HORN,  Salter,  son  to  Thomas  Horn,  was  born 
at  Snailwell  in  this  county.  He  was  knighted  by  king  Henry 
the  Seventh ;  and,  anno  148 7>  was  Lord  Mayor  of  London. 
He  gave  bountifully  to  the  preachers  at  Saint  Paul's  Cross,  and 
bestowed  five  hundred  marks  to  the  mending  of  the  highways 
betwixt  Cambridge,  the  county  town  where  he  had  his  first  life, 
and  London,  the  city  where  he  got  his  best  livelihood.f 

Know,  in  that  age,  Horn's  five  hundred  marks  had  in  them 
the  intrinsic  value  of  our  five  hundred  pounds,  which  in  those 
days  would  go  very  far  in  the  wages  of  labourers. 

Sir  WILLIAM  (son  of  John)  PURCASE  was  born  at  Gamling- 
gay  in  this  county,  bred  a  mercer  in  London,  and  Lord  Mayor 
thereof  anno  1497.  He  caused  Moorfields,  under  the  walls, 
to  be  made  plain  ground,  then  to  the  great  pleasure,  since  to 
the  greater  profit,  of  the  city. 

Sir  THOMAS  (son  of  John)  KNEISWORTH  was  born  at  Kneis- 
worth  in  this  county,  bred  a  fishmonger  in  London,  whereof 
he  was  Lord  Mayor  anno  1505.  He  appointed  the  water-con- 
duit at  Bishopsgate  to  be  built,  to  the  great  convenience  of  the 
city,  formerly  much  wanting  that  useful  element.  Be  it  here 
observed,  for  the  encouragement  of  the  industry  of  Cambridge- 
shire apprentices,  that  by  the  premises  it  doth  appear  that  this 
small  county,  in  the  compass  of  eighteen  years,  afforded  three 
Lord  Mayors  and  benefactors,  which  no  other  shire  of  equal  or 
greater  quantity  ever  produced, 

*  Henry  of  Huntingdon.  f  Stow's  Survey  of  London,  p.  575. 

VOL.    I.  R 



JOHN  CRANE  was  born  in  Wisbeach  in  this  county,  bred  an 
apothecary  in  Cambridge,  so  diligent  a  youth,  that  some  judi- 
cious persons  prognosticated  that  he  would  be  a  rich  man.  Dr. 
Butler  took  so  great  a  fancy  unto  him,  that  he  lived  and  died 
in  his  family ;  yea,  and  left  the  main  body  of  his  rich  estate 
unto  him. 

This  Mr.  Crane  had  a  large  heart  to  entertain  his  friends,  and 
annually  very  nobly  treated  all  the  Oxford  men  at  the  Com- 
mencement. He  gave  at  his  death  no  less  than  three  thousand 
pounds  to  charitable  uses,  bestowing  the  house  he  lived  in  (and 
that  a  very  fair  one),  after  his  wife's  death,  on  the  public  profes- 
sor of  physic ;  and,  in  settlement  of  his  other  benefactions,  dis- 
creetly reflected  on  Wisbeach,  where  he  was  born  (to  which  he 
gave  1001.  to  build  a  town  hall) ;  Cambridge,  where  he  lived ; 
Lynn,  where  he  was  well  acquainted ;  Ipswich,  where  Dr.  Butler 
(the  first  founder  of  his  estate)  was  born  :  and  Kingston,  where 
his  lands  lay.  He  in  some  sort  gives  preventing  physic  to  the 
scholars  now  he  is  dead,  by  giving  1001.  to  be  lent  gratis  to  an 
honest  man,  the  better  to  enable  him  to  buy  good  fish  and  fowl 
for  the  University,  having  observed  much  sickness  occasioned 
by  unwholesome  food  in  that  kind.  He  bequeathed  to  Dr. 
Wren  bishop  of  Ely,  and  Dr.  Brounrigg  bishop  of  Exeter,  one 
hundred  pounds  a-piece  by  his  will,  and  as  much  by  a  codicil 
annexed  thereunto.  Besides  his  concealed  charities,  his  hand 
was  always  open  to  all  the  distressed  Royalists.  He  died  in 
May  1650. 


WILLIAM  COLLET  was  born  at  Over  in  this  county,  bred  a 
clerk  in  London,  till  at  last  he  attained  to  be  Keeper  of  the  Re- 
cords in  the  Tower,  none  equalling  him  in  his  dexterity  in  that 
office.  He  went  the  same  path  with  his  predecessor  in  that 
place,  Master  Augustine  Vincent ;  but  out-went  him  as  survivor. 
And  because  method  is  the  mother  of  memory,  he  orderly  di- 
gested all  Records,  that  they  were  to  be  found  in  an  instant. 
He  abominated  their  course,  who  by  a  water  would  refresh  a 
record,  to  make  it  useful  for  the  present,  and  useless  ever  after. 
He  detested,  under  the  pretence  of  mending  it,  to  practise  with 
a  pen  on  any  old  writing,  preserving  it  in  the  pure  nature  there- 
of. Indeed  Master  Selden  and  others,  in  their  works,  have  pre- 
sented posterity  with  a  plentiful  feast  of  English  rarities  ;  but 
let  me  say  that  Collet  may  be  called  their  caterer,  who  furnished 
them  with  provision  on  reasonable  rates.  He  died,  to  the  great 
grief  of  all  antiquaries,  anno  Domini  1644. 

EDWARD  NORGATE,  son  to  Robert  Norgate,  D.D.,  master  of 
Bene't  College,  was  born  in  Cambridge,  bred  by  his  father-in- 
law  (who  married  his  mother)  Nicholas  Felton  bishop  of  Ely, 


who,  finding  him  inclined  to  limning  and  heraldry,  permitted 
him  to  follow  his  fancy  therein  ;  for  parents  who  cross  the  cur- 
rent of  their  children's  genius  (if  running  in  no  vicious  channels) 
tempt  them  to  take  worse  courses  to  themselves. 

He  was  very  judicious  in  pictures,  to  which  purpose  he  was 
employed  into  Italy  to  purchase  them  for  the  Earl  of  Arundel. 
Returning  by  Marseilles,  he  missed  the  money  he  expected ;  and 
being  there  unknowing  of  and  unknown  to  any,  he  was  observed 
by  a  French  gentleman  (so  deservedly  styled)  to  walk  in  the 
Exchange  (as  I  may  call  it)  of  that  city,  many  hours  every 
morning  and  evening,  with  swift  feet  and  sad  face,  forwards  and 
backwards.  To  him  the  civil  Monsieur  addressed  himself, 
desiring  to  know  the  cause  of  his  discontent ;  and  if  it  came 
within  the  compass  of  his  power,  he  promised  to  help  him  with 
his  best  advice.  Norgate  communicated  his  condition ;  to 
whom  the  other  returned,  fe  Take,  I  pray,  my  counsel ;  I  have 
taken  notice  of  your  walking  more  than  twenty  miles  a- day  in 
one  furlong,  upwards  and  downwards ;  and  what  is  spent  in 
needless  going  and  returning,  if  laid  out  in  progressive  motion, 
would  bring  you  into  your  own  country.  I  will  suit  you  (if  so 
pleased)  with  a  light  habit,  and  furnish  you  with  competent 
money  for  a  footman/'  Norgate  very  cheerfully  consented, 
and  footed  it  (being  accommodated  accordingly)  through  the 
body  of  France  (being  more  than  five  hundred  English  miles) ; 
and  so,  leisurely,  with  ease,  safety,  and  health,  returned  into 

He  became  the  best  illuminer  or  limner  of  our  age,  employed 
generally  to  make  the  initial  letters  in  the  patents  of  peers, 
and  commissions  of  ambassadors,  having  left  few  heirs  to  the 
kind,  none  to  the  degree,  of  his  art  therein.  He  was  an  excel- 
lent herald,  by  the  title  of ,t  and,  which  was  the  crown 

of  all,  a  right  honest  man.  Exemplary  his  patience  in  his 
sickness  (whereof  I  was  an  eye-witness),  though  a  complication 
of  diseases,  stone,  ulcer  in  the  bladder,  &c.,  seized  on  him.  He 
died  at  the  Herald's  office,  anno  Domini  1649. 


1.  Robert  Clopton,  son  of  Thomas  Clopton,  of  Clopton,  Draper, 


2.  William  Horn,   son  of  Thomas  Horn,  of  Snaylewell,  Salter, 


3.  William  Purchase,  son  of  John  Purchase,  of  Gamelinghey, 

Mercer,  1497- 

4.  Thomas  Kneisworth,  son  of  John   Kneisworth,  of   Kneis- 

worth,  Fishmonger,  1505. 

5.  Thomas  Mirfine,  son  of  George  Mirfine,  of  Ely,  Skinner,  1518. 

*  This  story  is  of  his  own  relation. — F.  f  Windsor  Herald — ED. 

R    2 



(>.  William  Bowyer,  son  of  William  Bowyer,  of  Harstone,  1543. 
7.  Richard  Mallory,  son  of  Anthony  Mallory,  of  Papworthamus, 
Mercer,  1564, 


THE   SIXTH,    1433. 

John  bishop  of  Ely,  and  John  de  Tiptoft,  Chivaler ; — William 
Allington,  and  John  Burgoin,  Miles,  Knights  for  the  Shire  ; — 
Commissioners  to  take  the  oaths. 

Willielmi  Pole,  mil. 

Johannis  Colvyle,  mil. 

Willielmi  Hazenhull,  mil. 

Willielmi  Malory,  mil. 

Johannis  Argenton,  mil. 

Willielmi  Alyngton,  senioris, 
de  Horseth. 

Laurencii  Cheyne  de  Ditton. 

Henrici  Somer  de  Grancotre. 

Joh.  Cheyne  de  Longstanton. 

Tho.  Dischalers  de  Whaddon. 

Willielmi  Frevill  de  Shelford. 

Johannis  Hore  de  Childerle. 

Johannis  St.  George  de  Haclee. 

Williel.  St.  George  de  eadem. 

Robertus  Bernard  de  Iselham. 

Robertas  Alyngton  de  Horseth . 

Walt.  Clovile  de  Pampisworth. 

Walteri  Cotton  de  Ladevade. 

Williel.  Burgoyne  de  Caxton. 

Johannis  Moris  de  Trumpiton. 

Johannis  Pigot  de  Aviton. 

Thomee  Cotton  de  Lanwade. 

Sim.  Brunne  de  Wenelingham. 

Edm.  Seyntlowe  de  Malketon. 

Alexandri  Child  de  Horton0 

Johannis  Keterich  de  Beche. 

Nicholai  Caldecote  de  Melreth. 

Walteri  Huntydon  de  Trum- 

Radulph.  Sanston  de  Sanston. 

Williel.  Fulburne  de  Fulburn. 

Robert.  Kingston  de  Berklow. 

Richard.  Stotevil  de  Brinkelee. 

Rich.  Foster  de  Bodekisham. 

Johan.  Ansty,  senioris  ,de  Ovye. 

Johan.  Totehill  de  Swafham. 

Joh.  Chirche  de  Bassingburn. 

Edm.  Bendisch  de  Barenton. 
Johannis  Ansty,  junioris,  de 


Radul.  Hamelin  de  Sanston. 
Johannis  Fulburn  de  Fulburn. 
Johannis  Borlee  de  Iselham. 
Johannis  Bury  de  Stretelee. 
Magistri   de    Chepenham    de 


Nich.  Hamond  de  Swofham. 
Tho,  Cantyes  de  Littillington. 
Johannis  Walter  de  Cranden. 
Johannis  West  de  Croxton. 
Joh.Knesworthde  Knesworth. 
Warini  Ingrith  de  Melreth. 
Johannis  Wilford,  senioris,  de 

Johannis  Wilford,  junioris,  de 


Sim.  Hokington  de  Hokington. 
Johannis  Clopton  de  Clop  ton. 
Johannis  Bungeye  de  Fulburn. 
Johannis  Mars  de  Abiton. 
Thomse  Danseth  de  Conyton. 
Tho.  Haneheech  de  Shelford. 
Henrici  Calbech  de  Balsham. 
Will.  Sternede  de  Stapileford. 
Joh.  Wizhton  de  Hokington. 
Roberti  Anfleys  de  Eltislee. 
Will.  Eremilond  de  Iselham. 
Johannis  Vescey  de  Swanesey, 
Galf.  Clopton  de  Clopton. 
Willielmi  Baily  de  Saham. 
Thomse  Parker  de  Kertelenge. 
Thomas  Bulseham  de  Chenele. 
Johannis  Bate  de  Reche. 
Johannis  Taillour  de  Brinkle. 
Johannis  Cotisford  de  Weston. 



Roger!  Hunte  de  Balseham. 
Johannis  How  de  Sanston. 
Thomee  Paris  de  eadem. 
Johan.  Trope  de  Dokisworth. 
Jacob!  Russil  de  Skelington. 
Ric.  Hoggepound  de  Wrotting. 
Johannis  Palgrave  de  eadem. 
Tho.  Cokeparker  de  Campis. 
Johannis  Petzt.  de  eadem. 
Stephani  Petiz  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Lambard  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Smith  de  eadem. 
Johan.  Britsale  de  Berkelow. 
Willielmi  Fuller  de  Lintone. 
Johannis  Plukerose  de  eadem. 
Thomee  Hamont  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Person  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Haberd  de  Onye. 
Johannis  Orveye  de  Ditton. 
Philippus  Grome  de  Hinton. 
Edm.  Preston  de  Botisham. 
Thomae  Bunte  de  eadem. 
Joh.  Wilkin  de  Wilburgham. 
Willielmi   Thornton   Warnier 

de  Saham. 

Th.  Stapleton  de  Badburgham. 
Johan.  Ray  de  Novo  Mercato. 
Henrici  Attelane  de  Beche. 
Johannis  Knith  de  eadem. 
Walteri  Fote  de  Middilton. 
Joh.  Andrew  de  Waterbeche. 
Roberti  Bertelot  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Tylly  de  eadem. 
Henrici  Clerke  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Annfleys  de  Critton. 
Johannis  Fox  de  eadem. 
Richardi  Mably  de  Howis. 
Johan.  Attechercke  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Mably  de  eadem. 
Will.  Colyn  de  Maddyngle. 
Johannis  Custance  de  eadem. 
Thomae  Mesynger  de  eadem. 
Willielmi  Reynolt  de  eadem. 
Will.  Knight  de  Chesterton. 
Johannis  Bacon  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Bernard  de  eadem. 
Henrici  Speed  de  Hyston. 
Willielmi  Page  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Smith,  sen.  de  eadem. 

Walter.  Spernd  de  Cotenham. 

Henrici  Mey  de  eadem. 

Hugonis  Bernard  de  eadem. 

Williel.  Burbage  de  Dray  ton. 

Johannis  Gifford  de  eadem. 

Roberti  Salman  de  eadem. 

Henrici  Roys  de  Lolworth. 

Johannis  Asplen  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Ganelock  de  Over. 

Jo.  Sampson  Bocher  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Barby  de  eadem. 

Henrici  Okeham  de  eadem. 

Wil.  Shetere  de  Wenelingham. 

Johannis  de  Botre  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Shetere  de  eadem. 

Willielmi  Bakere  de  Swansey. 

Simonis  Hurlpeny  de  eadem. 

Richardi  Wright  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Halton  de  eadem. 

Joh.  Howesson  de  Ellysworth. 

Johannis  Bole  de  eadem. 

Willielmi  Fermour  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Wareyan  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Annfleys  de  Pap- 
worth  Everard. 

Jo.  Kent  de  Papworth  Anneys. 

Johannis  Dantre  de  Granele. 

Johannis  Annfleys  de  Cony  ton. 

Thomse  Crispe  de  eadem. 

Williel.  Beton  de  Fendraytone 

Willielmi  Pecard  de  eadem. 

Johanni  Grewere  de  eadem. 

Richardi  Remington  de  Long- 

Henrici  Rede  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Page,  jun.  de  eadem. 

Willielmi  Driffeld  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Hawkyn  de  eadem. 

Willielmi  Attelow  de  eadem. 

Thomae  Pelle  de  Hokington, 

Johannis  Fulham  de  eadem. 

Johan.  Williem.  de  Westwyk. 

Thomee  Herward  de  eadem. 

Henrici  Page  de  Rampton. 

WiUielmi  Page  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Watesson  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Bette  de  Herdewyk. 

Thomae  Newman  de  Toft. 

Thomec  Basely  de  eadem, 



Thomse  Crispe  de  Caldecote. 
Johannis  Faceby  de  eadem. 
Thomse  Adam   de   Everisdon 


Henrici  Bocher  de  eadem. 
Tho.  Tant  de  Everisdon  Parva. 
Willielmi  Baron  de  eadem. 
Williel.  Parnell  de  Kingston. 
Richardi  Madingle  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Couper  de  eadem 
Simonis  Lavenham  de  Brunne. 
Galfridi  Norman  de  eadem. 
Simon  Wareyn  de  Stowe. 
Willielmi  Semer  de  eadem. 
Thomse  Bette  de  eadem. 
Johan.  Freman  de  Esthatbee. 
Johannis  Bradfeld  de  eadem. 
Tho.  Fysher  de  Gamelingey. 
Jonannis  Brampston  de  eadem. 
Walteri  Aydrok  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Smith  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Draper  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Goneld  de  Croxton. 
Willielmi  Redford  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Michell  de  Eltislee. 
Johannis  Gylmyri  de  eadem. 
Thomee  Bernard  de  eadem. 
Thomse  Burgoyne  de  Caxton. 
Johannis  Noris  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Pachat  de  eadem. 
Willielmi  Mold  de  Whaddon. 
Richardi  Lylye  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Oradle  de  eadem. 
Willielmi  Adam  de  Melreth. 
Thomse  Cosyn  de  eadem. 
Willielmi  Lylye  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Gentyng  de  eadem. 
Joh.  Zokesle  de  Meldeburn. 
Johannis  Turnere  de  eadem. 
Thomse  Gentyng  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Bayly  de  eadem. 
Nicholai  Pulter  de  eadem. 
Will.  Turpin  de  Knesworth. 
Johannis  Street  de  eadem. 
Williel.  Willwys  de  Royston. 
Thomee  Mellman  de  eadem. 
Wai.  King,  jun,  de  Hungrihatle. 
Guidonis  Moyn  de  eadem. 
Johannis  Pynk  de  eadem. 

Joh  Malbern  de  Stepilmorden. 

Johan.  Crystmasse  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Busshe  de  eadem. 

Will.  Frost  de  Gyldemyorden. 

Johannis  Lyly  de  eadem. 

Richardi  Pern  de  eadem. 

Rich.  Wolleys  de  Bassingburn. 

Johannis  Parlet  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Reymond  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Bettele  de  eadem. 

Richardi  Batte  de  Abiton. 

Thomse  Lorkin  de  eadem. 

Johan.  Gibbe  de  Litillington. 

Johannis  Benizch  de  eadem. 

Willielmi  Baker  de  Tadlow. 

Thomse  Pelle  de  eadem. 

Johannis  Goslin  de  Cranden. 

Willielmi  Ward  de  eadem. 

Johan.  Derby,  sen.  de  Copton. 

Richardi  Derby  de  eadem. 

Thomse  Sherlee  de  Shengey. 

Johannis  Smith  de  eadem. 

Willielmi  Pink  de  Wendy. 

Prioris  de  Bernwell. 

Prioris  de  Angleseye. 

Prioris  de  Speneye. 

Prioris  de  Fordham. 

Willielmi  Lasselys  persone 
Ecclesiee  de  Over. 

Thomse  Attewode  persone  Ec- 
clesiee de  Ellisworth. 

Johannis  Terinton  persone  Ec- 
clesise  de  Lolworth. 

Johannis  Deping  persone  Ec- 
clesise  de  Critton. 

Nicholai  Holey  persone  Ec- 
clesise  de  Swansey. 

Johannis  Garaway  persone  Ec- 
clesise  de  Fulburn. 

Radulphi  Wathe  persone  Ec- 
clesiee deWillburghamparva. 

Willielmi  Lavender  persone 
Ecclesiee  de  Middilton. 

Richardi  Drayton  persone  Ec- 
clesiee de  Kingston, 

Thomee  Lawngham  persone 
Ecclesiee  de  Eltyslee. 

Roberti  Dixon  persone  Eccle- 
sise  de  Shelford  Magna. 



Adami  persone  Ecclesise  de 

Willielmi  Midleton  persone 
Ecclesiee  de  Clopton. 

Johannis  Blak  persone  Eccle- 
sise de  Hungrihatlee. 

Willielmi  Mows  vicarii  Eccle- 
siae  de  Brunne. 

Johannis  Camisby  persone  Ec- 
clesiae  de  Sneyleswell. 

Johannis  Smith  persone  Ec- 
clesiae  de  Brynkle. 

Johannis  Bocher  vicarii  Eccle- 
siee de  Longstanton. 

Johannis  Gotobed  vicarii  Ec- 
clesiee de  Swafham. 

Rectoris  de  Chenele  vicarii  de 
Dittons  Valens. 

Persone  Ecclesiae  de  Fiditton. 




1  Richardus  Basset,  Alberi- 

cus  de  Veer. 

2  Paganus,     vie.     et      Rob. 


3  Idem. 

5  Idem. 

7  Idem. 

8  Idem. 

9  Nicholai  de  Chenet. 

10  Hamo  Petom,  vie. 

11  Hamo  Petom,  vie. 

12  Hamo  Petom,  et  Phil,   de 


13  Phil,     de     Daventre,     for 

three  years. 

16  Ebrar.  de  Beach,,   et  War. 

de  Basingborn. 

17  Idem. 

18  Ebrardus    de   Beach,    for 

six  years. 

24  Walt,  films   Hugonis,  for 
three  years. 

27  Walt,   filius    Hugonis,   et 
Will,  filius  Stephani. 

28  Walt,  filius  Hugonis. 

29  Rad.  de  Bardulff. 

30  Idem. 

31  Nich.   filius    Roberti,   for 

three  years. 


1  Nich.  filius  Roberti. 

2  Will.  Muschet. 

3  Idem. 


4  Rich.  Anglicus. 

5  Richard.  Anglicus. 

6  Reginaldus  de  Argentuen. 

7  Idem. 

8  Tho.  de  Huntsdon. 

9  Merric.  de  Marignes. 
10  Rob.  de  Insula. 


1  Rob.  de  Insula. 

2  Idem. 

3  Hamo    de   Valoignes,     et 
Rail,  de  Valoigne. 

4  Walt,  de  Stuieclea. 

5  Idem. 

6  Rob.     de     TateshalL,      et 
Magister  Aristoteles. 

7  Idem. 

8  Josteli.  de  Stuieclea. 

9  Idem. 

10  Fulco     filius      Theobald 
for  six  years, 

16  Will.    Comes    Sarisb.    et 
Wer.  de  Marigny. 

17  Will.  Comes  Sarisb. 


2  Fulco      de     Breante,     et 
Radul.  de  Bray. 

3  Idem. 

4  Idem. 

5  Fulkesius  de   Breante,   et 
Joh.  de  Ulicot,  for  four 

9  Galf.     de     Hacfield     sive 




Hadfield,       for       eight 

17  Geremias   de  Caxton,    for 

four  years. 
21  Henri,  de   Colvel,  for  six 


27  Hugo  de  Hodeng. 

28  Rad.     de     Hereford,     for 

three  years. 

31   Phil,     de     Staunton,     for 
three  years. 

34  Henr.  Colvile. 

35  Idem. 

36  Simon  de  Horton. 

37  Idem. 

38  Joh.  de  Moyne. 

39  Joh.  de  Moyne,  et 
Joh.  de  Marines. 

40  Idem. 

41  Will,  de  la  Stow. 

42  Idem. 

43  Will,  le  Moyne. 

44  Joh.  de  Scalarus. 

45  Joh.  de  Scalarus,  et 
Joh.  Lovell. 

46  Saer  de  Frivile. 

47  Johan.    Lovell,    for     five 


52  Almaricus  Pech. 

53  Saerus  de  Frivile. 

54  Idem. 

55  Rob.  del  Estre. 

56  Idem. 

EDWARD.    I. 

1  Rob.  del  Estre. 

2  Rob.  del  Estre. 

3  Walt.  Shelfhanger. 

4  Will,  le  Moyne,  for  three 


7  Bal.  de  Sto  Georgio. 

8  Will,  de  Rothing. 

9  Idem. 

10  Tho.  de  Belhus,  for  seven 

17  Hugo   de    Babington,   for 

eight  years. 

25  Will,  de  Mortuo  Mari. 

26  Will,  de  Sutton. 


27  Tho.  de  Gardinor. 

28  Idem. 

29  Rob.  Hereward. 

30  Rob.    de  Bajose,   for   five 



1  Joh.  Crekes,  et 

Rob.  de    Hoo.    for    three 


4  Joh.  de  Crekes,  for  three 

7  Tho.  do  Stolarus. 

8  Idem. 

9  Radul.  Gifiard,   for   three 


12  Math,  de  Bassingborne. 

13  Joh.  de  Crekes. 

14  Almaricus   de   Zouch,   for 

five  years. 


.  1  Math,  de  Bassingborne. 

2  Idem. 

3  Almar.  la  Zouch. 

4  Idem. 

5  Will,  de  Moyne. 

6  Will,  filius  Joh.  Muchett. 

7  Rich,  de  Bajocis,  et 
Warr.  de  Bassing. 


9  Joh.  de  Lymbery,  et 
Will.  Muschetts. 

10  Tho.  de  Lacy. 

11  Will,  de  Muschett. 

12  Idem. 

13  Warrin.  de  Basingborn. 

14  Idem. 

15  Joh.  de  Papworth,  et 
Joh.  de  Lacy. 

16  Warr.  de  Bassingborn, 

for  four  years. 

20  Rob.  de  Engane. 

21  Idem. 

22  Guido    de    Sto    Cler,    for 

four  years. 

26  Johan.  Lisle    de    Rubeo. 


27  Gui.  de  St.  Clere. 


Anno  Anno 

28  Gui.  de  St.  Clerc.  46  Will,  de  Pappeworth. 

29  Tho.  de  Scalar.  47  Rog.  Harlaston. 

30  Joh.  de  Harewdon.  48  Tho.  Sewalle. 

31  Nich.  Stanell,  for  four  years.     49  Tho.  Torell. 

35  Joh.  Furneux,  et  50  Bald.  St.  George. 
Tho.  Cheyne.  51  Joh.  Deugayne. 

36  N.  Suyvecle,  for  ten  years. 


Anno  Name  and  Arms.  Place. 

1  Joh.  Avenel      ....     Gamlinggay. 

Arms ;  Arg.  a  fess  between  six  annulets  G. 

2  Will.  Moygne. 

Az.  cresuly,  a  fess  dansette  Arg. 

3  Radu.  Wykes. 

4  Hen.  English. 

5  Tho.  Sewale. 

6  Will.  Moygne       .     .     .     ut  prius. 

7  Phil.  TiUney. 

Arg.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  griffins'  heads  erased  G. 

8  Hen.  English. 

9  Joh.  Heningford. 

G.  three  unicorns'  heads  cooped  Or. 

10  Rob.  Paris        ....     Hildersham. 

11  Will.  Pappeworth. 

12  Will.  Chenye. 

Az.  a  fess  inter  three  leopards'  faces  Or. 

13  Edw.  de  la  Pole. 

14  Rob.  de  Paris       .     .     .     ut  prius. 

15  Nice.  Steucle  ....     Stivele,  H. 

16  Joh.  Kinost. 

17  Will.  Chenye,  mil. 

18  Nich.  Paris       ....     ut  prius. 

19  Joh.  Lakynghech. 

20  Joh.  Harlington. 

21  Andr.  Newport. 

Arg.  a  chevron  G.  betwixt  three  leopards'  heads  S. 

22  Idem      ......     ut  prius. 


1  Tho.  Hasdden. 

2  Will.  Rees  and 
Jo.  Howard. 

G.  a  bend  betwixt  six  cross  crosslets  fitchee  Arg. 

3  Idem. 

4  Joh.  Hobildon      .     .     .     ut  prius. 

5  Idem. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

6  Rob.  Scotte. 

7  Joh.  Bernakes. 

8  Joh.  Hobildon. 

9  Joh.  Paniel. 

10  Bald.  St.  George  .     .     .     Hatley,  C. 

Arg.  a  chief   Az. ;  over  all   a  lion  rampart    G.  crown- 
ed O. 

11  Will.  Allein. 

12  Rob.  Scotte. 

HENRY    V. 

1  Rob.  Hockshecho. 

2  Will.  Alington     \.     .     .     Horsheath. 

S.  a  bend  betwixt  six  billets  Arg. 

3  Tho.  Reviles. 

4  RoB.  Scott. 

5  Walt.  Pole,  mil.         .     .     ut  prius. 

6  Will.  AsconhaU. 

7  Tho.  Reviles. 

8  Rob.  Scott. 

9  Idem ut  prius. 

10  Idem ut  prius. 


1  Rob.    Scott,  and 

Will.  Alington      .     .     .  ut  prius. 

2  Wai.  de  la  Pole,  mil.      .  ut  prius. 

3  Nich.  Slyvebley. 

4  Joh.  Hore        ....  Childerley. 

5  Tho.  Dischalers    .     .     .  Whaddon. 

G.  six  scallops,  3,  2,  1,  Arg. 

6  Nich.  Alington     .     .     .     ut  prius. 

7  Walt,  de  la  Pole  .     .     .     ut  prius. 

8  [AMP.]  Lavi.  Cheyney  Ditton,  C. 

9  Jo.  Austey. 

10  Jo.  Shardelow,  mil. 
Joh.  Clopton. 

S.  a  bend  Arg.  between  two  cotisses  dancette  O. 

11  Rob.  Stonham. 

Arg.  on  a  cross  S.  five  escallops  O. 

12  Rog.  Hunt. 

13  Idem. 

14  Rob.  Stonham      .     .     .     ut  prius. 

15  Idem. 

16  Will.  Alington      .     .     .     ut  prius. 

17  Gilb.  Hore       ....     ut  prius. 

18  Hen.  Langley. 

19  Idem. 

20  Will.  Lee. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

21  Tho.  Peyton    ....     Isleham. 

S.  a  cross  engrailed  O.  in  the  first  quarter  a  mullet  Arg. 

22  WiL  St.  George,  mil.     .     ut  prius. 

23  Idem ut  prius, 

24  Joh.  dialers     ....     ut  prius. 

25  Idem. 

26  Tho.  Bernard. 

Arg.  a  bear  rampant,  and  border  engrailed  S. 

27  Wai.  Trumpington     .     .     Trumpington. 

Az.  cresulee  two  trumpets  O. 

28  Joh.  Harlaston. 

Arg.  a  fess  E.  erased  S. 

29  Will.  Alington      .     .     .     ut  prius. 

30  Tho.  Tresham       .     .     .     Northampton. 

Partie  per  saltire,  S.  and  O.  six  trefoils  of  the  first. 

31  Tho.  Peyton     ....     ut  prius. 

32  Will,  Hasdden. 

33  Hen  Paris,  arm.    .     .     .     ut  prius. 


36  Tho.  Tresham,  arm.        .     ut  prius, 

37  Joh.  Colvill,  mil. 

Az.  a  lion  rampant  Arg. ;  over  all  a  label  G. 

38  Tho.  Findefn,  mil. 


1  Joh.  Alington,  arm.        .     ut  prius. 

2  Joh.  Stuke,  arm. 

3  Idem. 

4  Joh.  Cheyne. 

5  Joh.  Boughton,  jun. 

Arg.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  mullets  G. 

6  Joh.  Berleley,  mil. 

G.  a  chevron  betwixt  ten  crosses,  form  six  and  four,  Arg. 

7  Joh.  Forster,  arm. 

S.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  arrows  Arg. 

8  Will.  St.  George  .     .     .     ut  prius. 

9  Rich.  Sapcote,  mil.    .     .     Elton. 

S.  three  dove-coats  Arg. 

10  Tho.  Gray,  arm. 

Barry  of  six  Arg.  and  Az. ;  three  torteaux  in  chief. 

11  Tho.  Gray,  mil.    .     .     .     ut  prius. 

12  Joh.  Austy. 

13  Tho.  Pigott      ....     Abingdon,  C. 

S.  three  pickaxes  Arg. 

14  Jo.  Broughton,  mil.        .     ut  prius. 

15  Joh.  Cheyne,  mil. 

16  Tho.  Cotton,  arm.     .     .     Ladwade,  C. 

S.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  griffins'  heads  erased  Arg. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

17  Will.  Alington,  jun.       .     ut  prius. 

18  Will.  Frevill,  arm.     .     .     Sheford,  Camb. 

G.  three  crescents  Erm. 

19  Rob.  Paris,  arm.   .     .     .     ut  prius. 

20  Tho.  Huntingdon. 

21  Gal.  Bloodwell. 

22  Rob.  Tilney     .     .     .     .     ut  prius. 


1  Rob.  Tanfield. 

2  Job.  Wake,  arm.  .     .     .     Salston,  C. 

O.  two  bars  G.  three  torteaux  in  chief. 

3  Jo.  Hudleston,  mil. 

G.  fretty  Arg. 


1  Will.  Finden. 

2  Tho.  Oxenburgg. 

G.  a  lion  rampant  queuee  forche  Arg.  within  a  border  V. 
charged  en  entour  of  eight  escallops  O. 

3  Will.  Taillard. 

Quarterly,  Arg.  and  S.  a  cross  patonce  quarterly  pierced 

4  Joh.  Hafilden. 

5  Will.  Wentworth. 

S.  a  chevron,  betwixt  three  leopards'  heads  O. 

6  Tho.  Cheyney,  mil, 

7  Will.  Cheyney,  arm. 

8  Joh.  Burgoyne .     .         .     Caxton,  Camb. 

Az.  a  talbot  passant  Arg. 

9  Tho.  Cotton,  arm.     .     .     ut  prius. 

10  Gerrard  Steukly. 

11  Tho.  Cheney,  mil. 

12  Chri.  Peyton,  arm.    .     .     ut  prius. 

13  Rich.  Stutvill,  arm.    .     .     Brynklo,  Camb. 

Barruly  Arg.  and  G.  a  lion  rampant  S. 

14  Rob.  Peiton,  mil. .     .     .     ut  prius. 

15  Tho.  Cotton,  arm.     .     .     ut  prius. 

16  Jo.  Clarevax 

17  Edw.  Lucy,  arm. 

G.  crusuly  O.  three  lucies  (or  pkes)  hauriant  Arg. 

18  Tho.  Cheyne,  mil. 

19  Chri.  Druell,  arm. 

20  Joh.  Frevile,  arm .     .     .     ut  prius. 

21  Anth.  Mallory,  arm. 

O.  a  lion  rampant  G.  collared  of  the  first. 

22  Idem ut  prius. 

23  Will.  Findern,  mil. 

24  Tho.  Gery. 



Anno  Name.  Place. 

1  Fra  Halisden,  arm. 

2  Joh.  Paris,  arm. 

3  Egid.  Alington,  mil.  .  .     it  t  prius. 

4  Tho.  Cotton,  arm.     .  .     Connington. 

Az.  an  eagle  displayed  Arg. 

5  Tho.  Throsby. 

6  Ra.  Chamberlein. 

O.  fretty  S.  on  a  chief  of  second  three  bezants. 

7  Joh.  Paris,  arm.    .     .     .     ut  prius. 

8  Joh.  Cutte,  mil.    .     .     .     Childerley,  Camb. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  engrailed  S.  three  plates 

9  Will.  Tanfeld,  arm. 

10  Anth.  Malory,  arm.        .     ut  prius. 

11  Egid.  Alenton,  mil.   .     .     ut  prius. 

12  Fran.  Alisdon,  arm. 

13  Joh.  Moor,  arm. 

14  Joh.  Huddleston  .     .     .     ut  prius. 

15  Anth.  Hansard, 

G.  three  mullets  Arg. 

16  Joh.  Huddleston  .     .     .  ut  prius. 

17  Rob.  Payton,  arm.    .     .  ut  prius. 

18  Tho.  Piggot,  arm.      .     .  ut  prius. 

19  Rob.  Aprice,  arm.      .     .  Washingly,  Ha. 

S.  three  spears'  heads  Arg. 

20  Joh.  Paris,  arm.    .     .  .  ut  prius. 

21  Anth.  Hansard,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

22  Egi.  Alington,  mil.    .  .  ut  prius. 

23  Anth.  Malory,  arm.  .  ,  ut  prius. 

24  Tho.  Eliot,  mil.    .     .  .  Carlton,  Camb. 

25  Rich.  Sapcotte,  mil.  .  .  ut  prius. 

26  Tho.  Chichele,  arm. 

O.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  cinqfoils  G. 

27  Rob.  Peyton,  mil.      .     .     ut  prius. 

28  Tho.  Crumwell,  arm. 

[See  our  Notes  in  this  year. — F.] 

29  Tho.  Megges,  arm. 

30  Tho.  Hutton,  arm. 

31  Phu.  Paris,  arm.  .     .     .     ut  prius. 

32  Rich.  Crumwell    .     .     .     Hinchinbrook,  H. 

S.  a  lion  rampant  Arg. 

33  Oliv.  Leder,  arm. 

34  Edw.  North,  mil.       .     .     Catlidge. 

Az.  a  lion  passant  O.  between  three  flowers-de-luce  Arg. 

35  Rob.  Aprice,  arm.      .     .     ut  prius. 

36  Tho.  Eliot,  mil.  ut  prius. 

37  Egid.  Alington,  mil.  .     .     ut  prius. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

38  Law.  Tailard,  mil.      .     .     utprius. 


1  Tho.  Cotton,  arm.  .  .  ut  prius. 

2  Joh.  Hudleston     .  .  .  ut  prius. 

3  Joh.  Cotton,  arm.  .  .  ut  prius. 

4  Tho.  Bolles,  arm. 

Arg.  on  a  chevron  betwixt  three  boars'  heads  couped  S. 
as  many  scallops  O.  a  border  V.  bezantee. 

5  Joh.  Cutte,  mil. 

6  Egi.  Alington,  mil.     .     .     ut  prius. 


1  Rob.  Peyton,  arm.     .     .     ut  prius. 

REX    PHIL,    et    MA.    REGINA. 

2  Oliv.  Leaden,  mil. 

3  Law.  Taylard,  mil.  .  .  ut  prius. 

4  Joh.  Cotton,  mil.  .  .  ut  prius. 

5  Rob.  Tirwhite,  mil.  .  .  LINCOLNSHIRE. 

G.  three  pewets  O. 

6  Will.  Laurence,  arm.      .     St.  Ives. 

Arg.  a  cross  ragule  G.  on  a  chief  of  the  second  a  lion  pas- 
sant gardant  O. 


1  Joh.  Hutton,  arm. 

Arg.  a  chief  V.  charged  with  an  eagle  displayed,  within  a 
border  engrailed  G. 

2  Tho.  Cotton,  mil.       .     .     ut  prius. 

3  Fran.  Hynde,  arm.    .     .     Madenly,  C. 

Arg.  on  a  chev.  G.  three  lozenges  O.  betwixt  as  many 
goats'  heads  grazed  Az.  armed  and  collared  of  the  third ; 
on  a  chief  S.  a  lion  passant  guardant  Erm. 

4  Hen.  Darcy,  arm.      .     .     Leighton,  H. 

Az.  three  cinq-foils  betwixt  nine  crosses   crosslets  Arg. 

5  Cle.  Chichiley,  arm.  .     .     ut  prius. 

6  Will.  Mallpry,  arm.  .     . 

7  Hen.  Williams,  alias 

Cromwell,  mil.  .     .     . 

8  Wil.  Worthington. 

9  Rob.  Peyton,  arm.    .     .     ut  prius. 

10  Tho.  Revell,  arm. 

11  Hen.  Longe,  arm.      .     .     Shengey,  C. 

S.  a  lion  ramp,  betwixt  eight  crosses  crossed  Arg. 

12  Fran.  Hynde,  arm.    .     .     ut  prius. 

13  Hen.  Crumwell          .     .     ut  prius. 

14  Joh.  Cutts,  mil.         .     .     utprius. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

15  Tho.  Wendy  .     .     Hastinfield,  Cam. 

Az.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  lions5  heads  erased  within  a 
border  engrailed  O. 

16  Joh  Hutton,  arm.      .     .     ut  prius. 

17  Will.  Mallory,  arm.        .     ut  prius. 

18  Rob.  Bevill,  arm.       .     .     Chasterton. 

G.  a  chevron  O.  betwixt  three  bezants. 

19  Tho.  Reu,  arm. 

20  Fitz  Rad  Chamberlaine      ut  prius. 

21  Tho.  Holmes,  arm. 

22  Henry  Crumwell,  mil.   .     ut  prius. 

23  Rob.  Taylor. 

24  Tho.  Cotton,  arm.     .     .     ut  prius. 

25  Hen.  Darcy,  mil.       .     .     ut  prius. 

26  Anth.  Cage,  mil. 

Partie  per  Pale  Az.  and  G. ;  over  all  a  saltire  O. 

27  Tho.  Wendy,  arm.     .     .  ut  prius. 

28  Rob.  Peiton,  arm.      .     .  ut  prius. 

29  Fran.  Crumwell         .     .  ut  prius. 

30  Rad.  Bevill,  arm.       .     .  ut  prius. 

31  Fran.  Hynde,  mil.     .     .  ut  prius. 

32  Thomas  Chichley,  arm.  ut  prius. 

33  Joh.  Cotton,  arm.      .     .  ut  prius. 

34  Hen.  Crumwell          .     .  ut  prius. 

35  Joh.  Peyton,  arm.      .     .  ut  prius. 

36  Tho.  March,  arm.      .     .  Waresley,  H. 

O.  three  pales  A. ;  on  a  chief  G.  three  talbots'  heads  erazed 
of  the  first. 

37  Rob.  Brudenell          .     .     Diddington,  H. 

Arg.  a  chevron  G.  betwixt  three  caps  Az. 

38  Anth.  Cage,  arm.      .     .     ut  prius. 

39  Jar.  Clifton,  mil.       .     .     Leigh  ton,  H. 

S.  semee  de  cinqfoils,  a  lion  rampant  Arg. 

40  Oli.  Crumwell,  mil.  .  ut  prius. 

41  Egi.  Allington,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

42  Will.  Hind,  arm.  .  ut  prius. 

43  Joh.  Cutts,  mil.         .  .  ut  prius. 

44  Tho.  Wendy,  arm.     .  .  ut  prius. 

45  Joh'  Bedell,  mil.  pri. 

Jaco Hamarton,  Hunt. 

G.  a  chev.  engrailed  betwixt  three  scollops  Arg. 

REG*    JAC. 

1  Joh.  Bedell,  mil.  .  .  ut  prius. 

2  Joh.  Peyton,  mil.  .  .  ut  prius. 

3  Rob.  Bevill,  mil.  .  .  ut  prius. 

4  Tho.  Jermy,  mil.  .  .  Teversham,  C. 

Arg.  a  lion  rampant  guardant  G. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

5  Rob.  Payne,  mil.       .     .     Medlow,  H. 

Az.  a  bend  trunked  ragulee  betwixt  six  etoiles  O. 

6  Joh.  Cage,  arm.         .     .     ut  prius. 

7  Oliv.  Cheney,  mil.     .     .     Steukley,  H. 

8  Reg.  Millicent,  mil. 

9  Sim.  Steward,  mil.    .     .     Sturney,  C. 

Quarterly :  first,  France  on  a  border  G.,  eight  fer  malauxes 
O. ;  the  second,  O.  a  fess  cheeky  Arg.  and  Az.  a  border 
engrailed  G. 

10  Edw.  Hind,  arm.       .     .     ut  prius. 

11  Tho.  Baldwyn,  arm. 

12  Edw.  Aldred,  arm. 

13  Mi.  Sands,  mil.  et  bar.        Wilburham. 

O.  a  fess  indented  betwixt  three  crosses-crosslets  fitche  G. 

14  Fran.  Brown,  arm. 

15  Will.  Wendy,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

16  Tho.  Steward,  mil.     .     .     ut  prius. 

17  Joh.  Cutts,  mil.         .     .     ut  prius. 
IS  Tho.  Maples,  arm.     .     .     Stow. 

Az.  a  chevron  quarterly  O.  and  Arg.  between  three 
flowers-de-luce,  of  the  second. 

19  Rob.  Symonds  .     .     Wichford,  C. 

20  Ed.  Peiton,   mil.  etbar.     ut  prius. 

21  Rob.  Audley,  arm.     .     .     St.  Ives. 

22  Jac.  Reynold,  mil. 

CAR.     REG. 

1  Mart.  Peirce,  arm.     .     .     CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

G.  a  chevron  Erm.  betwixt  three  dragons5  heads  erased 

2  Joh.  Goldsburgh       .     .     Godmanchester  A. 

3  Rob.  Hagar,  arm.      .     .     Buyne-cast,  Ca. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  S.  three  lions  passant  on  the  first. 

4  Tho.  Parker,  arm. 

5  Jacob  Pedley,  arm. 

6  Tho.  Terrell,  arm.      .     .     Fulborn  C. 

Arg.  two  chevrons  Az.  within  a  border  engrailed  G. 

7  Rich.  Covil,  arm. 

Az.  a  lion  rampant  Arg.  a  file  of  three  lambeaux  G. 

8  Capel.  Bedell,  arm.         .     ut  prius. 

9  An th.  Cage,  arm.       .     .     ut  prius. 

10  Rob.  Ballam,  arm. 

11  Ludo.  Dyer,  bar.       .     .     Gr.  Stourton,  Hu. 

O.  a  chief  indented  G. 


12  Joh.  Carleton,  bar.     .     .     Chevely. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  S.  three  mascats  of  the  first. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

13  Tho.  Chichesley         .     .     ut  f/riits. 

14  Tho.  Wendy,  arm.     .     .     ut  prius. 

G.  a  fess  betwixt  three  escallops  O. 

15  Tho.  Pichard  .     .     Trumpington. 

Arg.  a  fess  betwixt  three  crosses  fitchee  G. 

16  Joh.  Crane,  arm.       .     .     Kingston. 

S.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  griffins5  heads  crazed  Arg. 
1?  Joh.  Cotton,  mil.  Landwad. 



18  Tho.  Martin,  mil.      .     .     Barton. 

Arg.  an  eagle  displayed  G. 

19  Idem  ....     ut  prius. 

20  Onslo.  Winch,  arm. 

21  Tris.  Diumond      ....   Wei. 


16.  THOMAS  COTTON,  Arm. — This  Thomas  Cotton  (different 
in  arms  and  descent  from  the  Cottons  of  Huntingdonshire)  was 
of  Cambridgeshire,  the  same  person  who  in  the  gentry  of  that 
county  [Henrici  VI.  12.]  was  returned  the  twenty-second  in 


24.  THOMAS  ELIOT,  Mil. — He  was  son  to  Sir  Richard 
Eliot,  and  born  (some  say)  in  Suffolk ;  but  his  house  and  chief 
estate  lay  in  this  county.*  After  his  long  sailing  into  foreign 
parts,  he  at  last  cast  anchor  at  home ;  and  being  well  skilled  in 
Greek  and  Latin,  was  the  author  of  many  excellent  works.  Of 
these,  one  in  Latin  was  styled,  "  Defensorium  bonarum  mulie- 
rum,"  or  "  The  defence  of  good  women  ;f  "  though  some  will 
say  that  such  are  hardly  found,  and  easily  defended. 

He  wrote  also  an  excellent  dictionary  of  Latin  and  English, 
if  not  the  first,  the  best  of  that  kind  in  that  age ;  and  England 
then  abounding  with  so  many  learned  clergymen,  I  know  not 
which  more  to  wonder  at,  that  they  missed,  or  he  hit  on  so 
necessary  a  subject.  Let  me  add,  Bishop  Cooper  grafted  his 
dictionary  on  the  stock  of  Sir  Thomas  Eliot ;  which  worthy 
knight  deceased  1546,  and  was  buried  at  Carlton  in  this 

28.  THOMAS  CROMWELL,  Arm. — Here,  reader,  I  am  at  a 
perfect  loss,  and  do  desire  thy  charitable  hand  to  lead  me.  No 
Cromwell  Thomas  can  I  find  at  this  time  in  this  county,  and 
can  hardly  suspect  him  to  be  the  Cromwell  of  that  age,  because 
only  additioned  Armiger.  Indeed,  I  find  him  this  very  year 

*  Bale,  Descript.  Brit.  Cent.  8.  num.  77. 
f  Bale,   de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis,  Cent.  8.  num.  77. 
VOL.    I.  S 


created  Baron  of  Okeham  ;  but  cannot  believe  that  he  was  un- 
knighted  so  long,  besides  the  improbability  that  he  would  con- 
descend to  such  an  office,  having  no  interest  I  ever  met  with  in 
Cambridgeshire,  though  (which  may  signify  somewhat)  he  was 
at  this  time  chancellor  of  the  university  of  Cambridge.  Thus 
I  have  started  the  doubt,  which  others  may  hunt  down  to  their 
own  satisfaction. 

34.  EDWARD  NORTH,  Mil. — He  was  a  prudent  person,  and 
in.  managing  matters  of  importance  of  great  despatch ;  not  un- 
skilled in  the  law,  and  eminently  employed  in  the  Court  of 
Augmentation ;  a  court  though  short-lived  (erected  in  the  end 
of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  dissolved  in  the  beginning  of  king 
Edward  the  Sixth's  reign ),  yet  very  beneficial  to  the  officers 
therein.  This  Sir  Edward  was  made,  by  queen  Mary,  Baron  of 
Catlidge,  in  this  county  ;  and  was  a  considerable  benefactor  to 
Peter-house,  in  Cambridge,  where  he  is  remembered  in  their 
parlour,  with  this  distich  under  his  picture  : 

"  Nobilis  hie  ver£  fuerat  si  nobilis  ullus, 
Qui  sibi  principium  nobilitatis  erat." 

He  was  father  to  Roger  Lord  North,  and  great-grandfather  to 
Dudley  Lord  North,  now  surviving.* 


2.  JOHN  HuDDLESTON.f- — He  was  highly  honoured  after- 
wards by  queen  Mary,  and  deservedly.  Such  the  trust  she  re- 
posed in  him,  that  (when  Jane  Grey  was  proclaimed  queen)  she 
came  privately  to  him  to  Salston,  and  rid  thence  behind  his  ser- 
vant (the  better  to  disguise  herself  from  discovery)  to  Framling- 
ham  Castle.  She  afterwards  made  him  (as  I  have  heard)  her 
privy- councillor,  and  (besides  other  great  boons)  bestowed  the 
bigger  part  of  Cambridge  castle  (then  much  ruined)  upon  him, 
with  the  stones  whereof  he  built  his  fair  house  in  this  county. 
I  behold  his  family  as  branched  from  the  Huddlestones  in 


14.  JOHN  CUTS,  Mil. — He  was  a  most  bountiful  house- 
keeper, as  any  of  his  estate ;  insomuch  that  queen  Elizabeth,  in 
the  beginning  of  her  reign  (whilst  as  yet  she  had  peace  with 
Spain),  the  sickness  being  at  London,  consigned  the  Spanish 
ambassador  to  this  knight's  house  in  this  county.  The  ambas- 
sador coming  thither,  and  understanding  his  name  to  be  John 
Cuts,  conceived  himself  disparaged  to  be  sent  to  one  of  so  short 
a  name ;  the  Spanish  gentleman  generally  having  voluminous 
surnames  (though  not  so  long  as  the  deity  in  New  Spain,  called 
Yoca  huvaovamaorocoti) ,  usually  adding  the  place  of  their  habi- 

Who  died  June  4,  1677  ;  and  was  the  immediate  ancestor  of  the  present  Earl 

of  Guildford ED. 

f  Misprinted  Sir  Robert,  in  my  "  Ecclesiastical  History." — F. 


tation  for  the  elongation  thereof.*  But  soon  after  the  Don 
found  that  what  the  knight  lacked  in  length  of  name,  he  made 
up  in  the  largeness  of  his  entertainment. 

34.  HENRY  CROMWELL,,  Mil. — This  was  the  fourth  time  he 
was  sheriff  in  the  reign  of  the  queen.  He  was  son  to  Richard 
Cromwell.,  Esquire,  sheriff  in  the  thirty-second  of  king  Henry 
the  Eighth ;  to  whom  his  valour  and  activity  so  endeared  him, 
that  he  bestowed  on  him  so  much  abbey-land  in  this  county, 
as  at  that  day,  at  a  reasonable  rate,  was  worth  twenty  thousand 
pounds  a  year,  and  upwards.  He  was  no  whit  at  all  allied  to 
(though  intimately  acquainted  with)  Thomas  Lord  Cromwell 
(the  mauler  of  monasteries ) ;  which  I  knowingly  affirm,  though 
the  contrary  be  generally  believed :  for,  when  Doctor  Goodman, 
late  Bishop  of  Gloucester,  presented  a  printed  paper  to  Oliver 
Cromwell  (grandchild  to  this  our  sheriff),  mentioning  therein 
his  near  affinity  to  the  said  Lord  Cromwell,  the  pretended  pro- 
tector, desirous  to  confute  a  vulgar  error,  in  some  passion 
returned, "  that  lord  was  not  related  to  my  family  in  the  least 

39.  JARVASIUS  CLIFTON,  Mil.  —  He  had  a  fair  estate  at 
Barrington,  in  Somersetshire,  whence  he  removed  to  Hunting- 
donshire, on  his  match  with  the  sole  daughter  and  heir  of  Sir 
Henry  Darcy  of  Leightonbromswold,  in  that  county.  This  Sir 
Jarvase  was  by  king  James  created  Baron  of  Leighton  aforesaid ; 
and  there  began  a  beautiful  house,  which  he  lived  not  to  finish. 
His  sole  daughter  Katherine  was  married  to  Esme  Steward,  Duke 
of  Lenox,  to  whom  she  bare  the  truly  illustrious  (by  virtues  and 
high  extraction)  James  Duke  of  Richmond. 


9.  SIMON  STEWARD,  Mil.— I  remember  he  lived  (after  he 
was  knighted)  a  fellow- commoner  in  Trinity-hall,  where  these 
his  arms  are  fairly  depicted  in  his  chamber  with  this  distich 
over  them : 

Francorum  Carohis  voluit  sic  Stemmata  ferri, 
Singula  cum  valeant  sunt  meliora  simid. 

11  French  Charles  would  have  these  Coats  to  be  thus  worn  ; 
When  singly  good,  they're  better  jointly  borne." 

But  how  the  royal  name  of  Steward  came  first  into  this  county, 
consult,  I  pray,  the  ensuing  epitaph  in  Ely  Minster  (as  my  son 
hath  informed  me)  by  himself,  exactly  from  his  monument : 

"  Premendo  sustulit :  Ferendo  vicit. 

"  Secundum  Redemptoris  mundi  adventum  expectat  hie  Mar- 
cus Steward,  miles,  films  hseresque  Simionis  Steward,  armig. 

*  Lord  Herbert,  in  the  Life  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  p.  181. 
s  2 


Nicholao  Steward,  armig.  geniti,  qui  patrem  habuit  Richardum 
Steward,  armig.  quern  genuit  Thomas  Steward,  armig.  Johannis 
Steward,  militis,  films,  cujus  pater  erat  Johannes  Steward,  miles, 
ejus  nominis  in  Anglia  primus,  qui  cum  Jacobo  Roberti  Scotise 
regis   filio   in  Franciam   transfretans    (regnante   tune  Henrico 
quarto)  vento  eorum  propositis  opposite,  in  Anglicano  littore 
applicuerunt,  ubi  diu  post  pro  obsidibus   custodiebantur :  Sed 
hie  Johannes  in  amorem  cujusdam  virginis  Anglicanae,  nomine 
Talmach,   incidens,    obtentaque   Johannae    Reginae   venia,    cui 
ancilla  inserviebat,  earn  in  conjugem  cepit,  infidemque  regis  Hen- 
rici  dum  vixisset  solenniter  est  juratus.     Hujus  pater  erat  Alex- 
ander, quern  genuit  Andreas  Steward,  miles,  Alexandri  cogno- 
minati  Ferocis  filiorum  natu  minimus,   cujus   pater  erat  Wal- 
terus  Steward,  a  Dundevale  in   Scotia  dictus.     Sed   primus  in 
genealogia  hac  summonitus,  et  hie  sepultus,  ex  Anna  una  fili- 
arum  et  haeredum  Roberti   Huicke,  armig.  reginse  Elizabethan 
medici  primarii,  varies   habuit   liberos,  quos  omnes  inadultos 
Fata  rapuere,  praeter  duos,  Mariam   scilicet  Gulielmo  Forster  in 
corn.   Berke.    militi   nuptam,   et    Simionem   Steward,  militem, 
haeredem  filiumque  suum  moestissimum,  qui  pii  officii,   singula— 
risque  erga  patrem  amoris  gratia,  hoc  posuit  monumentum,  ubi 
inscriptum  legas,  quod  cum  multos  annos,  et  bello  et  pace,  pro 
patria  feliciter  egisset,  aetate  tandem  confectus  militari  singulo, 
et  auratis  calcaribus  a  Jacobo  Rege  Serinissimo  ornatus,   senex 
pene   octogenarius   fatali    necessitati   concessit,  28°  Februarii, 
anno  Salutis  1603." 


It  is  hard  for  a  physician  to  prescribe  proper  physic  to  such 
a  patient,  who  hath  a  hot  liver  and  a  cold  stomach,  because 
what  is  good  for  the  one  is  bad  for  the  other.  As  hard  it  is,  for 
weather  to  please  the  concernments  of  this  county,  whose 
northern  part,  being  moist  and  fenny,  desires  fair  weather ; 
south  and  south-eastern,  dry  and  heathy,  delighteth  so  much 
rain,  that  it  can  well  digest  (save  in  harvest-time)  one  shower 
every  day,  and  two  every  Sunday.  But  the  God  of  heaven, 
(i  who  can  make  it  rain  on  one  place,  and  not  on  another,"*  can 
fit  the  necessity  of  both  ;  and  I  remit  them  both  to  his  provi- 

*  Amos  iv.   7. 


Edward  BENTHAM,  professor  of  divinity  at  Oxford;  born  at 
Ely  1707;  died  1776. 


James  BENTHAM,  divine  and  architectural  historian  of  Ely  Ca- 
thedral; born  at  Ely  1708;  died  1794. 

Edmund  CASTE  LL,  orientalist,  author  of  ee  Lexicon  Heptaglot- 
ton,"  or  dictionary  of  seven  tongues;  born  at  Hatley  1606; 
died  1685. 

William  COLE,  antiquarian  collector;  born  at  Little  Abington 
1714;  died  1782. 

Richard  CUMBERLAND,  dramatic  and  miscellaneous  writer,  the 
Terence  of  England;  born  at  Cambridge  1?32  ;  died  1811. 

James  DRAKE,  physician,  political  writer,  and  translator  of  He- 
rodotus; born  at  Cambridge  1667;  died  1707- 

James  DUPORT,  Master  of  Magdalen  College,  Dean  of  Peterbo- 
rough, Greek  professor,  and  critic ;  bom  at  Cambridge ;  died 

William  GODWIN,  author  of  "  Political  Justice,"  and  numerous 
other  works  ;  bom  at  Wisbeach  1756;  died  183G . 

Israel  LYONS,  son  of  a  Polish  Jew,  mathematician  and  botanist ; 
born  at  Cambridge  1739;  died  1784. 

Lady  Damaris  MASHAM,  amiable  and  learned ;  born  at  Cam- 
bridge 1658;  died  1708. 

Catherine  PEPYS,  foundress  of  Cottenham  School ;  born  at  Cot- 
tenham ;  died  1707. 

Thomas  RUTHERFORTH,  divine  and  philosopher  ;  born  at  Pap- 
worth  St.  Everard  1?12. 

Robert  SHERRINGHAM,  antiquary  and  Hebrew  scholar ;  born  at 
Cambridge;  died  1677- 

Sir  Robert  TABOR,  physician,  the  first  who  used  bark  with 
success  in  fevers  ;  died  1681. 

Thomas  TENISON,  learned  and  pious  Archbishop  of  Canterbury; 
born  at  Cottenham  1636;  died  1715. 

William  WHITEHEAD,  poet  laureat  and  dramatist;  born  at 
Cambridge  1715;  died  1785. 

%*  Cambridgeshire  is  comparatively  without  a  county  historian, — Carter's  His- 
tory being  contained  in  a  single  volume ;  and  Blomefield's  Collectanea  Cantabri- 
giensia  consisting  of  mere  church  notes.  Several  accounts  and  descriptions,  how- 
ever, of  the  University  have  been  given  to  the  world  by  different  authors  ;  viz. 
Masters,  Parker,  Carter,  Wall,  Kilner,  Dyer,  &c.  ;  and  the  Magna  Britannia  and 
Beauties  of  England  treat  of  the  county  generally. 


CHESHIRE  lieth  in  form  of  an  axe,  Wirral  being  the  handle 
thereof,  having  Lancashire  (parted  with  the  river  Mersey)  on 
the  north  ;  a  corner  of  Yorkshire  on  the  north-east ;  Derby  and 
Stafford-shires  (severed  with  mountains)  on  the  east ;  Shropshire 
on  the  south ;  Denbigh,  Flintshire,  and  the  Irish  Ocean,  on  the 
west  thereof.  The  longest  part  (advantaged  with  excursions)  is 
four  and  forty,  the  broadest  twenty-five  miles. 

This  county  was  reputed  a  Palatinate  before  the  Conquest,  and 
since  continued  in  the  same  dignity.  It  is  much  senior  to  Lan- 
cashire in  that  honour,  which  relateth  to  Cheshire  as  the  copy 
to  the  original,  being  Palatinated  but  by  king  Edward  the  Third, 
referring  the  duke  of  Lancaster  to  have  his  regal  jurisdiction, 
"adeo  integre  et  libere  sicut  comes  Cestriee,"  &c.  And 
whereas  records  are  written  in  the  common  law,  "contra  coro- 
nam  et  dignitatem  Regis,"  in  this  county  they  run  thus,  "  con- 
tra dignitatem  gladii  Cestrifle." 

It  aboundeth  with  all  things  necessary  to  man's  life ;  and  it  is 
observable  that  all  the  rivers  and  rivulets  therein  rise  in,  or  run 
through,  some  meer  or  pool,  as  Cumber-meer,  Bag-meer,  Pick- 
meer,  Ridley-pool,  Petty-pool,  &c. ;  so  that  Cheshire  hath  more 
lakes  in  this  kind,  than  all  the  neighbouring  counties,  affording 
plenty  of  carps,  tenches,  trouts,  eels,  &c.  therein. 

The  gentry  of  this  county  are  remarkable  upon  a  four-fold 
account:  1.  For  their  numerousness,  not  to  be  paralelled  in 
England  in  the  like  extent  of  ground.  2.  Their  antiquity,  many 
of  their  ancestors  being  fixed  here  before  the  Norman  Conquest. 
3.  Their  loyalty,  especially  against  a  northern  enemy,  heartily 
hating  a  Scot  ;*  understand  it  before  the  union  of  the  two  king- 
doms. 4.  Hospitality,  no  county  keeping  better  houses,  which, 
because  all  grows  on  their  own,  may  be  the  better  afforded. 

One  said  pleasantly,  "  that  it  appeared  to  all  people  that  the 
Cheshire  gentry  were  good  house-keepers,  because  they  gave  so 
many  wheat  sheaves,  bread  being  the  staff  of  hospitality, 
wheaten  the  best  of  bread  in  their  coats  of  arms."  Indeed,  I 
have  told  no  fewer  than  six  and  twenty,  called  garbs  in  heraldry, 

*  Vale  Royal  of  England,  page  19. 


which  are  borne  in  the  several  coat-armours  of  the  gentry  of  this 
county ;  the  original  whereof  is  sufficiently  known  to  be  out  of 
conformity  to  Hugh  Kivelioc,  the  fifth  Earl-Palatine  of  Chester, 
who  gave  Azure,  six  garbs  Or.  And  many  of  the  gentry  of  the 
county,  being  his  dependants,  had  assigned  them,  or  did  assume 
in  their  shields,  something  in  allusion  thereunto. 


This  is  most  essential  to  man's  livelihood,  without  which  nei- 
ther sacrifice  was  acceptable  to  God,  nor  meat  is  savory  to  man. 
It  is  placed  on  the  board  with  bread,  to  shew  that  they  are 
equally  necessary  to  man's  sustenance. 

A  general  in  our  late  wars  soundly  chid  a  captain  for  his  so 
soon  surrendering  of  a  castle,  seeing  he  had  store  of  powder 
therein.  "  I  had/'  returned  the  captain,  e(  plenty  of  black  but 
no  white  powder  at  all." 

And  here  it  is  remarkable  to  observe  the  defects  which  sun- 
dry places  have  herein : 

1.  Some  countries  have  salt  without  flesh  within  many  miles; 
as  in  the  south  part  of  Africa. 

2.  Some  have  plenty  of  flesh,  but  no  salt  to  make  use  thereof; 
as  in  many  parts  of  Tartary. 

3.  Some  have  flesh  and  salt,  but    the  flesh  utterly  incapable 
of  seasoning ;  as  about  Nombre  de  Dios  and  other  places  near 
the  meridian  in  America. 

4.  Some  have  flesh,  salt,  and  flesh  capable  thereof,  but  so 
unconscionably  dear,  that  common  people  have  little  comfort 
therein ;  as  in  France,  no  country  having  salt  more  plentiful, 
and  (for  reason  of  State)  most  excessive  in  the  rate  thereof. 

These  things  considered,  we,  who  have  flesh,  salt,  salt  at  rea- 
sonable prices,  and  flesh  capable  thereof,  have  cause  to  profess, 

"  O  fortunati  nimium  bona  si  sua  norint 

The  manner  of  making  of  salt  in  this  county  is  so  largely  and 
exactly  described  by  Mr.  Camden,  that  nothing  can  be  added 


Poor  men  do  eat  it  for  hunger,  rich  for  digestion.  It  seems 
that  the  ancient  British  had  no  skill  in  the  making  thereof,  till 
taught  by  the  Romans,  and  now  the  Romans  may  even  learn 
of  us  more  exactness  therein .*  This  county  doth  afford  the 
best  for  quantity  and  quality;  and  yet  their  cows  are  not  (as  in 
other  shires)  housed  in  the  winter;  so  that  it  may  seem  strange 

*  Camden's  Britannia,  in  Cheshire. 


that  the  hardiest  kine  should  yield  the  tenderest  cheese.*  Some 
essayed  in  vain  to  make  the  like  in  other  places,  though  hence 
they  fetched  both  their  kine  and  dairy-maids.  It  seems  they 
should  have  fetched  their  ground  too  (wherein  surely  some 
occult  excellency  in  this  kind),  or  else  so  good  cheese  will  not 
be  made.  I  hear  not  the  like  commendation  of  the  butter  in 
this  county :  and  perchance  these  two  commodities  are  like 
stars  of  a  different  horizon,  so  that  the  elevatiou  of  the  one  to 
emmency  is  the  depression  of  the  other. 


Stones,  they  are  natural;  as  fitted  for  that  purpose,  artificial. 
Very  great  and  good  are  digged  up  at  Mowcop-hill  in  this 
county,  though  one  moiety  thereof  be  in  Staffordshire,  out  of 
which  the  river  Trent  doth  arise.  How  necessary  these  are  for 
man's  sustenance,  is  proved  by  the  painful  experience  of  such 
aged  persons,  who  wanting  their  molare  teeth  must  make  use 
of  their  gums  for  grinders  ;  and  such  bad  shifts  should  men  be 
put  to,  if  wanting  mills  where  stones  turn  corn  into  bread. 

Manufactures  considerable  I  meet  with  none  in  this  county, 
and  therefore  proceed. 


Beestone  Castle,  situated  on  a  steep  hill,  carried  away  the 
credit  of  this  county  for  building ;  it  was  erected  by  Raynulf 
the  third  earl  of  Chester,  when  he  returned  victorious  from  the 
Holy  Land.  I  am  much  taken  with  the  neatness  of  the  struc- 
ture, though,  I  confess,  my  eye  never  did,  and  now  never  shall, 
behold  it. 

When  some  justly  quarrel  at  VirgiFs  fiction,  making  Dido  fall 
in  love  with  Eneas,  who  indeed  was  dead  many  years  before 
her  cradle  was  made ;  others  have  sought  ingeniously  to  salve 
the  anticronism  in  history,  by  the  plea  that  she  fell  in  love 
with  his  picture,  which  she  saw  in  tapestry :  yet  I  may  truly 
allege  for  myself,  that  I  was  affected  with  the  delight  of  this 
castle,  though  by  me  never  seen,  and  now  levelled  to  the  ground 
(since  the  late  wars),  beholding  the  delineation  thereof  cut  by 
the  charge  of  John  Savage,  Esquire. 

Veraque  cum  desunt  momia  pictajuvant. 

"  When  real  walls  are  vanish' d  quite, 
Painted  ones  do  us  delight/' 

I  confess,  learned  Leland  is  very  confident  that  this  castle 
shall  see  better  times,  deriving  his  intelligence  from  ancient 
predictions  : 

Tempus  erit  quando  rursus  caput  exeret  attum, 
Vutibus  antiquis  si  vas  mihi  credere  vati. 

"  Beestone  in  time  its  head  aloft  shall  heave, 
If  I,  a  prophet,  prophets  may  believe. '' 

*  William  Smith,  in  his  Vale  Royal,  page  18. 


But  I  give  credit  to  Leland's  history,  when  he  tells  what  is 
past,  more  than  to  his  prophecy  when  he  foretels  what  is  to 


It  is  reported  by  credible  and  believed  by  discreet  persons, 
that  there  is  a  pool  adjoining  to  Brereton,  the  seat  of  the  ho- 
nourable family  of  the  Breretons,  wherein  bodies  of  trees  are 
seen  to  swim  for  certain  days  together  before  the  death  of  any 
heir  of  that  house.  If  so,  let  not  all  men  look  for  so  solemn 
summons  to  pay  their  debts  to  Nature.  God  grant  us  that 
grey  hairs,  dimness  of  sight,  dulness  of  other  senses,  decay  in 
general  of  strength,  death  of  our  dearest  relations  (especially 
when  far  younger  than  ourselves)  before  our  eyes,  &c.  may 
serve  us  (instead  of  swimming  logs),  and  be  sanctified  unto  us, 
for  sufficient  and  effectual  monitors  of  our  mortality ! 

We  must  not  forget  the  many  fir  trees  found  here  buried 
under  ground,  whereof  largely  hereafter  in  a  more  proper  place.* 
The  people  of  this  county  cut  such  pieces  of  wood  very  small, 
and  use  them  instead  of  candles,  which  give  a  good  light.  My 
author  adds,  that  "  such  wooden  candles  have  long  snuffs ;  and 
yet,"  saith  he,  which  to  me  amounts  to  a  wonder,  "in  faUing 
do  no  harm,  though  they  light  into  tow,  flax,  or  the  like.f" 
Strange  that  the  least  fire  should  be  so  dead  as  not  to  be  reviv- 
ed with  such  cordials.  Let  not  this  encourage  careless  servants 
to  tempt  Providence  with  such  combustible  conjunctions :  no 
county  being  more  sadly  sensible  of  casualties  by  fire;  Nant- 
wich,  a  fair  market  therein,  being  twice  burnt  down  to  the 
ground  within  the  compass  of  one  hundred  and  fifty  years.  J 


'<  Cheshire  chief  of  men."] 

Say  not  that  this  proverb  carries  a  challenge  in  it,  and  our 
men  of  Kent  §  will  undertake  these  chief  of  men,  for  engrossing 
manhood  to  themselves.  And  some  will  oppose  to  this  nar- 
row county-proverb,  an  English  one  of  greater  latitude,  viz. 
"  No  man  so  good,  but  another  may  be  as  good  as  he/'  For, 
rather  than  any  difference  shall  arise,  by  wise  and  peaceable 
men,  many  chiefs  will  be  allowed. 

Indeed,  the  Cestrians  have  always  demeaned  themselves 
right  valiantly  in  their  undertakings.  This  was  well  known 
to  king  Richard  the  Second,  who  in  dangerous  times  sent  for 
two  thousand  Cheshire  men,  all  archers,  to  attend  him;|| 
which  number,  in  time  of  a  suspicious  parliament,  was  doubled 

*  In  the  Wonders  of  Anglesea. 

|  W.  Smith,  in  his  Vale  Royal  of  England,  p.  17. 

J  Once  anno  14...,  and  again  anno  1583. 

§  See  our  Proverbs  in  Kent.  II  Holinshed's  Chronicle,  p.  489. 


by  him,  all  having  bouche  of  court,  (bread  and  beer)  and  six- 
pence a  day,*  large  wages  in   that  age. 

Pity  it  was  that  the  valour  of  these  Cheshire  men  was  once 
wasted  against  themselves,  in  a  terrible  battle  betwixt  king 
Henry  the  Fourth,  and  Henry  Percy  surnamed  Hotspur,  not 
ill  described  by  our  author: 

"  There  Dutton,  Button  kills ;  a  Done  doth  kill  a  Done  ; 
A  Booth,  a  Booth  ;  and  Leigh  by  Leigh  is  overthrown  ; 
A  Venables  against  a  Venables  doth  stand  ; 
And  Troutbeck  fighteth  with  a  Troutbeck  hand  to  hand  ; 
There  Molineux  doth  make  a  Molineux  to  die  ; 
And  Egerton  the  strength  of  Egerton  doth  try ; 
O  Cheshire,  wert  thou  mad,  of  thine  own  native  gore, 
So  much  until  this  day  thou  never  shedst  before  !"f 

Nor  doth  this  abate  our  former  commendation  of  their  loyalty, 
the  cause  they  maintained  being  so  intricate  and  perplexed; 
one  side  fighting  for  Mortimer,  who  should  be  king  by  right ; 
the  other  for  Henry  the  Fourth,  who  actually  was  so ;  and  po- 
'  litic  men,  who  know  the  one  were  loyal,  will  be  loth  to  say  that 
the  other  were  traitors. 

Let  no  ill-natured  wit  urge,  in  opposition  to  the  manhood  of 
Cheshire  men,  their  late  miscarriage  under  a  worthy  knight, 
whom  I  forbear  to  name;  partly  because  he  nameth  himself 
(though  I  say  nothing  of  him) ;  partly  because,  before  my  pains 
pass  the  press,  he  will  probably  be  honourably  additioned.  For, 
had  other  counties  seasonably  contributed  their  promised  assist- 
ance, what  now  proved  an  abortive  birth  would  have  been  a 
vital  infant.  Besides,  better  things  were  provided  for  our  gra- 
cious sovereign,  that  he  the  copy,  as  God  the  original,  might  not 
come  in  the  tempestuous  wind  of  war,  fire  of  fury,  or  earthquake 
of  open  enmity,  but  in  the  still  voice  J  of  a  peaceable  composi- 
tion. And,  to  shew  that  this  should  not  be  man's  work,  God 
suffered  both  the  men  of  Kent,  and  Cheshire  chief  of  men,  to 
fail  in  their  loyal  endeavours,  that  it  might  only  be  God's  work, 
and  justly  marvellous  in  our  eyes. 

"  Better  wed  over  the  Mixon  than  over  the  Moor."] 

Over  the  Mixon ;  that  is,  hard  by  or  at  home,  Mixon  being 
that  heap  of  compost  which  lieth  in  the  yards  of  good  husbands. 

Than  over  the  Moor :  that  is,  far  off  or  from  London ;  the 
road  from  Chester  leading  to  London  over  some  part  of  the 
moor-lands  in  Staffordshire.  The  meaning  is,  the  gentry  in 
Cheshire  find  it  more  profitable  to  match  within  their  county, 
than  to  bring  a  bride  out  of  other  shires.  1.  Because  better 
acquainted  with  her  birth  and  breeding.  2.  Because  (though 
her  portion  perchance  may  be  less)  the  expense  will  be  less  to 
maintain  her. 

Such  intermarriages  in  this  county  have  been  observed,  both 

*  Stowe's  Survey  of  London,  p.  522. 

f  Drayton's  Polyolbion,  Song  22.  J  Kings  xix.  12. 


a  prolonger  of  worshipful  families.,  and  the  preserver  of  amity 
betwixt  them;  seeing  what  Mr.  Camden  reported  of  the  citi- 
zens of  Cork*  is  verified  of  the  Cheshire  gentry — they  are  all  of 
an  alliance. 


WILLIAM  MAKILESPIELD  was,  saith  my  author,t  patria  Co- 
ventriemis.  Bishop  Godwin  goeth  a  little  further,  natus  [fer- 
tur]  in  civitate  Coventriensi.%  However,  I  conceive  him  born  in 
this  county,  finding  a  fair  market-town  and  forest  therein  so 
named  ;  though  he  was  reputed  a  Coventrian,  because  Cheshire 
in  that  age  was  in  the  diocese  of  Coventry  and  Lichfield.  But, 
because  I  dare  not  swim  against  the  stream,  I  remit  the  reader 
to  his  character  in  Warwickshire. 


WILLIAM  BOOTH  was  first  bred  in  Gray's  Inn  in  London,  in 
the  study  of  our  Municipal  Laws,  till  he  quitted  that  profession 
on  the  proffer  of  a  chancellor's  place  in  Saint  Paul's,  and  took 
orders  upon  him.  It  was  not  long  before  he  was  consecrated 
bishop  of  Lichfield,  and  six  years  after  translated  to  York. 
He  expended  much  money  in  repairing  and  enlarging  his  palace 
at  York ;  and,  after  twelve  years,  died,  and  was  buried  in  Saint 
Mary's  Chapel  in  Southwell  1464. 

LAURENCE  BOOTH,  brother  (but  by  another  mother)  to  Wil- 
liam aforesaid,  was  bred  and  became  master  of  Pembroke-hall  in 
Cambridge,  and  was  chancellor  of  that  university.  He  made 
the  composition  betwixt  the  university  and  King's  College  to 
their  mutual  advantage ;  and  was  an  eminent  benefactor  to  his 
own  college,  bestowing  thereon  all  the  tenements  (since  alienat- 
ed) betwixt  it  and  St.  Botolph's  Church,  amongst  which  was  St. 
Thomas  Hostle.  He  exonerated  the  college  of  a  pension  of  five 
pounds  which  he  redeemed,  and  conferred  thereon  the  manor 
and  patronage  of  Overton  Waterfield  in  Huntingdonshire. 

As  it  is  God's,  so  it  is  all  good  men's  method>  in  advancing 
their  servants,  "  Be  faithful  in  a  little,  and  thou  shalt  rule  over 
much."  Doctor  Booth,  well  performing  his  chanceUor's  place 
in  Cambridge,  was  thence  preferred  chancellor  to  Margaret 
queen  to  Henry  the  Sixth.  Well  discharging  that  office,  he  was, 
in  the  13th  of  king  Edward  the  Fourth,  made  lord  high  chancel- 
lor (it  seems  his  public  spirit  was  neither  for  York  nor  Lan- 
caster, but  England),  having  first  been  bishop  of  Durham,  after- 
wards archbishop  of  York,  and  deserving  well  of  both  sees  ;  for 
he  built  in  the  first  the  gate  of  Aukland-college,  and  bought  for 
the  latter  the  manor  of  Battersea  nigh  London. 

It  must  not  be  forgotten  that  this  archbishop  kept  the  master- 
ship of  Pembroke-hall  till  the  day  of  his  death,  and  so  did  his 

*  In  his  Britannia,  in  Ireland.  f  Pits,  de  Ang.  Script,  p.  388. 

J  In  his  Catalogue  of  Cardinals. 


successors  in  the  same  college,  Bishop  Fox,  and  Bishop  Ridley ; 
not  that  they  were  covetous  (what  is  a  molehill  to  those  that 
have  mountains  ?)  of  the  place,  but  the  place  ambitious  of  them, 
to  be  guarded  and  graced  with  them,  as  it  is  this  day  by  the 
right  reverend  father  in  God  Benjamin  Lany  lord  bishop  of  Pe- 
terborough. This  archbishop  died  anno  Domini  1480. 

JOHN  BOOTH,  brother  to  Laurence  aforesaid,  bachelor  of  laws, 
was  consecrated  bishop  of  Exeter  in  the  sixth  of  king  Edward 
the  Fourth,  1466.  He  built  the  bishop's  chair,  or  seat,  in  his 
cathedral,  which,  in  the  judicious  eye  of  Bishop  Godwin,  hath 
not  his  equal  in  England.*  Let  me  add,  that  though  this  be 
the  fairest  chair,  the  soft  cushion  thereof  was  taken  away,  when 
Bishop  Vescy  alienated  the  lands  thereof.  The  worst  was,  when 
Bishop  Booth  had  finished  this  chair,  he  could  not  quietly  sit 
down  therein,  so  troublesome  the  times  of  the  civil  wars  betwixt 
York  and  Lancaster ;  so  that,  preferring  his  privacy,  he  retired 
to  a  little  place  of  his  own  purchasing  at  Horsley  in  Hampshire, 
where  he  died  April  the  first,  1478  ;  and  was  buried  in  Saint 
Clement  Danes,  London. 

We  must  remember  that  these  three  prelates  had  a  fourth  and 
eldest  brother,  Sir  Roger  Booth,  knight,  of  Barton  in  Lanca- 
shire, father  of  Margaret,  wife  of  Ralph  Nevili  third  Earl  of 
Westmoreland.  And  may  the  reader  take  notice,  that  though 
we  have  entered  these  bishops  (according  to  our  best  inform- 
ation) in  Cheshire,  yet  is  it  done  with  due  reservation  of  the 
right  of  Lancashire,  in  case  that  county  shall  produce  better 
evidence  for  their  nativities. 

THOMAS  SAVAGE  was  born  at  Macclesfield  in  this  county.f 
His  father,  being  a  knight,  bred  him  a  doctor  of  the  law  in  the 
university  of  Cambridge.  Hence  was  he  preferred  bishop 
of  Rochester,  and  at  last  archbishop  of  York.  He  was  a  greater 
courtier  than  clerk,  and  most  dexterous  in  managing  secular  mat- 
ters, a  mighty  Nimrod,  and  more  given  to  hunting  than 
did  consist  with  the  gravity  of  his  profession.  J 

No  doubt,  there  wanted  not  those  §  which  taxed  him 
with  that  passage  in  Saint  Jerome,  "  Penitus  non  invenimus  in 
scripturis  sanctis  sanctum  aliquem  Venatorem,  Piscatores  inve- 
nimus sanctos."||  But  all  would  not  wean  him  from  that  sport, 
to  which  he  was  so  much  addicted. 

His  provident  precedent  spared  his  successors  in  that  see 
many  pounds  of  needless  expenses,  by  declining  a  costly  installa- 
tion, being  the  first  who  privately  was  installed  by  his  vicar. 
Yet  was  he  not  covetous  in  the  least  degree,  maintaining  a  most 

*  In  his  Catalogue  of  Bishops  of  Exeter. 

f  Bishop  Godwin,  in  the  Archbishops  of  York. 

t  "  Venationibus  immodice  delectatus  est."  §  Idem,  ibidem, 

II  In  his  Comment  on  the  90th  Psalm. 


numerous  family,  and  building  much,  both  at  Scroby  and  Ca- 
wood.  Having  sate  seven  years  in  his  see,  he  died,  1508, 
his  body  being  buried  at  York,"  his  heart  at  Macclesfield,  where  he 
was  born,  in  a  chapel  of  his  own  erection,  intending  to  have  add- 
ed a  college  thereunto,  had  not  death  prevented  him. 


WILLIAM  CHADERTON,  D.  D.  —  Here  I  solemnly  tender 
deserved  thanks  to  my  manuscript  author,  charitably  guiding 
me  in  the  dark,  assuring  that  this  doctor  was  "  ex  preeclaro 
Chadertonorum  Cestrensis  comitatus  stemmate  prognatus."* 
And  although  this  doubtful  direction  doth  not  cleave  the  pin, 
it  doth  not  hit  the  white  ;  so  that  his  nativity  may  with  most 
probability  (not  prejudicing  the  right  to  Lancashire  when  pro- 
duced) here  be  fixed.  He  was  bred  first  fellow,  then  master  of 
Queen's,  and  never  of  Magdalen  College,  in  Cambridge  (as  the 
Reverend  Bishop  Godwinf  mistaketh),  and  chosen  first  the 
Lady  Margaret's,  then  King's,  professor  in  divinity  ;  and  doctor 
Whitacre  succeeded  him  immediately  in  the  chair.  He  was, 
anno  15 79,  made  bishop  of  Chester,  then  of  Lincoln  1594 ; 
demeaning  himself  in  both  to  his  great  commendation.  He 
departed  this  life  in  April  1608. 

His  grandchild,  a  virtuous  gentlewoman  of  rare  accomplish- 
ments,, married  to  —  Joceline,  Esquire,  being  big  with  child, 
wrote  a  book  of  advice,  since  printed,  and  entitled,  "  The 
Mother's  Legacy  to  her  unborn  Infant ;"  of  whom  she  died  in 

WILLIAM  JAMES,  D.  D.,  was  born  in  this  county,  bred  a 
scholar  in  Christchurch,  in  Oxford,  and  afterwards  president  of 
the  university  college.  He  succeeded  Bishop  Mathews  in  the 
deanery  and  bishopric  of  Durham.  J 

He  had  been  chaplain  to  Robert  Dudly,  earl  of  Leicester; 
and  (I  hope)  I  may  lawfully  transcribe  what  I  read :  "  This 
hope  of  comfort  came  to  his  lordship  thereby,  that  if  it  pleased 
God  to  impart  any  mercy  to  him  (as  '  his  mercy  endureth  for 
ever'),  it  was  by  the  especial  ministry  of  this  man,  who  was  the 
last  of  his  coat  that  was  with  him  in  his  sickness."§ 

He  was  a  principal  means  of  recovering  Durham-house  unto 
his  see.  This  house  was  granted  by  king  Edward  the  Sixth  to 
the  lady  (afterwards  queen)  Elizabeth  (only  for  term  of  life) ; 
and  lay  long  neglected  during  her  reign,  till  Bishop  James, 
about  the  sixth  of  king  James,  regained  it,  and  repaired  the 

*  R.  Parker,  in  Seel.  Cant,  in  the  Masters  of  Queen's  College, 
f  In  his  Catalogue  of  the  Bishop  of  Lincoln,  printed  1616. 
j  "  In   Comitatu    Cestriensi    natus."       Bishop  Godwin,    in    the   Bishops 

§  Sir  J.  Harrington,  View  of  the  Church  of  England,  p.  204. 


chapel  (which  he  found  not  only  profaned,,  but  even  defaced), 
to  his  great  cost,  and  furnished  it  very  decently. 

He  once  made  so  complete  an  entertainment  for  queen  Eliza- 
beth., that  her  majesty  commended  the  order  and  manner 
thereof  for  many  years  after.*  This  maketh  me  the  more  to 
admire  at  what  I  have  heard  reported,,  that,  when  king  James, 
in  his  progress  to  Scotland,  anno  1617,  passed  through  the 
bishopric  of  Durham,  some  neglect  was  committed  by  this 
bishop's  officers,  for  which  the  king  secretly  and  sharply 
checked  this  bishop,  who  laid  it  so  to  heart,  that  he  survived 
the  same  reproof  not  a  full  twelvemonth. 

JOHN  RICHARDSON,  of  a  family  of  good  worship  and  great 
antiquity  therein,  was  (as  he  told  me)  born  in  this  county. 
After  his  hopeful  education  in  countiy  schools,  he  was  bred  in 
the  university  of  Dublin,  where  he  was  graduated  Doctor  in 
Divinity,  and  afterwards  was  made  bishop  of  Ardagh,  in  Ire- 
land. In  the  late  rebellion  he  came  over  into  England,  con- 
tinuing for  many  years  therein.  Episcopal  gravity  was  written 
in  his  countenance,  and  he  was  a  good  divine  according  to  the 
rule,  "  Bonus  Textuarius,  bonus  Theologus,"  no  man  being 
more  exact  in  knowledge  of  Scripture,  carrying  a  Concordance 
in  his  memory.  Great  was  his  pains  in  the  larger  annotations, 
especially  on  Ezekiel.  For  let  not  the  cloaks  carry  away  the 
credit  from  the  gowns  and  rochet  in  that  work,  seeing  this 
bishop  might  say,  "  Pars  ego  magna  fui ;"  and  Doctor  Featley, 
with  others  of  the  episcopal  party,  bare  a  great  share  therein. 
Our  Saviour,  we  know,  lived  on  the  charity  of  such  good  people 
as  "  ministered "  unto  him  ;t  and  yet  it  may  be  collected  that 
it  was  his  constant  custom  (especially  about  the  feast  of  "  the 
Passover  ")J  to  give  some  alms  to  the  poor.  So  our  bishop, 
who  was  relieved  by  some,  had  his  bounty  to  bestow  on  others ; 
and  by  his  will  (as  I  am  informed)  he  bequeathed  no  inconsider- 
able legacy  to  the  college  in  Dublin.  He  died  anno  1653,  in 
the  74th  year  of  his  age. 


Sir  THOMAS  EGERTON,  knight,  was  extracted  from  the 
ancient  family  of  the  Egertons,  of  Ridley,  in  this  county ;  bred 
in  the  study  of  the  Municipal  Laws  of  our  land,  wherein  he 
attained  to  such  eminency,  that  queen  Elizabeth  made  him  her 
Solicitor,  then  Master  of  the  Rolls,  and  at  last  Keeper  of  the 
Great  Seal,  May  6,  in  the  thirty-eighth  year  of  the  reign,  1596. 

Olaus  Magnus  reporteth,  that  the  emperor  of  Muscovia,  at 
the  audience  of  ambassadors,  sendeth  for  the  gravest  and  seem- 
liest men  in  Musco  and  the  vicinage,  whom  he  apparelleth  in 

*  Sir  J.  Harrington,  View  of  the  Church  of  England,  p.  206. 
f   Luke  viiL  3.  :t  John  xiii.  19. 


rich  vests,  and,  placing  them  in  his  presence,  pretendeth  to 
foreigners,  that  these  are  of  his  privy  council,  who  cannot  hut 
be  much  affected  with  so  many  reverend  aspects.  But  surely 
all  Christendom  afforded  not  a  person  which  carried  more  gra- 
vity in  his  countenance  and  behaviour,  than  Sir  Thomas  Eger- 
ton,  insomuch  that  many  have  gone  to  the  chancery  on  purpose 
only  to  see  his  venerable  garb  (happy  they  who  had  no  other 
business !)  and  were  highly  pleased  at  so  acceptable  a  spectacle. 

Yet  was  his  outward  case  nothing  in  comparison  of  his  in- 
ward abilities,  quick  wit,  solid  judgment,  ready  utterance.  I 
confess  Master  Camden  saith  he  entered  his  office  "  magna 
expectatione  et  integritatis  opinione,"  ("  with  a  great  expecta- 
tion and  opinion  of  integrity/3)*  But,  no  doubt,  had  he  revised 
his  work  in  a  second  edition,  he  would  have  afforded  him  a  full- 
faced  commendation,  when  this  lord  had  turned  his  expectation 
into  performance. 

In  the  first  of  king  "James,  of  lord  keeper  he  was  made  lord 
chancellor,  which  is  only  another  name  for  the  same  office ;  and 
on  Thursday  the  7th  of  November,  1616,  of  Lord  Ellesmere  he 
was  created  Viscount  Brackley. 

It  is  given  to  courts  whose  jurisdictions  do  border,  to  fall  out 
about  their  bounds  ;  and  the  contest  betwixt  them  is  the  hotter, 
the  higher  the  spirits  and  parts  of  the  respective  judges.  Great 
the  contention  for  many  years  together  betwixt  this  Lord  of 
Equity  and  Sir  Edward  Coke,  the  oracle  of  Justice,  at  West- 
minster-hall. I  know  not  which  of  them  got  the  better :  sure 
I  am  such  another  victory  would  (if  this  did  not)  have  undone 
the  conqueror. 

He  was  attended  on  with  servants  of  most  able  parts,  and 
was  the  sole  chancellor  since  the  Reformation  who  had  a  chap- 
lain,t  which  (though  not  immediately)  succeeded  him  in  his 
place.  He  gave  over  his  office,  which  he  held  full  twenty  years, 
some  few  days  before  his  death  ;  and,  by  his  own  appointment, 
his  body  was  brought  down  and  buried  at  Duddleston  in  this 
county,  leaving  a  fair  estate  to  his  son,  who  was  afterwards 
created  Earl  of  Bridgwater. 

When  he  saw  king  James  so  profuse  to  the  Scots,  with  the 
grave  fidelity  of  a  statesman,  he  sticked  not  often  to  tell  him, 
that  as  he  held  it  necessary  for  his  majesty  amply  to  remu- 
nerate those  his  countrymen,  so  he  desired  him  carefully  to  pre- 
serve his  crown  lands  for  his  own  support,  seeing  he  or  his  suc- 
cessors might  meet  with  parliaments  which  would  not  supply 
his  occasions  but  on  such  conditions  as  would  not  be  very  ac- 
ceptable unto  him. 

It  was  an  ordinary  speech  in  his  mouth  to  say,  "frost  and 
fraud  both  end  in  fM."%  His  death  happened  anno  Domini 

*  In  his  Elizabeth,  anno  1596.  f  Bishop  Williams. 

J  Alleged  by  Sir  Francis  Bacon,  in  his  censure  on  the  Earl  of  Somerset. 



[AMP.]  Sir  HUMPHREY  STARKEY  was  born,  with  most  pro- 
bability, in  this  county,  where  his  name  is  in  good,  hath  been 
in  a  better,  esteem  and  estate.  He  in  the  study  of  our  laws  so 
profited,  that  (after  some  intermediate  dignities)  he  was  pre- 
ferred chief  baron  of  the  Exchequer.  I  cannot  with  certainty 
fix  his  admission  into  that  office  (confused  times  causing  con- 
fused dates) ;  but  with  as  much  certainty  as  we  can  collect,  we 
conclude  him  preferred  to  that  place  1  Henrici  VII.* 

We  need  inquire  no  farther  into  his  ability,  finding  him,  by 
so  wise  and  frugal  a  king,  employed  in  a  place  belonging  to  his 
coffers  ;  who,  though  he  was  sometimes  pleased  to  be  remiss  in 
matters  which  concerned  his  subjects,  was  ever  careful  in  things 
wherein  his  own  emolument  was  interested.  Wonder  not  that 
we  have  so  little  left  of  this  judge's  actions,  because  Empsom 
and  Dudley  (loaders  grinding  more  than  the  chief  miller)  were 
such  instruments  whose  over-activity  made  all  others  seem 
slugs  in  that  court.  It  doth  sound  not  a  little  to  the  praise  of 
our  Starkey,  that,  whereas  that  age  was  justly  complaining  of 
the  extortions  of  the  king's  officers,  nothing  of  that  nature  (no 
/tearing,  best  hearing  in  this  kind)  is  laid  to  his  charge.  He 
was  buried  in  Leonard,  Shoreditch,  where  this  remains  of  his 
epitaph :  "  Orate  pro  animabus  Humphredi  Starkey,  militis, 
nuper  Capitalis  Baronis  de  Scaccario  domini  regis  Henrici 
Septimi,  et  Isabellse  uxoris  ejus,  et  omnium  amicorum  suorum, 

The  date  of  his  death,  defaced  on  his  tomb,  appeareth  elsewhere  f 
to  be  at  the  end  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Seventh  ;  so  that 
his  on  the  bench  was  parallel  with  his  sovereign's  sitting  on  the 
throne,  begun  in  the  first  and  ended  in  the  last  of  his  reign. 

Sir  HENRY  BRADSHAW,  knight. — This  surname  being  dif- 
fused in  Derbyshire  and  Lancashire,  as  well  as  in  this  county, 
his  nativity,  advantaged  by  the  alphabet  (first  come  first  served) 
is  fixed  herein.  He  became  so  noted  for  his  skill  in  our  Com- 
mon Law,  that  in  the  sixth  of  king  Edward  the  Sixth,  in  Hilary 
Term,  he  was  made  chief  baron  of  the  Exchequer,  demeaning 
himself  therein  to  his  great  commendation. 

Pity  it  is  that  Demetrius,  who  is  "  well  reported  of  all  men  J  " 
should  suffer  for  his  namesake  Demetrius'  the  silversmith,  who 
made  the  shrines  for  Diana,§  and  raised  persecution  against 
Saint  Paul.  And  as  unjust  it  is,  that  this  good  judge,  of  whom 
nothing  ill  is  reported,  should  fare  the  worse  for  one  of  the 
same  surname  of  execrable  memory,  of  whom  nothing  good  is 

*  Sir  Henry  Spelman,  in  his  Glossary,  under  the  article  "  Justiciarius,"  seems  to 

assign  him  1  Edward  V.  1  Richard  III.  and  1  Henry  VII F.  Sir  H.  Starkey 

was  appointed  chief  baron  June  26,  1484,  and  resigned  Oct.  29,  1487 ED 

f  In  Sir  Henry  Spelman,  ut  prius.  J  3  John  xii.  §  Acts  xix.  24. 

JUDGES.  273 

remembered.  I  have  cause  to  conceive,  that  this  judge  was 
ousted  of  his  place,  for  Protestant  inclination,  1  Marite,  finding 
no  more  mention  of  him. 

Sir  RANDAL  CREW  was  born  in  this  county,  bred  in  the 
study  of  our  Municipal  Law ;  wherein  such  his  proficiency,  that 
(after  some  steps  in  his  way  thereunto),  in  the  twenty-second  of 
king  James,  he  was  made  Lord  Chief  Justice  of  the  Upper 
Bench,  and  therein  served  two  kings  (though  scarce  two  years 
in  his  office)  with  great  integrity. 

King  Charles's  occasions  calling  for  speedy  supplies  of  money, 
some  great-ones  adjudged  it  unsafe  to  adventure  on  a  parlia- 
ment (for  fear,  in  those  distempered  times,  the  physic  would 
side  with  the  disease),  and  put  the  king  to  furnish  his  neces- 
sities by  way  of  loan.  Sir  Randal  being  demanded  his  judg- 
ment of  that  design,  and  the  consequence  thereof  (the  impri- 
soning of  recusants  to  pay  it),  openly  manifested  his  dislike  of 
such  preter-legal  courses;  and  thereupon,  November  9,  1626, 
was  commanded  to  forbear  his  sitting  in  the  court,  and  the 
next  day  was  by  writ  discharged  from  his  office ;  whereat  he 
discovered  no  more  discontentment  than  the  weary  traveller  is 
offended  when  told  that  he  is  arrived  at  his  journey's  end. 

The  country  hath  constantly  a  smile  for  him  for  whom  the 
court  hath  a  frown.  This  knight  was  out  of  his  office,  not  out 
of  honour,  living  long  after  at  his  house  in  Westminster,  much 
praised  for  his  hospitality. 

Indeed,  he  may  the  better  put  off  his  gown  (though  before  he 
goeth  to  bed)  who  hath  a  warm  suit  under  it ;  and  this  learned 
judge,  by  God's  blessing  on  his  endeavours,  had  purchased  a  fair 
estate,  and  particularly  Crew-hall  in  Cheshire  (for  some  ages  for- 
merly the  possession  of  the  Falshursts),  but  which  probably  was 
the  inheritance  of  his  ancestors.  ,  Nor  must  it  be  forgotten,  that 
Sir  Randal  first  brought  the  model  of  excellent  building  into 
these  remoter  parts ;  yea,  brought  London  into  Cheshire,  in  the 
loftiness,  sightliness,  and  pleasantness  of  their  structures. 

One  word  of  his  lady ;  a  virtuous  wife  being  very  essential  to 
the  integrity  of  a  married  judge,  lest,  what  Westminster  Hall 
doth  conclude,  Westminster  Bed-chamber  doth  revoke.  He 
married  Julian,  daughter  and  co-heir  of  John  Clipsby,  of 
Clipsby,  in  Norfolk,  Esq.  with  whom  he  had  a  fair  inheritance. 
She  died  at  Kew,  in  Surrey,  1623;  and  lieth  buried  in  the 
chancel  of  Richmond,  with  this  epitaph : 

"  Antiqua  fuit  orta  domo,  pia  vixit,  inivit 

Virgo  pudiea  thorum,  sponsa  pudica  polum." 

I  saw  this  worthy  judge  in  health  1642  ;  but  he  survived  not 
long  after.  And  be  it  remembered  he  had  a  younger  brother, 
Sir  Thomas  Crew,  a  most  honest  and  learned  sergeant  in  the 
same  profession ;  whose  son,  John  Crew,  esquire  (of  his  Ma- 
jesty's privy  council),  having  been  so  instrumental  to  the  happy 

VOL.    I.  T 


change  in  our  nation,  is  in  general  report  (which  no  doubt  will 
be  effected  before  these  my  pains  be  public)  designed  for  some 
title  of  honour.* 

Sir  HUMFREY  DAVENPORT. — His  surname  is  sufficient  to 
entitle  this  county  unto  him ;  but  I  will  not  be  peremptory  till 
better  information.  He  was  bred  in  the  Temple,  had  the  repu- 
tation of  a  studied  lawyer,  and  upright  person  ;  qualities  which 
commended  him  to  be  chosen  chief  baron  of  the  Exchequer. 
How  he  behaved  himself  in  the  case  of  the  ship-money,  is  fresh 
in  many  men's  memories.  The  reader  cannot  be  more  angry 
with  me,  than  I  am  grieved  in  myself,  that,  for  want  of  intel- 
ligence, I  cannot  do  the  right  which  I  would  and  ought,  to  this 
worthy  judge's  memory,  who  died  about  the  beginning  of  our 
civil  distempers. 


Sir  HUGH  CALVELY,  born  at  Calvely,  in  this  county.  Tra- 
dition makes  him  a  man  of  teeth  and  hands,  who  would"  feed  as 
much  as  two,  and  fight  as  much  as  ten  men.t  His  quick  and 
strong  appetite  could  digest  any  thing  but  an  injury ;  so  that 
killing  a  man  is  reported  the  cause  of  his  quitting  this  county, 
making  hence  for  London,  then  for  France.  Here  he  became 
a  most  eminent  soldier,  answering  the  character  our  great  anti- 
quary hath  given  him,  (( Arte  militari  ita  in  Galli£  inclaruit,  ut 
vividae  ejus  virtuti  ninil  fuit  impervium/'J 

I  find  five  of  his  principal  achievements:  1.  When  he  was 
one  of  the  thirty  English  in  France,  who  in  a  duel  encountered 
as  many  Britons.  2.  When,  in  the  last  of  king  Edward  the 
Third,  being  governor  of  Calais,  he  looked  on  (his  hands  being 
tied  behind  him  by  a  truce  yet  in  force  for  a  month),  and  saw 
the  English  slain  before  his  eyes ;  whose  blood  he  soon  after 
revenged.  3.  When,  in  the  first  of  king  Richard  the  Second, 
after  an  unfortunate  voyage  of  our  English  nobility,  beaten 
home  with  a  tempest,  he  took  Bark-bulloigne,  and  five-and- 
twenty  other  French  ships,  besides  the  castle  of  Mark,  lately 
lost  by  negligence,  which  he  recovered.  4.  When,  in  the  next 
year,  he  spoiled  Estaples,  at  a  fair-time,  bringing  thence  so 
much  plunder  as  enriched  the  Calicians  for  many  years  after. 
5.  When  he  married  the  queen  of  Arragon ;  which  is  most 
certain,  her  arms  being  quartered  on  his  tomb,  though  I  cannot 
satisfy  the  reader  in  the  particularities  thereof. 

The  certain  date  of  his  death  is  unknown,  which  by  propor- 
tion may  be  collected  about  the  year  1388  ;  after  which  time, 
no  mention  of  him :  and  it  was  as  impossible  for  such  a  spirit 
not  to  be,  as  not  to  be  active. 

Sir  ROBERT  KNOWLES,  Knight,  was  born  of  mean  paren- 

*  He  was  created  Baron  Crew,  of  Stene,  co.  Northampton,  in  1661. — ED. 
f  Camden's  Britannia,  in  Cheshire.  %  Camden,  ibidem. 


,  in  this  count}-  ;*  yet  did  not  the  weight  of  his  low  extrac- 
tion depress  the  wings  of  his  martial  mind,  who  by  his  valour 
wrought  his  own  advancement.  He  was  another  of  the  thirty 
English,  who,  for  the  honour  of  the  nation,  undertook  to  duel 
with  as  many  Britons,f  and  came  off  with  great  reputation. 

He  was  afterwards  a  commander  in  the  French  war  under 
king  Edward  the  Third,  where,  in  despite  of  their  power,  he 
drove  the  people  before  him  like  sheep,  destroying  towns,  cas- 
tles, and  cities,  in  such  manner  and  number,  that,  many  years 
after,  the  sharp  points  and  gable-ends  of  overthrown  houses 
(cloven  asunder  with  instruments  of  war)  were  commonly  called 
Knowles's  Mitres. J 

The  last  piece  of  his  service  was  performed  in  suppressing 
Wat  Tyler  and  his  rebels.  Then  I  behold  aged  Sir  Robert, 
buckling  on  his  armour,  as  old  Priam  at  the  taking  of  Troy,  but 
with  far  better  success,  as  proving  very  victorious;  and  the 
citizens  of  London  enfranchised  him  a  member  thereof,  in 
expression  of  their  thankfulness. 

His  charity  was  as  great  as  his  valour ;  and  he  rendered  him- 
self no  less  loved  by  the  English,  than  feared  of  the  French. 
He  gave  bountifully  to  the  building  of  Rochester  bridge,  found- 
ing a  chapel  and  chantry  at  the  east  end  thereof,  with  a  college 
at  Pontefract  in  Yorkshire,  where  Constance,  his  lady,  was  born, 
endowing  it  with  one  hundred  and  eighty  pounds  per  annum. 

He  died  at  his  manor  of  Scone-Thorp  in  Norfolk,  in  peace 
and  honour,  whereas  martialists  generally  set  in  a  cloud,  being 
at  least  ninety  years  of  age  (for  he  must  be  allowed  no  less  than 
thirty  years  old  when,  anno  1352,  he  was  a  general  under  king 
Edward  the  Third,  and  he  survived  until  the  15th  of  August 
1407),  being  buried  in  Whitefriars  in  London,  to  which  he  had 
been  a  great  benefactor. 

JOHN  SMITH,  Captain,  was  born  in  this  county,  as  Master 
Arthur  Smith,  his  kinsman  and  my  school-master,  did  inform 
me.  But  whether  or  no  related  unto  the  worshipful  family  of 
the  Smiths  at  Hatherton,§  I  know  not. 

He  spent  the  most  of  his  life  in  foreign  parts.  First  in  Hun- 
gary, under  the  emperor,  fighting  against  the  Turks  ;  three  of 
which  he  himself  killed  in  single  duels ;  and  therefore  was 
authorized  by  Sigismund  king  of  Hungary  to  bear  three  Turks' 
heads,  as  an  augmentation  to  his  arms.||  Here  he  gave  intel- 
ligence to  a  besieged  city  in  the  night,  by  significant  fire-works 
formed  in  the  air,  in  legible  characters,  with  many  strange  per- 

*  Weever's  Funeral  Monuments,  p.  436. 

f  Sir  Walter  Raleigh,  History  of  the  World,  lib.  v.  p.  545. 

J  Lambarde's  Perambulation  of  Kent. 

§  Camden's  Britannia,  in  this  county. 

||  So  it  is  writ  in  the  table  over  his  tomb. 

T    2 


formances,  the  scene  whereof  is  laid  at  such  a  distance,  they  are 
cheaper  credited  than  confuted. 

From  the  Turks  in  Europe  he  passed  to  the  pagans  in  Ame- 
rica, where,  towards  the  latter  end  of  the  reign  of  queen  Eliza- 
beth, such  his  perils,  preservations,  dangers,  deliverances,  they 
seem  to  most  men  above  belief,  to  some  beyond  truth.  Yet  have 
we  two  witnesses  to  attest  them,  the  prose  and  the  pictures, 
both  in  his  own  book ;  and  it  soundeth  much  to  the  diminution 
of  his  deeds,  that  he  alone  is  the  herald  to  publish  and  pro- 
claim them. 

Two  captains  being  at  dinner,  one  of  them  fell  into  a  large 
relation  of  his  own  achievements,  concluding  his  discourse  with 
this  question  to  his  fellow,  e(  And  pray,  Sir/5  said  he,  "  what 
service  have  you  done  ?"  To  whom  he  answered,  ee  Other  men 
can  tell  that/5  And  surely  such  reports  from  strangers  carry 
with  them  the  greater  reputation.  However,  moderate  men 
must  allow  Captain  Smith  to  have  been  very  instrumental  in 
settling  the  plantation  in  Virginia,  whereof  he  was  governor, 
as  also  admiral,  of  New  England. 

He  led  his  old  age  in  London,  where  his  having  a  prince's 
mind  imprisoned  in  a  poor  man's  purse  rendered  him  to  the 
contempt  of  such  who  were  not  ingenuous.  Yet  he  efforted  his 
spirits  with  the  remembrance  and  relation  of  what  formerly  he 
had  been,  and  what  he  had  done.  He  was  buried  in  Sepul- 
chre's Church  choir,  on  the  south  side  thereof,  having  a  rant- 
ing epitaph  inscribed  in  a  table  over  him,  too  long  to  transcribe. 
Only  we  will  insert  the  first  and  last  verses,  the  rather  because 
the  one  may  fit  Alexander's  life  for  his  valour,  the  other  his 
death  for  his  religion ; 

"  Here  lies  one  conquer'd  that  hath  conquer'd  kings !" 
"  Oh,  may  his  soul  in  sweet  Elysium  sleep." 

The  orthography,  poetry,  history,  and  divinity  in  this  epi- 
taph, are  much  alike.  He  died  on  the  21st  of  June  1 631. 


If  this  county  hath  bred  no  writers  in  that  faculty,  the  won- 
der is  the  less,  if  it  be  true  what  I  read,  that  if  any  here  be 
sick,  "  they  make  him  a  posset,  and  tie  a  kerchief  on  his  head ; 
and  if  that  will  not  mend  him,  then  God  be  merciful  to  him !'; 
But  be  this  understood  of  the  common  people,  the  gentry  hav- 
ing the  help  (no  doubt)  of  the  learned  in  that  profession. 


THOMAS  ECLESTONE  (a  village  in  Broxton  hundred)  was 
born  in  this  county,  bred  a  Franciscan  in  Oxford.  Leland  saith 
of  him,  that,  under  the  conduct  of  prudence  and  experience,  he 
contended  with  many  paces  to  pierce  into  the  penetrales  of 

*  William  Smith,  Vale  Royal,  p.  16. 

WRITERS.  277 

learning;  He  wrote  a  book  of  the  succession  of  Franciscans  in 
England,  with  their  works  and  wonders,  from  their  first  coming- 
in  to  his  own  time,  dedicating  the  same  to  (not  G.  Notingham, 
the  provincial  of  his  order,  but  to)  his  friend  and  fellow-friar  ; 
his  mortified  mind  (it  seems)  not  aiming  at  honour  therein.  He 
wrote  another  book,  intituled,  "  De  Impugnatione  Ordinis  sui 
per  Dominicanos,"  ("Of  the  assaults  which  the  Dominicans 
made  on  his  order;")*  these  two  sorts  of  friars  whipping  each 
other  with  their  cords  or  knotted  girdles,  to  the  mutual  wound- 
ing of  their  reputations.  He  died  anno  Domini  1340. 


RALPH  RADCLIFFE  was  born  in  this  county,  who,  travelling 
southward,  fixed  himself  at  Hitching  in  Hertfordshire,  where  he 
converted  a  demolished  house  of  the  Carmelites  into  a  public 
grammar-school.t  He  here  erected  a  fair  stage,  whereon,  partly 
to  entertain  his  neighbours,  and  partly  to  embolden  his  scholars 
in  pronunciation,  many  interludes  were  acted  by  them.  Pits 
praiseth  him,  being  a  school-master,  that  he  confined  himself 
to  his  own  profession,  not  meddling  with  divinity  ;  J  and  yet, 
amongst  his  books,  he  reckoned  up  a  treatise  of  "  The  Burning 
of  Sodome  ;"  and  another  of  "The  Afflictions  of  Job." 

Nor  must  we  forget  his  book  entitled  "  De  triplici  Memoria," 
(Of  the  threefold  Memory,)  which  (though  I  never  met  with  any 
that  saw  it)  may  probably  be  presumed,  of  the 

He  flourished  under  the  reign  of  king  Edward  the  Sixth,  anno 
Domini  1552  ;  and  it  is  likely  he  died  before  the  reign  of  queen 

JOHN  SPEED  was  born  at  Farrington  in  this  county,  as  his 
own  daughter  §  hath  informed  me.  He  was  first  bred  to  a  han- 
dicraft, and  as  I  take  it  to  a  tailor.  I  write  not  this  for  his  but 
my  own  disgrace,  when  I  consider  how  far  his  industry  hath 
outstript  my  ingenious  education.  Sir  Fulk  Grevill,  a  great 
favourer  of  learning,  perceiving  how  his  wide  soul  was  stuffed 
with  two  narrow  an  occupation,  first  wrought  his  enlargement, 
as  the  said  author  doth  ingenuously  confess  : 

"  Whose  merits  to  me-ward  I  do  acknowledge,  in  setting  this 
hand  free  from  the  daily  employments  of  a  manual  trade, 
and  giving  it  his  liberty  thus  to  express  the  inclination  of 
my  mind,  himself  being  the  procurer  of  my  present 
estate."  || 

This  is  he  who  afterwards  designed  the  maps  and  composed 

*  Pits,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis,  anno  1340. 

t  Bale,  de  Scriptoribus  Britannicis,  Cent.  8,  n.  98. 

I  Anglise  Scriptores,  num.  992. 

§  Mrs.  Blackmore,  a  stationer's  wife  in  Paul's  Church-yard. 

||  In  his  description  of  Warwickshire. 


the  history  of  England,,  though  much  helped  in  both  (no  shame 
to  crave  aid  in  a  work  too  weighty  for  any  one's  back  to  bear) 
by  Sir  Robert  Cotton,  Master  Camden,  Master  Barkham,  and 
others.  He  also  made  the  useful  genealogies  preposed  formerly 
to  English  Bibles  in  all  volumes,  having  a  patent  granted  him 
from  king  James,  in  reward  of  his  great  labours,  to  receive  the 
benefit  thereof  to  him  and  his.  This  was  very  beneficial  unto 
them,  by  composition  .with  the  Company  of  Stationers,  until 
this  licentious  age,  neglecting  all  such  ingenious  helps  to  under- 
stand Scripture,  and  almost  levelling  (if  not  prevented)  the  pro- 
priety of  all  authors  of  books.  He  died  in  London,  anno  1629  : 
and  was  buried  in  Saint  Giles  without  Cripplegate,  in  the  same 
parish  with  Master  John  Fox ;  so  that  no  one  church  in  Eng- 
land containeth  the  corpse  of  two  such  useful  and  voluminous 
historians.  Master  Josias  Shute  preached  his  funeral  sermon  : 
and  thus  we  take  our  leaves  of  Father  Speed,  truly  answering 
his  name,  in  both  the  acceptions  thereof,  for  celerity  and 

JOHN  DOD  was  born  at  Shottliege,  in  this  county  (where  his 
parents  had  a  competent  estate)  ;  bred  in  Jesus  College  in 
Cambridge,  by  nature  a  witty,  by  industry  a  learned,  by  grace  a 
godly  divine ;  successively  minister  of  Hanwell  in  Oxford, 
Fenny-Compton  in  Warwick,  Canpns-Ashby  and  Fawsley  in 
Northamptonshire,  though  for  a  time  silenced  in  each  of  them. 

A  father  (who  shall  pass  nameless)  is  censured  by  some  for  his 
over-curiosity  in  his  conceit,  rather  than  comment,  Matt.  v.  2. 
"  And  he  opened  his  mouth,  and  taught  them." — "  For  Christ/5 
saith  he,  (e  taught  them  often,  when  he  opened  not  his  mouth,  by 
his  example,  miracles,  &c."  Here  I  am  sure,  accordingly,  Master 
Dod,  when  "his  mouth  was  shut"  (prohibiting  preaching),  in- 
structed almost  as  much  as  before,  by  his  holy  demeanor  and 
pious  discourse ;  a  good  chemist,  who  could  extract  gold  out  of 
other  men's  lead ;  and  how  loose  soever  the  premises  of  other 
men's  discourse,  piety  was  always  his  natural  and  unforced  con- 
clusion inferred  thereupon. 

For  the  rest,  I  refer  the  reader  to  Master  Samuel  Clark,  by 
whom  his  life  is  written,  wherein  are  many  remarkable  pas- 
sages :  I  say  Master  Samuel  Clark,  with-  whose  pen  mine  never 
did  or  shall  interfere.  Indeed,  as  the  flocks  of  Jacob  were 
distanced  "three  days'  journeys"  from  those  of  Laban,*  so 
(to  prevent  voluntary  or  casual  commixtures)  our  styles  are  set 
more  than  a  month's  journey  asunder. 

The  Jewish  Rabbins  have  a  fond  and  a  false  conceit,  that 
Methusalem,  who  indeed  died  in  the  very  year  (and  his  death  a 
sad  prognostic)  of  the  deluge,  had  a  cabin  built  him  in  the  out- 
side of  Noah's  ark,  where  he  was  preserved  by  himself,  t  But 
most  true  it  is,  that  good  Father  Dod,  though  he  lived  to  see 

*  Genesis  xxx.  36.  f  See  Archbishop  Usher's  Chronicle. 


the  flood  of  our  late  civil  wars,  made  to  himself  a  cabin  in  his 
own  contented  conscience ;  and  though  his  clothes  were  wetted 
with  the  waves  (when  plundered)  he  was  dry  in  the  deluge,  such 
his  self-solace  in  his  holy  meditations.  He  died,  being  eighty- 
six  years  of  age,  anno  1645. 

When  thieves  break  in  a  house  and  steal,  the  owner  thereof 
knows  for  the  present  that  he  is  robbed,  but  not  of  what  or  how 
much,  till  some  days  after  he  finds  out  by  the  want  of  such 
things  which  were  taken  from  him.  The  vicinage  of  Fawsley, 
where  Mr.  Dod  died,  knew  then  they  were  bereft  of  a  worthy 
treasure,  though  ignorant  in  the  particulars  of  their  losses,  till 
daily  discovery  hath  by  this  time  made  them  sensible  thereof. 


Sir  RICHARD  SUTTON  was  born  at  Presbury,  in  this  county;* 
he  is  generally  believed  a  knight,  though  some  have  suspected 
the  same,  but  suppose  him  but  esquire.  He  was  one  of  a 
plentiful  estate  and  bountiful  hand. 

It  happened  that  William  Smith,  bishop  of  Lincoln,  began 
Brasen-nose  College,  but  died  before  he  had  finished  one  nos- 
tril thereof,  leaving  this  Sutton  his  executor,  who  over-per- 
formed the  bishop's  will,  and  completed  the  foundation  with  his 
own  liberal  additions  thereunto.  When  the  following  verses 
were  composed,  in  the  person  of  Brasen-nose  College,  the  Mu- 
ses seemed  neither  to  smile  nor  frown,  but  kept  their  wonted 
countenance.  But  take  them  as  they  are : 

"  Begun  by  one,  but  nnish'd  by  anpther, 

Sutton  he  was  my  nurse,  but  Smith  my  mother  : 
Or,  if  the  phrase  more  proper  seem,  say  rather, 
That  Sutton  was  my  guardian,  Smith  my  father ; 
'Cause  equal  kindness  they  to  me  exprest, 
Better  I  neither  love,  love  both  the  best ; 
If  both  they  may  be  call'd,  who  had  one  will, 
What  one  design'd,  the  other  did  fulfil. 
May  such  testators  live  who  good  intend  ; 
But,  if  they  die,  heaven  such  exec' tors  send !  " 

This  worthy  knight,  being  born  in  this  county,  deservedly 
reflected  upon  his  own  countrymen,  making  them  (and  those  of 
Lancashire)  most  capable  of  preferment.  I  collect  his  death  to 
have  happened  about  the  middle  of  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the 


ROBERT  BRASSY  was  born  at  Bunbury  (contracted  for  Boni- 
face-Bury) in  this  county ;  bred  D.  D.  in  King's  College  in 
Cambridge,  whereof  he  was  elected  the  thirteenth  provost.f 
He,  being  a  learned  and  stout  man,  publicly  protested  against 
the  visitors  of  the  university  in  the  reign  of  queen  Mary,  as  to 

*  So  my  good  friend  Dr.  Yates,  principal  of  Brasen-nose,  hath  informed  me — F. 
t  Mr.  Hatcher,  in  hia  Manuscript  Catalogue  of  the  Fellows  of  King's  College. 


his  own  college.*  Say  not  he  only  opposed  superstition  with 
superstition,  pleading  popish  exemptions :  for,  considering  the 
times,  he  "  drove  the  nail  which  would  best  go  ;"  and  thereby 
took  off  the  edge  of  those  persecuting  commissioners. 

But  let  none  envy  him  a  place  under  this  title,  who  deserved 
so  well  of  Cambridge :  for,  when  many  doctors  therein,  whose 
purblind  souls  saw  only  what  was  next  them  for  the  present, 
and  either  could  not  or  would  not  look  far  forward  to  posterity, 
had  resolved  to  sell  their  rights  in  Sturbridge-fair  for  a  trifle  to 
the  towns-men  (which  if  done,  the  vice-chancellor  might  even 
have  held  the  stirrup  to  the  mayor),  he  only  opposed  it,  and 
dashed  the  designs.f  He  died  anno  Domini  1558 ;  and  lies 
buried  on  the  south  side  of  the  chapel. 

GEORGE  PALIN  was  (as  I  have  cogent  presumptions)  born  at 
Wrenbury,  in  this  county ;  bred  a  merchant  in  London,  free  of 
the  company  of  Girdlers.  Indeed,  we  may  call  his  benefactions 
aureum  cingulum  charitatis,  "the  golden  girdle  of  charity." 
With  our  Saviour  he  (e  went  about  doing  good/'  J  completing 
the  circuit  of  his  bounty,  continuing  till  he  ended  where  he 
began : 

1.  To  Wrenbury  (where  we  believe  him  born),  two  hundred 
pounds  to  purchase  lands  for  the  relief  of  the  poor.  2.  Nine 
hundred  pounds  for  the  building  of  alms-houses  in  or  about 
London.  3.  To  Trinity  College  in  Cambridge,  three  hundred 
pounds.  4.  To  the  college  of  Saint  John  the  Evangelist  in 
Cambridge,  three  hundred  pounds.  5.  To  the  hospital  of  Saint 
Thomas  in  Southwark,  fifty  pounds.  6.  To  the  preachers  at 
Paul's  Cross,  towards  the  bearing  of  their  charges,  two  hundred 
pounds.  7-  Toward  the  making  of  a  sweet  chime  in  Bow 
Church,  one  hundred  pounds.  8.  To  six  prisons  in  and  about 
London,  sixty  pounds.  9.  To  Brasen-nose  College  in  Oxford, 
two  scholarships,  to  each  yearly  four  pounds.  10.  To  the  col- 
lege of  Saint  John  Baptist  in  Oxford,  two  scholarships  of  the 
same  value.  11.  To  Christchurch  hospital,  three  hundred 
pounds.  12.  To  the  church  and  poor  (to  buy  them  gowns)  of 
Wrenbury,  seventy  pounds.  With  other  benefactions. 

Verily,  I  say  unto  you,  I  have  not  met  a  more  universal  and 
impartial  charity  to  all  objects  of  want  and  worth.  He  died 
about  the  beginning  of  the  reign  of  king  James. 

JOHN  BREWERTON,  Knight,  a  branch  of  that  well-spread 
tree  in  this  county,  was  bred  one  of  the  first  scholars  of  the 
foundation  in  Sidney  College;  and  afterwards,  being  brought 
up  in  the  study  of  the  Common  Law,  he  went  over  into  Ireland, 
and  at  last  became  the  king's  Serjeant  therein.  I  say  at  last, 
for  at  his  coming  thither  (in  the  tumults  of  Tyrone)  neither  rex 

*  Fox,  Acts  and  Monuments,  page  1958.  f  Mr.  Hatcher,  ut  prius. 

1  Acts  x.  38. 


nor  lex,  neither  king  nor  serjeant,  were  acknowledged,  till 
loyalty  and  civility  were  by  degrees  distilled  into  that  nation. 

He  obtained  a  plentiful  estate,  and  thereof  gave  well  nigh 
three  thousand  pounds  to  Sidney  College.  Now  as  it  is  re- 
ported of  Ulysses,  returning  from  his  long  travel  in  foreign 
lands,  that  all  his  family  had  forgot  him ;  so  when  the  news  of 
this  legacy  first  arrived  at  the  college,  none  then  extant  therein 
ever  heard  of  his  name  (so  much  may  the  sponge  of  forty  years 
blot  out  in  this  kind)  ;  only  the  written  register  of  the  college 
faithfully  retained  his  name  therein. 

This  his  gift  was  a  gift  indeed,  purely  bestowed  on  the  college, 
as  loaded  with  no  detrimental  conditions  in  the  acceptance 
thereof.  We  read  in  the  Prophet,  "  Thou  hast  increased  the 
nation,  and  not  multiplied  their  joy."  *  In  proportion  where- 
unto,  we  knowr  it  is  possible  that  the  comfortable  condition  of 
a  college  may  not  be  increased,  though  the  number  of  the  fel- 
lows and  scholars  therein  be  augmented,  superadded  branches 
sucking  out  the  sap  of  the  root ;  whereas  the  legacy  of  this  wor- 
thy knight  ponebatur  in  lucro,  being  pure  gain  and  improve- 
ment to  the  college.  His  death  happened  about  the  year  1633. 

JOHN  BARXSTOX,  D.D.  was  born  of  an  ancient  family  in 
this  county  ;  bred  fellow  of  Brasen-nose  College,  in  Oxford ; 
afterwards  chaplain  to  Chancellor  Egerton,  and  residentiary  of 
Salisbury ;  a  bountiful  housekeeper,  of  a  cheerful  spirit  and 
peaceable  disposition,  whereof  take  this  eminent  instance :  He 
sat  judge  in  the  Consistory,  when  a  church-warden,  out  of 
whose  house  a  chalice  was  stolen,  was  sued  by  the  parish  to 
make  it  good  to  them,  because  not  taken  out  of  the  church- 
chest  (where  it  ought  to  have  been  reposited),  but  out  of 
his  private  house.  The  church-warden  pleaded  that  he  took 
it  home  only  to  scour  it ;  which  proving  ineffectual,  he  retained 
it  till  next  morning,  to  boil  out  the  in-laid  rust  thereof. 

"Well/5  said  the  doctor,  "I  am  sorry  that  the  cup  of  union 
and  communion  should  be  the  cause  of  difference  and  discord 
between  you.  Go  home,  and  live  lovingly  together;  and  I 
doubt  not  but  that  either  the  thief  out  of  remorse  will  restore 
the  same  ;  or  some  other  as  good  will  be  sent  unto  you  f9  which, 
by  the  doctor's  secret  charity,  came  to  pass  accordingly.  He 
founded  an  Hebrew  lecture  in  Brasen-nose  College ;  and  de- 
parted in  peace,  in  the  beginning  of  our  wars,  about  the  year 


WILLIAM  SMITH  was  born  in  this  county,  wherein  his  sur- 
name hath  been  of  signal  note  for  many  ages.  His  genius  in- 
clined him  to  the  study  of  heraldry,  wherein  he  so  profited, 
that  anno  ....  he  was  made  Pursuivant  of  Anns,  by  the  name 

•  Isaiah  ix.  3. 


of  Rouge-dragon.  He  wrote  a  description,  geographical  and  his- 
torical, of  this  county,  left  (it  seems)  in  the  hands  of  Raynulph 
Crew,  knight,  sometime  lord  chief  justice  of  the  King's 
Bench,  and  lately  set  forth  by  the  favour  of  Mr.  Raynulph 
Crew,  grand-child  to  that  worthy  knight.  The  time  of  his 
death  is  to  me  unknown. 

WILLIAM  WEBB,  a  native  of  this  county,  was  bred  a  mas- 
ter in  arts,  and  afterwards  betook  himself  to  be  a  clerk  of  the 
Mayor's  court  in  Chester.  It  appeareth  also  he  was  under- 
sheriff  to  Sir  Richard  Lee,  high-sheriff  of  this  county,  in  the 
thirteenth  year  of  king  James.  He  compiled  a  description  of 
Cheshire  and  Chester,  lately  printed  by  procurement  of  that  no 
less  communicative  than  judicious  antiquary  Sir  Simon  Archer, 
of  Tamworth  in  Warwickshire.  I  cannot  attain  the  certain  date 
of  his  death. 

RANDAL  CREW,  Esquire,  second  son  to  Sir  Clipsby,  grand- 
child to  Judge  Crew.  He  drew  a  map  of  Cheshire  so  exactly 
with  his  pen,  that  a  judicious  eye  would  mistake  it  for  printing, 
and  the  graver's  skill  and  industry  could  little  improve  it. 
This  map  I  have  seen ;  and,  reader,  when  my  eye  directs  my 
hand,  I  may  write  with  confidence.  This  hopeful  gentleman 
went  beyond  the  seas,  out  of  design  to  render  himself  by  his 
travels,  more  useful  for  his  country ;  where  he  was  barbarously 
assassinated  by  some  Frenchmen,  and  honourably  buried,  with 
general  lamentation  of  the  English,  at  Paris,  1656. 


1.  Hugh  Witch,  son  of  Richard  Witch,  of  Nantwich,  Mercer, 


2.  Thomas  Oldgrave,  son  of  William  Oldgrave,  of  Knotysford, 

Skinner,  1467. 

3.  Edmund  Shaw,  son  of  John  Shaw,  of  Donkenfield,  Gold- 

smith, 1482. 

4.  James  Spencer,  son  of  Robert  Spencer,  of  Congleton,  Vint- 

ner, 1527. 

5.  Thomas  Offley,  son  of  William  Offley,  of  Chester,  Merchant 

Tailor,  1556. 

6.  Humfrey  Weld,  son  of  John  Weld,  of  Eton,  Grocer,  1608. 

7.  Thomas  Moulson,  1634. 

I  am  certainly  informed  that  this  Thomas  Moulson  founded  a 
fair  school  in  the  town  where  he  was  born ;  but  am  not  in- 
structed where  this  is,  or  what  salary  is  settled  thereon.* 

Reader,  know  this,  that  I  must  confess  myself  advantaged  in 
the  description  of  this  county  by  Daniel  King,  a  native  of  this 
county,  whence  it  seems  he  travelled  beyond  the  seas,  where  he 

*  He  founded  a  chapel  at  Hargrave-Stubbs,  and  endowed  it  with  40/.  a-year. 
He  also  endowed  a  school  adjoining,  with  20/.  Lysons's  Cheshire,  p.  798. — ED. 



got  the  mystery  both  of  surveying  and  engraving ;  so  that  he 
hath  both  drawn  and  graven  the  portraiture  of  many  ancient 
structures  now  decayed. 

I  hope  in  process  of  time  this  Daniel  King  will  outstrip  king 
Edgar,  erecting  more  abbeys  in  brass,  than  he  did  in  stone, 
though  he  be  said  to  have  built  one  for  every  day  in  the  year. 
But  Cheshire  is  chiefly  beholding  to  his  pains,  seeing  he  hath 
not  only  set  forth  two  descriptions  thereof  (named  "  The  Vale 
Royal  of  England ")  with  the  praise  to  the  dead  persons  the 
authors  thereof  duly  acknowledged,  but  also  hath  enlivened  the 
same  with  several  cuts  of  heraldry  and  topography,  on  whom  we 
will  bestow  this  distich  : 

Kingus  Cestrensi,  Cestrensis  Patria  Kingo, 
Lucem  alternatim  debet  uterque  suam, 

' '  Cheshire  to  King,  and  King  to  Cheshire  owes 
His  light;  each  doth  receive  what  each  bestows." 

What  is  amiss  in  my  poetry,  shall  be  amended  in  my  prayers 
for  a  blessing  on  his  and  all  ingenious  men's  undertakings. 

CHESHIRE  is  one  of  the  twelve  pretermitted  counties,  the 
names  of  whose  gentry  were  not  returned  into  the  Tower,  in  the 
twelfth  of  king  Henry  the  Sixth. 


Anno  HENRY    II. 

30  Gilbert.  Pipehard. 
35  Rich,  de  Pierpoint. 


1  (Recorda  manca.J 


1  Liulphus. 

Ric.  de  Burham. 
(anni  incerti.) 


15  Rich,  de  Sonbach. 

23  Rich,  de  Wrenbury. 

52  Jordan,  de  Peulesdon, 

56  Hugh  de  Hatton. 

EDWARD.    I. 

4  Patrick  de  Heselwall. 
9  Will,  de  Spurstow. 


15  Rich,  de  Wilbraham. 
26  Will,  de  Prayers. 

33  Robert,  de  Bressey. 


2  Philip,  de  Egerton. 

5  David,  de  Egerton. 

13  Will,  de  Mobberley. 

16  Rich.  Filhurst. 


1  Joh.  de  Wrenbury. 

10  Adam,  de  Parker. 

19  Rich,  de  Oulton. 

22  Jacob.  Audley,  mil. 

24  Tho.  Daniers. 

33  Tho.  le  Young. 

41  Johan.  Scolehall. 

44  Lauren,  de  Dutton,  mil. 



Anno  Name  and  Arms.  Place. 

1   Hu.  de  Venables  .     .     .     Kinderton. 
Arms :  Az.  two  bars  Arg. 

8  Tho.  del.  Wood. 

9  Hu.  E.  of  Stafford. 

O.  a  chevron  G. 

10  Idem ut  prius. 

1 1  Job.  Massy,  mil. 

Quarterly,  counterchanged  G.  and  O.  in  the  first  a  lion 

12  Rob.  Gravenour  .     .     .     Eton. 

Az.  a  garb  O. 

17  Rob.  Leigh       ....     High-leigh. 
Arg.  five  fusils  bend-wise  S. 


1  Joh.  Massy      ....     Puddington. 

ut  prius,  save  that  in  the  first  quarter  three  flower-de-luces 

2  Idem. 

3  Hen.  Ravenscroft. 

Arg.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  ravens'  heads  crazed  S. 
10  Will.  Bruerton,  mil.       .     Bruerton. 
Arg.  two  bars  S. 

HENRY    V. 

3  Tho.  Leigh       ....     Adlington. 

Az.  two  bars  Arg.  a  bend  componee  O.  and  G. 
10  Hugh  Button  ....     Dutton. 

Quarterly,  counterchanged  Arg.  and  G.  in  the  2d  and  3d 
quarters  a  fret  O. 


5  Rich.  Warberton  .     .     .     Arley. 

Arg.  two  chevrons  and  a  canton  G. ;  a  mullet  O. 
8  Ran.  Bruerton,  mil.  .     .     ut  prius. 

16  Joh.  Troutbeck  * 

Az.  three  trouts  fretted  in  triangle,  tete  a  la  queue  Arg. 

17  Rob.  Booth,  mil.       .     .     Dunham. 

Arg.  three  boars'  heads  erased  and  erected  S. 

18  Rob.  Booth,  mil. 

(prioris  filius.)   .     .     .     ut  prius. 


2  Will.  Stanly     ....     Howton. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  Az.  three  stags'  heads  cabossed  O. 



Anno  Name,  Place. 

1  Will.  Stanly      ....     ut  prim. 


1   Idem ut  prim. 

10  Job.  Warberton    .     .     .     ut  prius. 
21  Ralp.  Birkenhead. 

S.  three  garbs  O.  within  a  border  engrailed  Arg. 


1   Idem ut  prius. 

17  Will.  Stanly,  mil.      .     .     ut  prius. 

18  Geo.  Holford  ....     Holford. 

Arg.  a  grey-hound  passant  S. 

19  Tho,  Venables      .     .     .     ut  prius. 

20  Idem ut  prius. 

21  Job.  Done. 

Az.  two  bars  Arg.  on  a  bend  G.  three  arrows. 

22  Idem ut  prius. 

23  Edw.  Fitton     ....     Gowsworth. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  Az.  three  garbs  O. 
33  Job.  Holford    .     .     ...     ut  prius. 


1  Idem ut  prius. 

REG.    MARI. 

1  Wil,  Brereton,  knt.  .     .     ut  prius. 

PHIL,  et  MAR. 

2. 1  Pet.  Leigh,  knt.    .     .     .     ut  prius. 

3. 2  Hu.  Cholmley,  esq. 

G.  in  chief  two  helmets  Arg. ;  in  base  a  garb  O. 
4,3Ri.  Wilbraham,  esq.       .     Wodey. 

Az.  two  bars  Arg.  on  a  canton  S.  a  wolfs*  head  erased  of 

the  second. 

5, 4 Tho.  Venables,  esq.  .     .     ut  prius. 
6, 5  Phil.  Egerton,  esq.    .     .     Ridley. 

Arg.  a  lion  rampant  G.  betwixt  three  pheons  S. 


•fcjhw.    mtiMLMiA* 

1  Will.  Cholmley,  esq.  .  ut  prius. 

2  Job.  Savage,  esq.       .  .  Rocksavage. 

Arg.  six  lions  rampant  S. 

3  Ral.  Egerton,  esq.      .  .  ut  prius. 

4  Jo.  Warberton,  esq.  .  ut  prius. 

5  Rich.  Brook,  esq. 

Checquee  O.  and  S. 

6  Will.  Massey,  esq.     .  .  ut  prius. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

7  Joh.  Savage,  esq.       .     .     itt  prius. 

8  Hu.  Cholmly,  esq.     .     .     ut  prius. 

9  Lau.  Smith,  esq.  .     .     .     Hough. 

Az.  two  bars  wavee  E.  on  a  chief  O.  a  demi-lion  issuant  S. 

10  Ral.  Done,  esq. 

Az.  two  bars  Arg.  on  a  bend  G.  three  arrows  of  the  second. 

11  Geo.  Calveley,  esq. 

Arg.  a  fess  G.  betwixt  three  calves  S. 

12  Joh.  Savage,  esq.        .     .     ut  prius. 

13  Will.  Booth,  knt.       .     .     Dunham  Massey. 

Arg.  three  boars'  heads  erected  S. 

14  Tho.  Stanley,  esq. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  Az.  three  .  .  . 

15  Joh.  Savage,  knt.      .     .     ut  prius. 

16  Joh.  Savage,  mil.       .     .     ut  prius. 

17  Hen.  Manwaring. 

Arg.  two  bars  G. 

18  Row.  Stanley,  esq.     .     .     ut  prius. 

19  Joh.  Warren,  esq. 

Checquee  Az.  and  O.  on  a  canton  G.  a  lion  rampant  Arg. 

20  Tho.  Brook,  esq.  .     .  .  ut  prius. 

21  Joh.  Savage,  knt.      .  .  ut  prius. 

22  Ral.  Egerton,  esq.     .  .  ut  prius. 

23  Geo.  Calveley,  knt.  .  .  ut  prius. 

24  Will.  Brereton,  knt.  .  ut  prius. 

25  Pet.  Warberton,  esq.  .  ut  prius. 

26  Will.  Leversage,  esq.  .  Whelock. 

Arg.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  plow-shares  S. 

27  Tho.  Wilbraham  .     .     .     ut  prius. 

28  Hug.  Calveley,  esq.  .     .     ut  prius. 

29  Ran.  Davenport,  esq.     .     Damport. 

Arg.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  cross  crosslets  fitchee  S. 

30  Tho.  Leigh,  esq.  .     .  .  ut  prius. 

31  Hu.  Cholmley,  knt.  .  .  ut  prius. 

32  Wil.  Brereton,  knt.  .  .  ut  prius. 

33  Joh.  Savage,  knt.      .  .  ut  prius. 

34  Tho.  Brook,  esq.       .  .  ut  priu». 

35  Tho.  Venables,  esq.  .  .  ut  prius. 

36  Pet.  Warberton,  esq.  .  ut  prius. 

37  Per.  Leigh,  esq.    .     .  .  ut  prius. 

38  Joh.  Done,  esq.    .     .  .  ut  prius. 

39  Geo.  Booth,  knt.       .  .  ut  prius. 

40  Edw.  Warren,  knt.   .  .  ut  prius. 

41  Tho.  Holcroft,  knt. 

Arg.  a  cross  and  border  engrailed  S. 

42  Tho.  Smith,  knt.        .     .     ut  prius. 

43  Tho.  Ashton,  knt.     .     .     Ashton. 

Per  chevron  S.  and  Arg. 

44  Ric.  Gravenor,  knt.  .     .     ut  prius. 




Anno  Name.  Place. 

1  Geo.  Leicester       .         .     Toft. 

Az.  a  fess  Arg.  frettee  G.  betwixt  three  flower-de-luces  O. 

2  Wil.  Davenport,  knt.     .     ut  prius. 

3  Ra.  Man-waring,  knt.      .     ut  prius. 

4  Tho.  Vernon,  knt.          .     Hasting. 

O.  on  a  fret  Az.  three  garbs  of  the  first. 

5  Joh.  Savage,  knt.  .     ut  prius. 

6  Hen.  Bunbury,  knt.        .     Staney. 

Arg.  on  a  bend  S.  three  chest-rooks  of  the  first. 

7  Will.  Brereton,  esq.  .     .     ut  prius. 

8  Geff.  Shakerly,  esq. 

Arg.  three  molehills  V. 

9  Tho.  Button,  esq.     .     .     ut  prius. 

10  Will.  Brereton,  knt.  .  ut  prius. 

11  Urian.  Leigh,  knt.  .  .  ut  prius. 

12  Geo.  Calveley,  knt.  .  ut  prius. 

13  Rich.  Lea,  knt.  .     .  .  Lea. 

Arg.  a  chevron  betwixt  three  leopards'  heads  S. 

14  Ric.  Wilbraham,  knt.  ut  prius. 

15  Joh.  Davenport        .     .  ut  prius. 

16  Ralp.   Calveley,  esq.     .  ut  prius. 

17  Ran.  Manwaring      .     .  ut  prius. 

18  Rob.  Cholmondely        .  ut  prius. 

19  Tho.  Marbury,  esq.       .  Marbury. 

O.  on  a  fess  engrailed  Az.  three  garbs  of  the  first. 

20  Geo.  Booth,  bart.         .     ut  prius. 

21  Tho.  Smith,  knt.  .     ut  prius. 

22  Ric.  Gravenor,  bart.     .     ut  prius. 


1  Tho.  Brereton,  knt.  .     ut  prius. 

2  Joh.  Done,  knt.        .  .     ut  prius. 

3  Joh.  Calveley,  esq.  .     ut  prius. 

4  Edw.  Stanley,  bart.  .     ut  prius. 

5  Tho.  Leigh,  esq.       .  .     ut  prius. 

6  Pet.  Dutton,  esq.      .  .     ut  prius. 

7  Tho.  Stanley,  esq.    .  .     ut  prius. 

8  Rich.  Brereton,  esq,  .     ut  prius. 

9  Edw.  Fitton,  esq.      .  .     ut  prius. 

10  Pet.  Venables       .     .  .     ut  prius. 

11  Tho.  Ashton,  bart.     .  .     ut  prius. 

12  Will.  Leigh,  esq.       .  .     ut  prius. 

13  Tho.  Delves,  bart.     .  .     Duddington. 

Arg.  a  chevron  G.  frettee  O.  betwixt  three  gadds  ot  steel  H, 

14  Tho.  Cholmley.    .     .     .     ut  prius. 

15  Phil.  Manwaring.     .     .     ut  prius. 

16  Tho.  Powell,  bart.     .     .     Berkenhead. 


Anno  Name.  Place. 

17  Joh.  Billot,  esq. 

Arg.  on  a  chief  G.  three  cinquefoils  of  the  field. 

18  Hug.  Calvely,  knt.  .     .     ut  prius. 

19  Tho.  Leigh,  esq.       .     .     ut  prius. 

20  Ri.  Gravenor,  bart.       .     ut  prius. 

21  Rob.  Totton,  esq.     .     .     Winthaw. 

Quarterly  Arg.  and  G.  four  crescents  counterchanged. 

22  Hen.  Brood,  esq. 

Reader,  if  thou  discoverest  any  difference  in  the  method  be- 
twixt this  and  the  other  catalogue  of  sheriffs,  impute  it  to  this 
cause ;  that  whilst  I  fetched  the  rest  from  the  fountain  in  the 
Exchequer,  I  took  these  out  of  the  cistern-,  I  mean,  the 
printed  book  of  "  Vale  Royal/'  I  presume  that  the  sheriff  who 
is  last  named  continued  in  that  office  all  that  interval  of  years, 
till  his  successor  here  nominated  entered  thereon. 

The  reader  may  with  the  more  confidence  rely  on  their  arms, 
imparted  unto  me  by  Mr.  Daniel  King,  who  to  me  really  veri- 
fieth  his  own  anagram,  DANIEL  KING,  "i  KIND  ANGEL."  And 
indeed  he  hath  been  a  tutelar  one  to  me,  gratifying  me  with 
whatsoever  I  had  need  to  use,  and  he  had  ability  to  bestow. 


56.  HUGH  de  HATTON. — King  William  the  Conqueror  be- 
stowed lands  on  one  of  his  name  and  ancestors  at  Hatton  in 
this  county.  From  him  is  lineally  descended  that  learned  and 
religious  (witness  his  pious  meditations  on  the  Psalms)  Sir 
Christopher  Hatton,  Knight  of  the  Bath,  created,  by  king  Charles 
the  First,  Baron  Hatton  of  Kerby  in  Northamptonshire.  The 
original  of  this  grant  of  the  Conqueror  is  still  in  this  lord's  pos- 
session, preserved  in  our  civil  wars,  with  great  care  and  diffi- 
culty, by  his  virtuous  lady ;  on  the  same  token  that  her  lord 
patiently  digested  the  plundering  of  his  library  and  other  rari- 
ties, when  hearing  the  welcome  tidings  from  his  lady  that  the 
said  record  was  safely  secured. 


3.  Sir  HUGH  CHOLMLY,  or  CHOLMONDELEIGH. — This  wor- 
thy person  bought  his  knighthood  in  the  field  at  Leigh  in  Scot- 
land. He  was  five  times  high  sheriff  of  this  county  (and  some- 
times of  Flintshire),  and  for  many  years  one  of  the  two  sole  de- 
puties lieutenants  thereof.  For  a  good  space  he  was  vice-pre- 
sident of  the  marches  of  Wales  under  the  Right  Honourable 
Sir  Henry  Sidney,  knight ;  conceive  it  during  his  absence  in 
Ireland.  For  fifty  years  together  he  was  esteemed  a  father  of 
his  country;  and,  dying  anno  157  . .  *,  was  buried  in  the  church 

*  He  died  1596,  set.  83.     Lysons's  Cheshire,  p.  451.-  ED. 

BATTLES.  289 

of  Malpasse,  under  a  tomb  of  alabaster,  with  great  lamen- 
tation of  all  sorts  of  people,  had  it  not  mitigated  their  mourn- 
ing, that  he  left  a  son  of  his  own  name,  heir  to  his  virtues  and 

2.  JOHN  SAVAGE,  Arm. — I  behold  him  as  the  direct  ancestor 
unto  Sir  Thomas  Savage,  knight  and  baronet,  created  by  king 
Charles  the  first  Baron  Savage,  of  Rock- savage  in  this  county. 
This  lord  (a  very  prudent  statesman)  married  Elizabeth,  eldest 
daughter  and  co-heir  of  Thomas  Lord  Darcy  of  Chich,  Viscount 
Colchester,  and  Earl  of  Rivers,  honours  entailed  on  his  poste- 
rity, and  now  enjoyed  by  the  Right  Honourable  Thomas  Savage 
Earl  Rivers. 


ROWTON  HEATH,  1645,  Sept.  24.— His  Majesty,  being  in- 
formed that  colonel  Jones  had  seized  the  suburbs  and  strong 
church  of  St.  John's  in  Chester,  advanced  north  ward  for  the  re- 
lief thereof.  Poins,  one  of  the  parliament's  generals,  pursued 
his  majesty.  At  Rowton-heath,  within  three  miles  of  Chester, 
the  king's  army  made  an  halt,  whilst  his  majesty,  with  some 
prime  persons,  marched  into  the  city. 

Next  day  a  fierce  fight  happened  on  the  heath,  betwixt  the 
king's  and  Poins's  forces,  the  latter  going  off  with  the  greater 
loss.  Judicious  persons  conceive  that,  had  the  royalists  pur- 
sued this  single  enemy,  as  yet  unrecruited  with  additional 
strength,  they  had  finally  worsted  him ;  which  fatal  omission 
(opportunities  admit  of  no  after-games)  proved  their  overthrow. 
For  next  day  colonel  Jones  drew  out  his  men  into  the  field  ; 
so  that  the  royalists,  being  charged  on  the  heath  in  front  and 
rear,  were  put  to  the  worst,  the  whole  hody  of  whose  army  had 
wings  without  legs,  horse  without  foot,  whilst  the  parliament 
was  powerful  in  both. 

Immediately  after,  a  considerable  party  of  horse  (the  Lord 
Byron  governor  of  the  city  being  loth  to  part  with  any  foot,  as 
kept  to  secure  the  king's  person,)  came  out  of  Chester,  too  late 
to  succour  their  defeated  friends,  and  too  soon  to  engage  them- 
selves. Here  fell  the  youngest  of  the  three  noble  brethren,  who 
lost  their  lives  in  the  king^s  service,  Bernard  Stuart  Earl  of 
Lichfield,  never  sufficiently  to  be  lamented. 


To  take  my  leave  of  Cheshire,  I  could  wish  that  some  of  their 
hospitality  were  planted  in  the  south,  that  it  might  bring  forth 
fruit  therein ;  and  in  exchange  I  could  desire,  that  some  of  ou* 
southern  delicacies  might  prosperously  grow  in  their  gardens, 
and  quinces  particularly,  being  not  more  pleasant  to  the  palate 
than  restorative  of  the  health,  as  accounted  a  great  cordial ;  the 

VOL.  i.  u 


rather,  because  a  native  of  this  county,  in  his  description  thereof, 
could  not  remember  he  ever  saw  a  quince  growing  therein.* 


CHESTER  is  a  fair  city  on  the  north-east  side  of  the  river 
Dee,  so  ancient  that  the  first  founder  thereof  is  forgotten ;  much 
beholding  to  the  Earls  of  Chester  and  others  for  increase  and 
ornaments.  The  walls  thereof  were  lately  in  good  repair,  espe- 
cially betwixt  the  New-tower  and  the  Water-gate :  for  I  find  how 
(anno  1569)  there  was  a  personal  fight  in  this  city  betwixt  the 
two  sheriffs  thereof,  viz.  Richard  Massey  and  Peter  Lycher- 
band  (who  shall  keep  peace,  if  aged  officers  break  it  ?) ;  who 
deservedly  were  fined,  for  the  forfeiting  of  their  gravity,  to  re- 
pair that  part  of  the  wall.t  It  seems  it  is  more  honour  to  be 
keeper  of  a  gate  in  Chester,  than  a  whole  city  elsewhere,  seeing 
East-gate  therein  was  committed  to  the  custody  formerly  of  the 
Earl  of  Oxford,  Bridge-gate  to  the  Earl  of  Shrewsbury,  Water- 
gate to  the  Earl  of  Derby,  and  North-gate  to  the  mayor  of  the 

It  is  built  in  the  form  of  a  quadrant,  and  is  almost  a  just 
square,  the  four  cardinal  streets  thereof  (as  I  may  call  them) 
meeting  in  the  middle  of  the  city,  at  a  place  called  The  Pentise, 
which  affordeth  a  pleasant  prospect  at  once  into  all  four.  Here 
is  a  property  of  building  peculiar  to  the  city,  called  the  Rows, 
being  galleries,  wherein  passengers  go  dry  without  coming  into 
the  streets,  having  shops  on  both  sides  and  underneath ;  the 
fashion  whereof  is  somewhat  hard  to  conceive.  It  is  therefore 
worth  their  pains,  who  have  money  and  leisure,  to  make  their 
own  eyes  the  expounders  of  t